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A demographic perspective on women in development in Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar and Viet Nam.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1998. xvi, 135 p. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 148)The selection of Cambodia, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar and Viet Nam for inclusion in the study was based on a number of considerations. The ESCAP secretariat has undertaken the publication of country profiles of women in 16 other countries, namely Bangladesh, China, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Islamic Republic of Iran, Japan, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vanuatu. The four countries included in this study, while exhibiting significant social and cultural differences, are all located in South-East Asia; they are the four least developed countries in South-East Asia on most indicators; and their economies are in transition to more open, market-oriented economies, In each of the four countries, women have traditionally played an important social role marked by considerable gender equity. Equal inheritance among children is possible, and often the norm. In the Lao People's Democratic Republic, for example, husbands traditionally move to the household of their wife and the youngest daughter inherits the family home. The proportion of households headed by women is substantial in all four countries, and quite high in Cambodia and Viet Nam. Female labour force participation rates exceed those of men in Cambodia and the Lao People's Democratic Republic, and the female labour force is larger than the male labour force in Viet Nam. (excerpt)
The Egyptian NGO platform document, submitted to the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo 5 to 13 September, 1994.
[Unpublished] 1994. , 80 p.This document was prepared in preparation for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in order to present the consensus of 450 Egyptian nongovernmental organization (NGOs) on the following: 1) the 6 major issues proposed in the draft program of action for ICPD approval (population and sustainable development, population and the environment, enhancing women's role in society, reproductive health, family and health education, and population policies and migration); 2) Egypt's policy in regard to population and development; and 3) the role of Egyptian NGOs in the field of population and development and their vision of the future. In addition, the Egyptian NGO National Steering Committee used this opportunity to organize the NGOs in preparation for co-hosting and participating in the international NGO Forum to be held concurrently with the ICPD; to establish a network for communication, coordination, and consensus building among NGOs operating at the local, provincial, national, and international levels; and to create an organization of Egyptian NGOs which will exist beyond the ICPD. The document concludes with 8 recommendations to governments of developed countries; 5 to international organizations; 19 to the Egyptian government concerning sustainable development, 14 on the role of women in society, 7 on reproductive health and rights, 7 on family education, and 15 on population policies and immigration; and 8 to NGOs.
[Population and development in the Republic of Zaire: policies and programs] Population et developpement en Republique du Zaire: politiques et programmes.
[Unpublished] 1986. Presented at the All-Africa Parliamentary Conference on Population and Development, Harare, Zimbabwe, May 12-16, 1986. 9 p.The 1st census of Zaire, in July 1984, indicated that the population of 30 million was growing at a rate of at least 2.3%/year. The crude birth rate was estimated at 46/1000 and was believed to be higher in urban areas than in rural because of better health and educational conditions. The crude death rate was estimated at 16/1000 and the infant mortality rate at 106/1000. 46.5% of the population is under 15. The population is projected to reach 34.5 million in 1990, with urban areas growing more rapidly than rural. Zaire is at the stage of demographic transition where the gap between fertility and mortality is very wide. The consequences for national development include massive migration and rural exodus, unemployment and underemployment, illness, low educational levels, rapid urbanization, and increasing poverty. In the past decade, Zaire has undertaken a number of activities intended to improve living conditions, but as yet there is no explicit official policy integrating population and development objectives. In 1983, the Executive Council of Zaire organized a mission to identify basic needs of the population, with the assistance of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). In 1985, the UNFPA developed a 5-year development plan. The UNFPA activities include demographic data collection, demographic policy and research, maternal-child health and family planning, population education, and women and development. In the area of data collection, the 1st census undertaken with UNFPA help has increased the availability of timely and reliable demographic data. The vital registration system is to be improved and a permanent population register to be developed to provide data on population movement. A National Population Committee is soon to be established to assist the Executive Council in defining a coherent population policy in harmony with the economic, social, and cultural conditions of Zaire. Demographic research will be conducted by the Demographic Department of the University of Kinshasa and the National Institute of Statistics. A primary health care policy has been defined to increase health coverage to 60% from the current level of 20%. Zaire has favored family planning services integrated with the primary health care system since 1979. At present 2 components of the Desirable Births" program are underway, the Desirable Births Service Project undertaken in 1983 and the Rural Health Project undertaken in 1982, both executed by the Department of Public Health with financing provided by US Agency for International Development. The RAPID (Resources for the Analysis of the Impact of Population on Development) program has been used since 1985 to inform politicians, technicians, and planners. Efforts have been underway since 1965 to include women in the development process, and a new family code is being studied which would give better protection to some rights of women and children.
