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International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales. 2001; 39(6):61-84.During the 1990s, the number of regional consultative processes focusing on migration increased significantly. These non-binding fora brought together representatives of States, civil society and international organizations at the regional level to discuss migration-related issues in cooperative manner. Regional consultative processes, which are increasingly supported by governments, are partly a response to the growing complexity and diversity of international migration. Their emergence attests the importance that governments attach to a regional approach to migration management. Regional processes act informally, focusing on cooperative dialogue with an emphasis on information exchange and technical cooperation. The information exchange and confidence-building that occurs in regional processes is quite important in terms of developing links between States and influencing the likelihood of future bilateral and multilateral agreements. This article focuses upon the development of regional processes, using examples as illustrations. It suggests that the development of regional processes can be understood in term of a four- stage model: first, the decision to address issues of concern in a cooperative regional forum; second, to agree upon a "common language"; third, to agree upon a list of goals and, fourth, a shift toward a more operational process. (author's)
POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1993; (34-35):120-53.As part of the preparation for the up-coming International Conference on Population and Development, an expert group meeting on population distribution and migration was held in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, in January 1993. Participants considered the scope of migration which included a net internal migration of between 75 million and 1 billion people during 1975-85 and international migration which census data put at 77 million in the 1970s and early 1980s. World economic trends during the 1980s were reviewed, as were changes in the nature and configuration of various countries. The following topics were explored: patterns of population distribution and development, policies affecting internal migration and population distribution, internal migration and its implications for development, economic aspects of international migration, international migration in a changing world, international migration between developing countries, and refugees and asylum-seekers. 37 recommendations were prepared for governments, social institutions, and the international community. The first 10 urge that population distribution be an integral part of development policies, that government policies and expenditures be evaluated for their contribution to social and economic goals, that the capacity and competence of municipal authorities to manage urban development be increased, that government funding be decentralized, that economic and institutional links be developed between urban centers and surrounding rural areas, that alternatives to out-migration from rural areas be created, that the income-earning capacities of migrants be improved, that group mobilization by and for people affected by migration be encouraged, that adequate access to health services and family planning be assured, and that the underlying causes of environmental degradation, natural disasters, and war be addressed with mechanisms developed to protect victims. 13 recommendations deal with international migration and call for appropriate policies, cooperation, protection of human rights, an end to discrimination toward women, the normalization of family life among documented migrants, the promotion of good community relations between migrants and the rest of society, the guarantee of equal economic and social rights to longterm foreign residents and facilitation of their naturalization, the provision of legal information to potential migrants, the provision of equal educational and training opportunities to the children of migrants, and the institution of sanctions against the organizers of illegal migration. The next 7 recommendations urge that the causes of forced migration be addressed, that refugees receive assistance and protection, that the responsibility for refugees be shared equitably, that the right to asylum be protected, that appropriate repatriation programs be supported, that long-standing refugee populations be helped to achieve self-sufficiency, and that the specific needs of refugee women be addressed. The final 7 recommendations cover data and research needs regarding population distribution and migration and urge support for research on population distribution, the collection of national statistics, a review of existing standard definitions and classifications of rural and urban populations and of international migration, cooperation in the registration and monitoring of refugee populations, and the promotion of an exchange of information on trends and policies of international migration.
International migration in North America, Europe, Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa: research and research-related activities.
