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  1. 1

    The International Conference on Population and Development, September 5-13, 1994, Cairo, Egypt. Nepal's country report.

    Nepal. National Planning Commission

    Kathmandu, Nepal, National Planning Commission, 1993 Sep. vi, 49 p.

    Prepared for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, this country report from Nepal opens with a description of the geographic features and administrative regions, zones, and districts of the country. 91% of the population of Nepal is rural, and agriculture accounts for 57% of the gross domestic product. Nepal has made some socioeconomic gains from 1961 to 1991 which are reflected in improved life expectancy (from 34 to 54.4 years), a decline in the infant mortality rate (from 200 to 102), and an improvement in the literacy rate (from 9 to > 40%). However, the per capital income of US $180 and rapid population growth have impeded improvement in the standard of living. The new government of Nepal is committed to establishing a better balance between population and the environment. This report provides a discussion of population growth and structure; population distribution, urbanization, and migration; the environment and sustainable development; the status of women; population policies and programs (highlighting the population policy of the plan for 1992-97); the national family planning program and health programs; and intervention issues. A 15-point summary is provided, and details of the objectives, priorities, and major policy thrust in regard to population and development of the Eight Plan (1992-97) are appended.
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  2. 2

    Demographic trends and their development implications.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    In: Third Asian and Pacific Population Conference (Colombo, September 1982). Selected papers. Bangkok, Thailand, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1984. 9-40. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 58)

    This report summarizes the recent demographic situation and considers prospective trends and their development implications among the 39 members and associate members of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). It presents data on the following: size, growth, and distribution of the population; age and sex structure; fertility and marriage; mortality; international migration; growth and poverty; food and nutrition; households and housing; primary health care; education; the working-age population; family planning; the elderly; and population distribution. Despite improvements in the frequency and quality of demographic data collected in recent years, big gaps continue to exist in knowledge of the demographic situation in the ESCAP region. Available evidence suggests that the population growth rate of the ESCAP region declined between 1970 and 1980, as compared with the preceding decade, but that its rate of decline was slow. Within this overall picture, there is wide variation, with the most developed countries having annual growth rates around 1% and some of the least developed countries having a figure near 3%. The main factors associated with the high growth rates are the past high levels of fertility resulting in young age structures and continuing high fertility in some countries, notably in middle south Asia. The population of countries in the ESCAP region is expected to grow from 2.5 billion in 1980, to 2.9 billion in 1990, and to 3.4 billion persons by the year 2000. This massive growth in numbers, which will be most pronounced in Middle South Asia, will occur despite projected continuing moderation in annual population growth rates. Fertility is expected to continue its downward trend, assuming a more widespread and equitable distribution of health, education, and family planning services. Mortality is expected to decline further from its current levels, where life expectancy is often at or around 50 years. In several countries, more than 10 in every 100 babies born die before their 1st birthday. The extension of primary health care services is seen as the key to reducing this figure. Rapid population growth and poverty tend to reinforce each other. Low income, lack of education, and high infant and child mortality contribute to high fertility, which in turn is associated with high rates of natural increase. High rates of natural increase feed back to depress socioeconomic development. High population growth rates and their correlates of young age structures and heavy concentrations of persons in the nonproductive ages tend to depress production and burden government expenditure with high costs for social overhead needs. Rapid population growth emerges as an important factor in the persistence of chronic undernutrition and malnutrition. It increases the magnitude of the task of improving the educational system and exacerbates the problem of substandard housing that is widely prevalent throughout Asia.
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  3. 3

    Population and development policy.


    [Unpublished] 1977 Jun. 169 p.

    Population and development policy decisions must be based on accurate demographic data in order to correctly formulate priorities in budgets and expenditures. Family planning as a public policy cannot be imposed upon private citizens; it must be freely chosen. The question remains: what determines fertility in the private sector and what can government do to align policy with performance? Research and analysis is needed to develop policy in keeping with local customs, standards, and individual sensibilities. Should more money be spent on education, health care, or development? Research from poor countries is spotty and disorganized. More money is spent on reduction of infant mortality than on family planning. Fertility control is still a controversial subject. Funds supplied for population and health are barely matched by many developing countries whose priorities lean toward agriculture and nutrition. In Haiti the 5-year development plan ignores the interactions between population growth and economic development. If the current level of fertility continues, it will act as a deterrent to development. A population impact analysis of El Salvador examines the effect AID policies and programs have on fertility control. Implementation of a policy in its first stages is described for Guatemala. Family models and global models show touchpoints where public policy might interface with private practice. Rural development implies increased production, equal opportunities, and a low fertility rate. All 3 are interrelated and affected by demographic events. Rising incomes, below a threshold level, has increased the fertility rate among the very poor.
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  4. 4

    World population plan of action. (Adopted by the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974).

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]

    Washington, D.C., USAID, August 1976. 44 p

    Since 1950 world population growth has risen to 2% a year, projecting a doubling of population within 35 years. Declines in mortality have been unevenly distributed: life expectancy in Latin America is 63 years, 57 in Asia, 46 in Africa. Countries with the highest mortality levels should aim at a life expectancy of at least 50 and an infant mortality rate of 120/1000 by 1985. Developing nations' growth rates are expected to decline from 2.4% to 2% by 1985. Health and nutrition programs will be integrated within the development plan and supported by social policies. Special efforts to manage services so they reach rural, remote and underprivileged people are needed. Womens' contributions in households and farms should be recognized and encouraged. Countries receiving migrant workers should be responsible for their proper treatment and physical safety. Technologies which reduce the need for manpower should be evaluated on the basis of available human resources and chosen to suit the needs of the working population. Plans for economic and social development should emphasize health and education. A population census should be taken by each country between 1975-85. Household sample surveys and demographic statistics relate closely to standards of living. All countries are encouraged to participate in the World Fertility Survey. Management training in population matters should be both national and regional and extend to labor, community leaders and government officials. The United Nations should monitor population trends and policies of the Plan of Action.
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  5. 5

    United Nations standards concerning the relationship between human rights and various population questions.

    United Nations

    New York, United Nations, April 3, 1974. 35 p

    Standards established by the U.N. in the related areas of population and human rights are analyzed. Action taken by the U.N. or its agencies is categorized according to whether it applies to fertility, mortality, or migration - the 3 demographic variables. With respect to fertility, it has been stated that the right to information is an important corollary to the right of individuals to determine the number and spacing of the own children. The health and physical well-being of the following groups have received special U.N. attention: pregnant women, children, and mentally and physically handicapped people. A report has been requested for national and international guidelines on action related to elderly members and arbitrary exile of individuals are forbidden by international law. The right of individuals to leave any country including their own and the right of freedom of movement and residence within a country are guaranteed rights. Special enactments have been made to protect migrant workers. The U.N. has recently begun to emphasize problems created by mass migrations within countries and to encourage rural development.
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