In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population projections: methodology of the United Nations. Papers of the United Nations Ad Hoc Expert Group on Demographic Projections, United Nations Headquarters, 16-19 November 1981. New York, United Nations, 1984. 4-6. (Population Studies No. 83 ST/ESA/SER.A/83)These recommendations refer specifically to the work of the Population Division of the UN and the regional commissions and more generally to the work of the specialized agenices, which prepare projections of labor force and school enroolment. The current recommendations may be regarded as updating an earlier detailed set that was issued by a similar group of experts who convened in New York in November 1977. The recommendations cover general considerations, sources and assumptions, evaluation of projections and their uses, and internal migration and urbanization. The Population Division should consider the question of an optimal time schedule for publishing new estimates and projections in order to avoid unduly long intervals between publications and intervals so short as to cause confusion. The UN Secretariat has an important role in pursuing work on methodology of projections and making it available to demographers in the developing countries. Unique problems of demographic projection exist for those countries with particularly small populations. It is proposed that the Population Division prepare special tabulations, whenever possible, giving the estimated age and sex distribution for these countries. Future publications of population projections prepared by the Population Division should indicate the major data sources on which the projections are based and note if the data were adjusted before inclusion. In addition, some grading of the quality of the base data should be presented. For the UN set of national and international population projections, a more comprehensive system of establishing assumptions about the future trends of fertility is needed. The Secretariat needs to focus more attention on the evaluation of its population projections. UN publications of projections should report on the main errors in recent past projections with respect to estimates of baseline levels and trends and provide some evaluation of the quality of the current estimates. It is recommended that the UN encourage countries to establish a standard definition of urban which would be used for international comparisons but generally not replace current national definitions. The Secretariat should review the techniques currently used to project urban-rural and city populations and search for methodologies appropriate to the level of urbanization and the quality of data which would improve the accuracy of the projections. The Division should regularly produce long range population projections for the world and major countries and should continue and expand its household estimates and projection series, which provides information essential to government administrators and planning agencies, businesses, and researchers in all countries.
[Unpublished] 1999. Presented at the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, Thirty-second session, New York, New York, March 22-31, 1999 2 p.In this document a statement concerning the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) population for the years 1998-99 is presented. The work of ESCAP has focused on (1) the strengthening of monitoring and evaluation systems for measuring progress in reproductive health and family planning programs; (2) the strengthening of policy analysis and research on female migration, employment, family formation, and poverty; and (3) aging implications for Asian families and the elderly. ESCAP's programs constitute adequate strategies, policies and measures for problem solving in the area of population and development. They involve the organization of training courses, seminars and workshops in developing countries. ESCAP, with additional support from bilateral resources, has continued to implement a number of projects dealing with such issues as the effect of globalization on population change and poverty in rural areas.
[Unpublished] 1999. Presented at the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, Thirty-second session, New York, New York, March 22-31, 1999  p.This is a statement delivered by the Secretary of the Department of Family Welfare of the Government of India at the Thirty-second Session of the UN Commission on Population and Development. India, according to the Secretary, has been able to relate its population problem to important elements of population growth, structure and distribution. India is experiencing a growing urbanization of population distribution. International migration has an impact on both sending and receiving countries. There is a relationship between the macroeconomic environment, population growth rate, and the elimination of poverty. India supports the conclusion drawn in the report on International Migration and Development that the introduction of ill-conceived control mechanisms or a disproportionate focus on control might contribute to irregular migration. With respect to the report on the flow of financial resources, India believes that the Special Session of the General Assembly in June must provide the necessary impetus for improvements in funding and should generate the political will for meeting the domestic resource mobilization commitments. The patterns of external assistance and domestic expenditure are highly congruent, but the decline from 31% to 24% in the share of external assistance borne by multilateral organizations is significant. The statistic needs to be reversed in order to preserve and promote multilateralism and multilateral development cooperation. In conclusion, India expresses its commitment to increasing social spending in its budget and plan outlays.
Statement to the Thirty-Second Session of the Commission on Population and Development. Report of the Secretary-General on population growth, structure, and distribution. Agenda item 3. Follow-up actions to the recommendations of the International Conference on Population and Development. Draft.
[Unpublished] 1999. Presented at the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, Thirty-second session, New York, New York, March 22-31, 1999 3 p.The Report on World Population Monitoring, focusing on the population growth, structure and distribution is summarized by the Assistant Director of the Population Division of the UN. The report reviews changes in world population size and rate of growth. It also provides information on urban and rural areas, on changes in mortality, fertility and migration, and on the policies that governments have adopted in response to population and development concerns. Continued high rates of population growth remain an issue of policy concern for many countries of the world. On the other hand, a growing number of countries are expressing concern about their low rates of population growth. The impressive gains in health and life expectancy that the world has witnessed over the past decades have not been enough. About 40% of all deaths worldwide are due to infectious and parasitic diseases, respiratory infections, malnutrition, maternal mortality, and neonatal mortality. Finally, the twentieth century has seen the rise of urban centers and the concentration of population in urban areas. If this trend continues, half of the world's population is expected to be urban by 2006.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1997. 24 p.This UN Population Fund Briefing Kit for 1997 provides information on ten topics. The first discussion, on reproductive rights, reproductive health, and family planning (FP) is augmented by information on how FP saves lives by allowing women to properly time, space, and end births and on recognition of the human right to plan and regulate family size. Section 2 covers issues related to population, development, and the empowerment of women and reviews the mandates included in the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, the 1995 World Summit for Social Development, and the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women. Section 3 links population with sustainable development and environmental degradation and calls for recognition of the skill of women as effective managers of natural resources. The fourth section reviews population trends which estimate an annual increase in world population of 81 million people at a growth rate of 1.5%. Section 5 presents demographic trends by region and highlights the concepts of the "rate of natural increase" and of the "total fertility rate." Section 6 considers migration in terms of internal migration and urbanization and of international migration. The seventh section discusses information, education, and communication as a means of increasing the empowerment contained in the acquisition of knowledge. Section 8 covers the data barrier posed by the lack of reliable vital statistics and/or the failure to disaggregate data in many countries. Filling this data gap is shown to be a priority, especially in order to include the work of women in national accounting and censuses. Section 9 outlines the challenges for population programs in the 21st century, and the final section considers the necessity to craft policies to support the family in its role of providing support and protection for its members.
