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    Settlement and development in the river blindness control zone.

    McMillan DE; Painter T; Scudder T

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1992. xv, 109 p. (World Bank Technical Paper No. 192; Series on River Blindness Control in West Africa)

    In 1988 and 1989, anthropologists conducted the Land Settlement Review to examine land settlement after the Onchocerciasis Control Programme (OCP) in western Africa (Benin, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo) successfully controlled river blindness. The review showed that successful onchocerciasis control caused rapidly rising migration to river valleys which once had sparse populations due to the threat of river blindness. This migration brought about a range of settlement patterns (highly controlled sponsored settlements to completely uncontrolled spontaneous settlements). It is also government to establish settlement policies. The settlers followed predictable migration patterns as well as adjustment patterns. Completely spontaneous settlements were less expensive than government-sponsored settlement and therefore were the preferable settlement option. Governments could provide basic services and infrastructure in some settlements (assisted settlements), but the settlers make most major decisions. The original population should accept the new settlers if the settlements are to be a success, so settlers should seek formal permission to settle in an area through traditional channels and government agencies. This should assure land tenure. Household income came from cropping, livestock, trading, crafts, and wage labor. Diversification was not what the government preferred, however. Settlers frequented markets to exchange goods and provide social services. Markets provided a means to integrate settlers and the host and pastoral groups. They needed to concede to land use zoning to protect forests and maintain the symbiotic relationship between pastoralists and farmers. The Land Management Program in Burkina Faso was a fine example of land use zoning.
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