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Country report: Bangladesh. International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994.
[Unpublished] 1994. iv, 45 p.The country report prepared by Bangladesh for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development begins by highlighting the achievements of the family planning (FP)/maternal-child health (MCH) program. Political commitment, international support, the involvement of women, and integrated efforts have led to a decline in the population growth rate from 3 to 2.07% (1971-91), a decline in total fertility rate from 7.5 to 4.0% (1974-91), a reduction in desired family size from 4.1 to 2.9 (1975-89), a decline in infant mortality from 150 to 88/1000 (1975-92), and a decline in the under age 5 years mortality from 24 to 19/1000 (1982-90). In addition, the contraceptive prevalence rate has increased from 7 to 40% (1974-91). The government is now addressing the following concerns: 1) the dependence of the FP and health programs on external resources; 2) improving access to and quality of FP and health services; 3) promoting a demand for FP and involving men in FP and MCH; and 4) achieving social and economic development through economic overhaul and by improving education and the status of women and children. The country report presents the demographic context by giving a profile of the population and by discussing mortality, migration, and future growth and population size. The population policy, planning, and program framework is described through information on national perceptions of population issues, the evolution and current status of the population policy (which is presented), the role of population in development planning, and a profile of the national population program (reproductive health issues; MCH and FP services; information, education, and communication; research methodology; the environment, aging, adolescents and youth, multi-sectoral activities, women's status; the health of women and girls; women's education and role in industry and agriculture, and public interventions for women). The description of the operational aspects of population and family planning (FP) program implementation includes political and national support, the national implementation strategy, evaluation, finances and resources, and the role of the World Population Plan of Action. The discussion of the national plan for the future involves emerging and priority concerns, the policy framework, programmatic activities, resource mobilization, and regional and global cooperation.
The Philippines: country report on population. International Conference on Population and Development, 5-13 September 1994, Cairo, Egypt.
[Manila], Philippines, Commission on Population, 1994. , 40 p.The country report on population prepared by the Philippines for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development opens with a discussion of the 3 interdependent strategies which will be used to achieve development: total human resource development, international competitiveness, and sustainable development. Since the Philippines envisions development proceeding primarily from the initiatives of individuals, families, nongovernment organizations (NGOs), cooperatives, etc., empowerment of the people is a major objective of the government. To this end, the family is seen as the focal point for analysis of needs and resource use and for mobilization. The problems which beset the Philippines today and which are exacerbated by rapid population growth are pervasive poverty, a heavy debt burden, high unemployment and underemployment, a decrease in productive land, environmental degradation, and a poor economic performance. The country report considers the relationship between population, economic growth, and sustainable development in terms of the demographic situation and the economic situation. The report provides a history of the development of population policy and population programs in the country. The concerns of the population program are the environment and development, transitional population growth, the population structure, urbanization, migration, the status of women, maternal and child health and family planning (FP), and data collection and analysis. Various components of the implementation of the population program are described including political and national support, the national implementation strategy, the integration of population and development and assessment of integration efforts, responsible parenthood/FP, and the assessment of FP service delivery. Mechanisms for program monitoring and evaluation are presented along with an assessment of program efficiency, and the financial aspects of the program are discussed. After touching on the relevance of the World Population Plan of Action, the report puts forth the national 9-point action plan for the future which has the following goals: 1) to integrate population and development planning; 2) to strengthen the responsible parenthood/FP program; 3) to strengthen population education and the adolescent fertility program; 4) to increase the participation of women; 5) to build capabilities and develop institutions; 6) to decentralize administration; 7) to develop a sustainable financial plan; 8) to increase NGO and people's organization participation; and 9) to develop a reliable data base. The appendices present the demographic, health, and economic indicators for 1960-90 in tabular form and provide an outline of population policies, legislation, and incentives.
Vital to future generations. The Bali Conference has recommended that 4% of all official development assistance be earmarked for population programs.
INTEGRATION. 1993 Mar; (35):32-4.The Fourth Asian and Pacific Population Conference organized by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) was held in Bali, Indonesia, in August 1992. The highlights included: sustainable population and economic growth in a region with three-fifths of the world's population; the threat to the environment from the consumption of natural resources; high fertility; high dependency ratios and aging; land degradation; and migration. The Director of UNFPA revealed that the average rate of population growth had fallen to 1.7% annually since 1963, but an estimated 17.7 million persons were still being added to the region each year. The Conference urged improvement in reproductive health care to reduce maternal illness and death and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, especially AIDS, and women-centered programs. Both long- and short-term rural-to-urban and international migration affects the development dynamic. The Conference viewed urbanization as inevitable, but cautioned against neglect of rural development. Improving the status of women through education will help reduce discrimination. The success of family planning efforts in the region is attributable to the changing behavior of women, age at marriage, and the number and spacing of children. 86% of the developing world's elderly will reside in Asia by the year 2000. The Conference recommended economic incentives and tax exemptions to assist families caring for older relatives, but stopped short of pension plans and social security systems. Mortality, however, may be reduced by increasing HIV infection and AIDS prevention. Poverty alleviation figured among agenda items. Robert McNamara noted in a 1991 address that over 1 million people suffer from hunger and over 900 million remain illiterate worldwide. To counter this, education, nutrition, and health services for the poor are needed; also needed are human resources development to raise productivity and income. It was recommended that donors allocate 4% of all development assistance for population programs.