Statement by the Honorable Timothy E. Wirth, United States Representative to the Second Preparatory Committee for the International Conference on Population and Development, at the Preparatory Meeting, May 11, 1993. Press release.
[Unpublished] 1993. 5 p.The US representative to the second preparatory committee for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, Timothy E. Wirth, opened his address to the committee by stating how honored he was to represent the US and congratulated Dr. Fred Sai on his election to the chairmanship. He also congratulated UN organizers for laying the groundwork for deliberations at the meeting and subsequent ones before the ICPD. Much remains to be done in the 15 months before the conference, but much progress has already been made. Mr. Wirth recognizes the critical role of nongovernmental organizations (NGO) and experts in preparations for Cairo, and notes that NGOs made outstanding contributions during the Earth Summit. NGO participation must be encouraged in preparation for Cairo, for such organizations will liven deliberations in Cairo and beyond. Mr. Wirth describes policy developments in the US since President Bill Clinton took office. The developments reflect the new determination to help lead and be part of a renewed global effort to address population problems. More importantly, the US is committed to helping promote international consensus around the world for stabilizing global population growth through a comprehensive approach to the rights and needs of women, to the environment, and to development. Mr. Wirth discusses the broader perspective in US policy, women's health and status, population and environment, migration, and new opportunities through the Cairo conference.
National perspectives on population and development. Synthesis of 168 national reports prepared for the International Conference on Population and Development, 1994.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1995. viii, 112 p.This document highlights some of the most interesting and salient features of the 168 national reports prepared for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development and illustrates the variety and complexity of situations encountered across countries and regions. Part 1 presents insights into changing perspectives on population issues, especially into the recurrent themes of 1) the interrelationships between population, development, and the environment and 2) the role and status of women. The evolution of political commitment to population concerns during the past two decades is also traced, and the challenges ahead are outlined. Part 2 deals with population dynamics issues through a discussion of the implications of population growth and structure, improving health conditions, influencing fertility, and internal and international migration. The statistics used in this document are those found in the national reports and complementary information forms. The UN geographic system of classification of countries is used, and frequent distinctions are made between developing and industrialized countries.
Population and the quality of life. A dialogue on values: a prelude to Cairo. National Council for International Health 1994 Conference. Insights from the international health community.
Washington, D.C., 1994. , 28 p.This report from the National Council for International Health (NCIH) presents synopses from 4 international health seminars held in 4 regions of the US: 1) California's Changing Population: What Role for Public Health; 2) Population Issues: Domestic and International Perspectives (at Tulane University); 3) Population, Health, and Development: The Road to Cairo (at George Washington University); and 4) Reproductive Health: Dilemmas and Dreams (from the University of Minnesota). The report then provides highlights of the 1994 NCIH conference entitled, "Population and the Quality of Life: A Dialogue on Values." The conference focused on 3 themes: 1) how population changes affect health and quality of life: what is getting better or worse and for whom; 2) how can we use what we know to improve policies and programs; and 3) ethics, goals, and values in population policies and programs: how to build towards a consensus; opportunities and limitations for public policy; how to achieve an appropriate balance. The plenary sessions and forums organized around these themes are summarized, and excerpts from keynote addresses, a public policy breakfast, and closing remarks are provided. The recipients of the award for international health leadership, the award for international service for an organization, and for an individual are identified, and the proceedings of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development are summarized. The report ends with a list of 1994 NCIH conference participants.
In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume II, compiled by United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 416-28. (Population Studies No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)Human rights relating to population questions in Africa cannot be divorced from the meaning and implications of human rights in all other spheres. In developing Africa, many important population issues implicate human rights: the welfare of children, youths, the aged, and women; regulation of the levels and patterns of fertility; mortality, morbidity; and migration, internal as well as external, including refugee movements; family welfare and marriage; problems of employment, wages, equal pay, and working hours; access to adequate education and means for cultural expression and identity; and problems of family planning in relation to mother and child care. The relationship between human rights and fertility involves: 1) the rights relating to marriage and the family, specifically to enhance the legal status of women in the home, community, and in national development; and 2) the rights to freely and responsibly decide the number and spacing of children, including the increase, as well as the decrease in fertility. Migration, population distribution, and human rights have been promoted and respected in varying degrees, depending on each country's internal and external policies. Internal migration, distribution, and settlement in nearly all the independent African countries have resulted in rapid urbanization despite inadequate infrastructure. To counter the overurbanization, many support the spreading of development projects throughout the entire country promoting balanced development between rural and urban areas. Historically international migration was customary; with the advent of sovereignty, crossing borders even among related ethnic groups has come under close scrutiny. The international community has come to accept responsibility for protecting and caring for refugees. Human rights, morbidity, mortality, and health care include the right to good health and freedom from disease and sickness, the right to food and freedom from hunger and malnutrition. Increased action at national and international levels is necessary to encourage the governments of Africa to promote the realization of human rights with respect to current and projected population trends.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund, 1988. xii, 78,  p. (Report No. 91)To enable Malaysia to attain self-reliance in the population aspects of its national development, an assessment of the nation's basic needs was conducted by a mission that visited Malaysia 9-27 September 1985. The report concentrates primarily on the period 1978-1985. Malaysia, with a per capita gross national product of US $1980 in 1984, is classified as an upper-middle-income country. Malaysia has a high literacy rate (73.4%), a low crude death rate (5.9%, 1985-1990), and a moderate annual growth rate (2.1%, 1985-1990). Its population numbered an estimated 16 million by mid-1986. Since the mid-1960s, the government has supported family planning as a policy instrument for reducing the rate of population growth. Recently the government has committed itself to what is known as the "new population policy"--the attainment of a population of 70 million over a period of 115 years. The government has sought to equalize regional rates of development through the dispersal of industry and the building of new towns. The government is also engaged in integrated rural or in situ development to meet the immediate needs of the rural population and ensure an orderly pace of rural-to-urban migration. Malaysia's progress in integrating population factors into development planning and policy formulation stems in part from its excellent system of demographic statistics. A Census of Population and Housing covering the entire country was carried out in 1980. Malaysia has benefited from many excellent demographic research studies and well-developed training programs in population, especially those from the Population Studies Unit at the University of Malaysia, the National Population and Family Development Board, and the Socio-Economic Research Unit in the Prime Minister's Department. The Mission recommends consideration of various measures designed to enhance the role of women in development, including 1) the provision of dependable child-care facilities, 2) a re-examination of maternity leave programs, 3) the establishment of specific training programs meeting demands of modernization and industrialization, 4) programs within family life education to advocate the sharing of domestic work by men and women, and 5) the provision of facilities to reduce women's domestic work load.
Rome, Italy, FAO, 1988. 33 p. (FAO Project INT/86/PO8)The objectives of this activity module for community groups, produced by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the UN, include developing an awareness of the relationships between population factors and employment, income, and the quality of life. Also examined are factors that influence decisions about rural-to-urban migration and how development and utilization of resources may increase future employment opportunities. The basic concepts of the relationship between rapid population growth and land use and between lessened employment opportunities and crime, are illustrated through 3 activities. Activity 1 instructs a group leader on conducting a group discussion on the employment/income expectations of the members. Subjects covered include lack of experience, lack of training, lack of capital, lack of education, and sexual stereotypes, all of which hinder productive employment. Activity 2 is designed to provoke discussion about rural-to-urban migration by having participants draw the house they would like to have someday. In the 3rd activity, an income-generating project for a youth group--making roofing tiles from rubber tires--is planned and implemented. Background information about the aims and objectives of each activity, and how it relates to African life, is provided for the group leader.
[Unpublished] 1984 May 8. 31 p. (CE 92/12)This report shows how demographic information can be analyzed and used to identify and characterize the groups assigned priority in the Regional Plan of Action and that it is necessary for the improvement of the planning and allocation of health resources so that national health plans can be adapted to encompass the entire population. In discussing the connections between health and population characteristics in the countries of the region, the report covers mortality, fertility and health, and fertility and population increase; spatial distribution and migration; and the structure of the population. Focus then moves on to health, development, and population policies and family planning. The final section of the report considers the response of the health sector to population trends and characteristics and to development-related factors. The operations of the health sector must be revised in keeping with the observed demographic situation and the projections thereof so that the goal of health for all by the year 2000 may be realized. In several countries of the region mortality remains high. In 1/3 of them, infant mortality during the period 1980-85 exceeds 60/1000 live births. If measures are not taken to reduce mortality 55% of the population of Latin America in the year 2000 will still be living in countries with life expectancies at birth of under 70 years. According to the projections, in the year 2000 the birthrate will stand at around 29/1000, with wide differences between the countries of the region, within each of them, and between socioeconomic strata. High fertility will remain a factor hostile to the health of women and children and a determinant of rapid population growth. Some governments view the present or predicted growth rates as excessive; others want to increase them; and some take no explicit position on the matter. The countries would be well advised to assign values to their birthrate, natural increase, and periods for doubling their populations in relation to their development plans and to the prospects for improving the standard of living and health of their populations. An important factor in urban growth is internal migration. These migrants, like some of those who move to other countries, may have health problems requiring special care. Regardless of a country's demographic situation, the health sector has certain responsibilities, including: the need to promote the framing and adoption of population and development policies, in whose implementation the importance of health measures is not open to question; and the need to favor the intersector coordination and articulation required to ensure that population aspects are considered in national development planning.
POPULI. 1987; 14(1):39-47.This reevaluation of the demographic transition theory of Notestein (1945) presents a view of developing countries trapped in the 2nd stage and unable to achieve the economic and social gains counted upon to reduce births. Among the half of the world's countries that have not yet reached the demographic transition, 5 regions have growth rates of 2.2% or more yearly, or 20-fold per century, a are unable to prevent declining living standards and deteriorating ecological life-support systems. These are Southeast Asia (except Japan, China, and possibly Thailand and Indonesia), Latin America, the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East and Africa. In these countries, death rates will begin to rise, reversing the process of demographic transition. Examples of this phenomenon include 7 countries in West Africa with deteriorating agricultural and fuelwood yields, such that a World Bank study concluded that desertification is inevitable without a technological breakthrough. The elements of the life-support system, food, water, fuelwood and forests, are interrelated, and their failure will create "ecological refugees." When economic resources of jobs and income are added to biological resources, conflict and social instability will further hamper implementation of sound population policies. For the 1st time, governments are faced with the task of reducing birth rates as living conditions deteriorate, a challenge requiring new approaches. There are examples, such as China, where broad-based, inexpensive health care systems and well-designed family planning programs have encouraged small families without widespread economic gains. The most needed ingredient is leadership.
[Democracy, migration and return: Argentinians, Chileans and Uruguayans in Venezuela] Democracia, migracion y retorno: los Argentinos, Chilenos y Uruguayos en Venezuela.
Caracas, Venezuela, Universidad Catolica Andres Bello, Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales, 1986 Jul. 36 p. (Documento de Trabajo No. 29)Data from national censuses, migration registers, and the migration survey of 1981 were used to estimate the volume of migration from Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay to Venezuela in the past 35 years as well as the number returning to their countries of origin through programs established by international agencies. Immigrants from the 3 countries to Venezuela have in the past been a tiny minority. In 1950, they numbered just 1277 persons and represented .59% of persons born abroad. They were enumerated at 5531 in the 1961 census, at 8086 in the 1971 census, and at 43,748 in the 1981 census. In 1981, they accounted for 4.1% of the foreign born population. Between 1971-84, 13,074 Argentinians, 23,907 Chileans, and 6947 Uruguayans entered Venezuela. From 1971-79, 45,848 immigrants from the 3 countries entered Venezuela, with 13,000 more entering than exiting in 1978 alone. 1973-78 were years of economic prosperity and progress in Venezuela. From 1980-84, as economic conditions deteriorated, almost a quarter of a million persons left Venezuela, including 129,834 foreigners and 107,321 Venezuelans. About 2000 persons from Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay left Venezuela in the 5-year period. To determine whether the reemergence of democracy in Argentina and Uruguay in the 1980s had prompted the return of migrants from these countries, the subpopulation returning with the aid of 2 international organizations was studied. The records were examined of all individuals returning to the 3 countries between January 1983-June 1986 with the assistance of the Intergovernmental Committee for Migration or the UN High Commission for Refugees. 462 women and 395 men were repatriated during the study period. 46.4% of those repatriated were 20-49 years old and 39.7% were under 20. About 60% of the Uruguayans but only about 25% of the Argentinians and Chileans were assisted by the UN High Commission for Refugees. The crude activity rate was 52.2% for repatriated men and 34.2% for repatriated women. Activity rates were 58.4% for Uruguayans, 48.7% for Argentinians, and 48.0% for Chileans. The repatriation was highly selective; 79.5% of Chileans, 74.3% of Argentinians, and 67.4% of Uruguayans declared themselves to be professionals, technicians, or related workers. Of the 857 persons repatriated from Venezuela, 550 went to Argentina, 196 to Uruguay, and 107 to Chile. An additional 4 Chileans went to Sweden. The Argentinian colony in Venezuela has shrunk and will probably continue to do so, the Chilean colony has not declined and may actually grow because of economic and political conditions in Chile, and the Uruguayan colony has hardly declined, suggesting that immigration is continuing.
[Introduction to the Second Latin American Seminar on the Migrant Woman] Introduccion al Segundo Seminario Latinoamericano sobre la Mujer Migrante.
In: La Mujer Migrante, Segundo Seminario Latinoamericano, organizado por la Oficina Regional del Servicio Social Internacional y la Oficina Argentina de S.S.I., Buenos Aires, 9-12 de Septiembre de 1.985. Caracas, Venezuela, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, 1986. 7-12.Social Service International (SSI) is a nonprofit, nongovernmental organization which aids individuals who require assistance because of voluntary or forced expatriation or who require help for other social problems of an international character. Each national office is completely autonomous in its country and can adapt its programs to local needs. The General Secretariat in Geneva strives to assure that high quality services are maintained in each country. SSI has 17 national offices as well as volunteer correspondents in over 100 countries. SSI assists an average of 150,000 refugees and migrants in over 160 countries each year. In recent years Latin America has seen a massive increase in international migration because of political and economic problems. The consequences for families have been disastrous, but no adequate infrastructure has yet been developed to assist migrants and their families or to take preventive measures. Programs for training specialized personnel such as social workers and psychologists are also lacking. Private social agencies to aid recently arrived migrants have existed for many years in countries with histories of significant immigration, but they have tended to be limited to persons of a single nationality or religion and to have few specialized professional workers. SSI's 2nd major objective is to study the conditions and consequences of migration for individuals and families. Latin American women live in patriarchal societies whose norms still marginalize them or limit their participation. Women who migrate face discrimination in employment and education in addition to their other problems. The conclusions and recommendations of the seminar on migrant women are intended to improve understanding of the situation of such women at the regional and local level and to alert governmental and nongovernmental international organizations of the need for programs to improve the circumstances of migrant women.
UNESCO/IPDC Regional Seminar on the Media and the African Family, Livingstone, Zambia, 6-10 January 1986. Report.
[Unpublished] 1986 Jan. v, 63 p.A seminar was planned and conducted by UNESCO's Population Division during January 1986 to promote increased media attention to issues which affect family stability and welfare. Especially important are the social, economic, and health problems created by high rates of population growth, urbanization, and migration. The seminar intended to give participants an opportunity to: examine the changing characteristics and emergin problems of the African family; review and appraise both past and current efforts on the part of the media to promote understanding of the interrelationships between socioeconomic conditions and family welfare, composition, stability, and size; and develop plans to increase the involvement and effectiveness of the media in promoting understanding of these interrelationships and in enabling families to make decisions and take action to enhance their welfare and stability. This report of the seminar is presented in 2 sections. The 1st section presents the participants' review of the changing nature of the African family over recent decades and the socioeconomic and sociocultural problems which have emerged as a consequence of these changes. Additionally, the 1st section reviews the extent to which communication systems in the region have tried to deal with the population related issues which affect family welfare. A "Communication Plan of Action" is proposed by the participants as a logical outcome of their 2 analyses and as a synthesis of their recommendations for the manner in which communication systems in the region must develop in order to meet ongoing and future population-family life changes. The Plan of Action identifies the following strategies as necessary to realize the increased involvement of the media in family issues and problems: institutionalizing population family life content within the curricula of media training institutions within the region; intensifying preservice and inservice training of media personnel to enable them to deal effectively with the demographic, social, and economic issues which impinge upon family welfare; highlighting population family life communication matters; ensuring that research on population family life issues be widely disseminated to media personnel and media based organizations; sensitizing political and administrative decisionmakers to population family life issues so that media communication can be supported and opportunities for media coverage can be extended; emphasizing in national development plans the importance of the media in generating public awareness of and response to the constraints placed upon national development and improved family welfare by rapid population growth and large-scale urban migration; and encouraging the involvement of community organizations in media programs. The 2nd section of the report includes the participants examination of the communication planning process.
Voorburg, Netherlands, Netherlands Interuniversity Demographic Institute, 1985 Sep. ix, 56 p. (Working Paper of the N.I.D.I. No. 63)The objective of this report is to introduce the available techniques of life history analysis to study the data collected by the national migration surveys and to demonstrate the relevance of such techniques to provide more insight into to the problems addressed by the ESCAP migration and urbanization project. The 2nd section of the report introduces the basic concepts, with special reference to migration, and contains a simple example. Section 3 deals with 3 further issues which may arise while modeling migration histories: the alternative definitions of the state-space; the definition of the time dependence; and heterogeneity considerations and ways of dealing with heterogeneity for discrete state stochastic models of migration. The 4th section focuses on some major problems which may arise while estimating stochastic models of migration histories with ESCAP migration his. 2 issues are emphasized in this section: problems with the measurement of the timing of the events and issues related to using the information on the covariates of migration. Continous time stochastic models provide a powerful means of modeling event sequences. Migration histories consist of information on the times and the characteristics of migration experienced by individuals. More conventional ways of modeling such data are the dummy variables regression, the logit regression, or aggregation of the data are to form contingency tables and application of the log-linear models. Continous time event history models easily be generalized to incorporate complex designs of the state space, which express the moves between residences, and to provide detailed and cross nationally comparable information on the patterns of time dependence. Additionally, they are based on the estimation techniques which do not require unrealistic assumptions. These models aim at identifying a dynamic process that underlies the observed data. Estimated parameters of these models provide a description of the time dependence and also provide quantitative information about the effects of exogenous variables on the phenomenon of interest. The dependent variable of the continous time event history models is usually the instantaneous transition rate which is not directly observable. The estimated coefficients of the exogenous variables may be interpreted the same as the coefficients of a regression model, except that they usually have a multiplicative relation with the dependent variable. Once models of fundamental parameters of the underlying process are designed and estimated, many implications of such a process may be derived.
POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1986; (19-20):115-24.The United Nations (UN) and the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP) have cooperated since the 1940s. In 1927 an International Population Conference in Geveva established a permanent Population Union to cooperate with the population activities of the League of Nations. The 2 institutions' successors, IUSSP and the United Nations (UN), developed close and productive linkages, collaborating to create a Multilingual Demographic Dictionary, published in English, French, Russian, and Spanish and in many other languages. Meanwhile the Union, at the request of UNESCO, prepared a pioneering study attempting to define the cultural factors affecting developing country fertility in the context of the demographic transition, In 1966 the Union and the UN collaborated to develop criteria for internationally comparable studies in fertility and family planning (FP). The resulting monograph served as a reference for many fertility studies, including the World Fertility Survey. Another study on the impact of FP programs on fertility, resulted in the organization of expert meetings and the production of a manual and monographs on FP program evaluation. There was futher cooperation in a study on mortality, internal migration and international migration, resulting in manuals on methods of analysing internal migration and indirect measures of emigration, among other things. The 1954 Wold Population Conference (WPC) and the 1965 UN WPC were organized by the UN collaborating with the Union, and the Union administered the funds used to bring developing country delegates to the Conference. Subsequent WPCs at Bucharest and Mexico City were political in nature, bu the Union contributed to both a report outlining demographic research needs. The Union also assisted the UN in organizing a series of regional population conferences, and its Committee on Demographic Instruction prepared a report for UNESCO on teaching demography, and cooperated with the Secretariat in funding the UN Regional Demographic Training Centers at Bombay and Santiago.
[Recommendations of the Population World Plan of Action and of the United Nations Expert Group on Population Distribution, Migration and Development] Recomendaciones del Plan de Accion Mundial sobre Poblacion y del Grupo de Expertos de la Organizacion de las Naciones Unidas sobre Distribucion de la Poblacion, Migracion y Desarrollo.
In: Reunion Nacional sobre Distribucion de la Poblacion, Migracion y Desarrollo, Guadalajara, Jalisco, 11 de mayo de 1984, [compiled by] Mexico. Consejo Nacional de Poblacion [CONAPO]. Mexico City, Mexico, CONAPO, 1984. 21-31.Highlights are presented of the expert meeting on population distribution, migration, and development held in Hammamet, Tunisia, in March 1983 to prepare for the 1984 World Population Conference. Rafael Salas, Secretary General of the World Population Conference, indicated in the inaugural address of the meeting that changes in the past 10 years including the increasing importance of short-term movements, illegal migrations, and refugees would require international agreements for their resolution. In the area of internal migrations, Salas suggested that in addition to migration to metropolitan areas which continues to predominate, short-term movements of various kinds need to be considered in policy. Improvement in the quality of life of the urban poor is an urgent need. Leon Tabah, Adjunct Secretary General of the World Population Conference, pointed out that population distribution and migration had received insufficient attention in the 1975 World Population Conference, and that the World Population Plan of Action should be modified accordingly. Among the most important findings of the meeting were: 1) The Plan of Action overstressed the negative effects of urbanization and rural migration. Available evidence suggests that migration and urbanization are effects rather than causes of a larger process of unequal regional and sectorial development 2) The historical context of each country should be considered in research and planning regarding population movements. 3) Analyses of the determinants and consequences of migration were reexamined in light of their relationship to the processes of employment, capital accumulation, land tenure, technological change, ethnic and educational aspects, and family dynamics. 4) The need to consider interrelationships between urban rural areas in formulation of policy affecting population distribution was emphasized. 5) National development strategies and macroeconomic and sectoral policies usually have stronger spatial effects than measures specifically designed to influence population distribution, and should be examined to ensure compatability of goals. 6) Population distribution policies should not be viewed as ends in themselves but as measures to achieve larger goals such as reducing socioeconomic inequalities. 7) Multiple levels of analysis should be utilized for understanding the causes and consequences of population movements. 8) Programs of assistance should be organized for migrants and their families. 9) The human and labor rights of migrants and nonmigrants should be considered in policy formulation. 10) Policies designed to improve living and working conditions of women are urgently needed.
POPULI. 1986; 13(1):5-14.Within the next 50 years, the predominantly rural character of developing countries will shift as a result of rapid world urbanization. In 1970 the total urban population of the more developed world regions was almost 30 million more than in the less developed regions; however, by the year 2000 the urban population of developing countries will be close to double that in developed countries. A growing proportion of the urban population will be concentrated in the biggest cities. At the same time, the rural population in developing countries is expected to increase as well, making it difficult to reduce the flow of migrants to urban centers. Although urban fertility in developing countries tends to be lower than rural fertility, it is still at least twice as high as in developed countries. The benefits of urbanization tend to be distributed unevenly on the basis of social class, resulting in a pattern of skewed income and standard of living. Social conditions in squatter settlments and urban slums are a threat to physical and mental health, and the educational system has not been able to keep up with the growth of the school-aged population in urban areas. The problems posed by urbanization should be viewed as challenges to social structures and scientific technologies to adapt with concern for human values. It is suggested than 4 premises about the urbanization process should guide urban planners: 1) urban life is essential to the social nature of the modern world; 2) urban and rural populations should not be conceptualized in terms of diametrically opposed interest groups; 3) national policies will have an impact on urban areas, just as developments in the cities will impact on national development; and 4) the great cities of the world interact with each other, exchanging both trade and populations. The United Nations Family Planning Association stresses the need for 3 fundamental objectives: economic efficiency, social equity, and population balance.
In: Third Asian and Pacific Population Conference (Colombo, September 1982). Selected papers. Bangkok, Thailand, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1984. 9-40. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 58)This report summarizes the recent demographic situation and considers prospective trends and their development implications among the 39 members and associate members of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). It presents data on the following: size, growth, and distribution of the population; age and sex structure; fertility and marriage; mortality; international migration; growth and poverty; food and nutrition; households and housing; primary health care; education; the working-age population; family planning; the elderly; and population distribution. Despite improvements in the frequency and quality of demographic data collected in recent years, big gaps continue to exist in knowledge of the demographic situation in the ESCAP region. Available evidence suggests that the population growth rate of the ESCAP region declined between 1970 and 1980, as compared with the preceding decade, but that its rate of decline was slow. Within this overall picture, there is wide variation, with the most developed countries having annual growth rates around 1% and some of the least developed countries having a figure near 3%. The main factors associated with the high growth rates are the past high levels of fertility resulting in young age structures and continuing high fertility in some countries, notably in middle south Asia. The population of countries in the ESCAP region is expected to grow from 2.5 billion in 1980, to 2.9 billion in 1990, and to 3.4 billion persons by the year 2000. This massive growth in numbers, which will be most pronounced in Middle South Asia, will occur despite projected continuing moderation in annual population growth rates. Fertility is expected to continue its downward trend, assuming a more widespread and equitable distribution of health, education, and family planning services. Mortality is expected to decline further from its current levels, where life expectancy is often at or around 50 years. In several countries, more than 10 in every 100 babies born die before their 1st birthday. The extension of primary health care services is seen as the key to reducing this figure. Rapid population growth and poverty tend to reinforce each other. Low income, lack of education, and high infant and child mortality contribute to high fertility, which in turn is associated with high rates of natural increase. High rates of natural increase feed back to depress socioeconomic development. High population growth rates and their correlates of young age structures and heavy concentrations of persons in the nonproductive ages tend to depress production and burden government expenditure with high costs for social overhead needs. Rapid population growth emerges as an important factor in the persistence of chronic undernutrition and malnutrition. It increases the magnitude of the task of improving the educational system and exacerbates the problem of substandard housing that is widely prevalent throughout Asia.
[Ivory Coast: report of the Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance] Cote d'Ivoire: rapport de Mission sur l'Evaluation des Besoins d'Aide en Matiere de Population.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 Sep. viii, 57 p. (Report No. 69)Conclusions and recommendations are presented of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) Mission which visited the Ivory Coast from February 20-March 15, 1983 to assess population assistance needs. Ivory Coast officials believe that the population, estimated at 8,034,000 in 1980, is insufficient given the country's economic needs. Its very rapid rate of growth is estimated at over 4.5%/year, of which 1.5% is due to foreign immigration. 42% of the population is urban. The country has undergone exceptional economic growth in the past 2 decades, and the per capita income is now estimated at over $US1000 annually. Social development does not seem to have kept pace, however, and the mortality rate of 15.4/1000 is that of a country with only 1/2 the per capital income. The 1981-85 Ivory Coast Plan proposes a change from a growth economy to a society in which individual and collective welfare is the supreme goal. Up to date data on the size, structure, and dynamics of the population will be needed to aid in preparation of the 1986-90 and 1991-95 plans. A 2nd national population census is planned for 1985. Until the present, rapid population growth had been considered a boon, but problems are arising of massive rural exodus, high rates of urban unemployment coupled with manpower shortages in agriculture, and growing demographic pressure on health, educational, and social infrastructures, especially in the cities. The government has maintained its pronatalist stance, and government health programs have been directed only to mortality and maternal and child health. The need to control fertility and to use birth spacing as a tool to combat maternal and infant mortality is being increasingly felt, and a private family welfare association was able to form in 1979. A policy of maternal and child health encouraging spacing to improve family welfare would probably be welcomed in the Ivory Coast. The Mission recommended that a population policy be formulated which would correspond to the national demographic reality and development objectives. Basic demographic data collection should focus on the 1985 general census, which should have high priority. The civil registration system should be reorganized. A planned migration survey should cover the whole year to take into acconnt seasonal variations, but preparations should not begin until the census is completed. A multiple objective survey could be undertaken in 1988 to determine the nature and scope of interrelationships between demographic variables and economic and sociocultural variables, and a survey of infant mortality on a small sample could be done in 1989. The planned manpower and employment survey should be completed. Population research should receive high government priority. In regard to maternal and child health, the government should take an official position on the problem of birth spacing as a means of combatting maternal and infant deaths. IEC activities should be expanded, and efforts should be made to encourage the participation of women in development.