Geneva, Switzerland, United Nations, Economic Commission for Europe, 1993. v, 83 p.As a joint effort of the World Bank and the Economic Commission for Europe, the aim of this report was to identify international migration research and research-related activities in major political and institutional context, general overviews, and data sources, migration is discussed in terms of demography, international policies, economic and labor market aspects, highly skilled workers, development, integration, migration networks, ethnic relations, refugees and asylum seekers. East-west migration is also treated in a political and institutional context, with general overviews and data sources cited. The development and labor markets as well as ethnicity and return migration are considered. South-north migration is examined in a broad manner, with special emphasis on migration in the Mediterranean Basin and the Middle East. The review is meant to serve as a useful resource and as a stimulus for dialogue. Basic data are missing on east-west migration and labor, migration patterns within the Middle-East, and north-south movements other than from North Africa. Basic institutional sources for data and research on international migration are available from the Council of Europe; the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD); the International Labor Organization; the International Organization for Migration; the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees; the Intergovernmental Consultations on Asylum, Refugee, and Migration Policies in Europe, North America, and Australia; and the European Community. 13 major publications are primary sources of data, of which the most extensive is OECD's SOPEMI Report. 9 sources of data pertain to demographic aspects of migration. The 1986 SOPEMI report and updates document national policies and practices of entry control in OECD member countries; the UN Population Division also published a survey of population policies, including migration policies. The Commission of European Communities policies, including migration policies. The Commission of European Communities also publishes a document on noncommunity citizens. Researchers who have analyzed recent trends are identified, and research papers are cited for labor aspects of migration, highly skilled workers and migration, migration and development, integration and ethnic relations, migrant networks, refugees and asylum seekers, security, return migration, clandestine migration and ethical issues.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. vi, 197 p. (Population Policy Paper No. 28; ST/ESA/SER.R/99)A description and selected elements of a database of the Population Division of the United Nations are presented. The database, entitled Global Review and Inventory of Population Policy, 1989, is available on diskette, and provides current data on population policies of 170 countries of the Division's Population Policy Data Bank. Policy topics considered include population growth, mortality, fertility, internal migration, immigration and emigration, as well as information on current and projected population sizes, current levels of fertility and mortality, current population growth rates, and proportions foreign born. The diskette contains 1 standard ASCII data file, 1 LOTUS 1-2-3 spreadsheet data file, and machine-readable dictionaries. This descriptive text reports country positions on population growth, fertility, mortality, internal migration/spatial distribution, international migration, and past responses to population inquiries. Annex I summarizes variables on the diskette, while Annex II describes them in greater detail. Annex III contains diskette order forms. Statistical tables of the relative frequency of different policy positions are finally included in the document.
POPULATION TODAY. 1989 Jan; 17(1):6-8.The quality of data collected by the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) is assessed, with a focus on differences between U.S. and U.N. definitions of immigrants, emigrants, and refugees. The author suggests that "gaps in migration data collected for the U.S. limit their usefulness for studying international migration and estimating national population change. For example, no information is collected on emigration of legal permanent residents or U.S. citizens, nor is there any direct information on the immigration of U.S. citizens. Data collected on legal immigrants are based on a legal and administrative definition that often conflicts with the demographic definition of an immigrant." (EXCERPT)
International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales. 1988 Jun; 26(2):187-97.Bilateral and multilateral measures implemented to assist migrants who return to their country of origin have been designed to respond to a number of different but specific situations. 2 bilateral agreements are briefly described: 1) an agreement between the Federal Republic of Germany and the Republic of Turkey signed in the early 1970s, and 2) an agreement between France and Algeria signed in 1980. 3 different types of multilateral activities are described: 1) the operation of the so-called Return of Talent program by the Intergovernmental Committee for Migration, 2) the Transfer of KNow-how Through Expatriate Nationals program of the UN Development Programme, and 3) the elaboration of a model machinery on return migration by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. While the 1st 2 activities are operational programs, by which annually between 1000-2000 professionals are assisted in their permanent return to or temporary sojourn in their developing countries of origin, with the financial support of both the developed and the developing countries concerned, the 3rd initiative is a conceptual effort aimed at assisting governments to implement policy measures designed to make return migration commensurate with national development goals. 3 recent proposals include 1) the proposal for an international labor compensatory facility, 2) an international fund for vocational training, and 3) an international fund for manpower resources. A common factor shared by all these programs is that they have all involved on 1 side industrial receiving countries which feel themselves obliged to observe a number of principles guaranteed by law and which govern employment conditions and working relations. The reintegration measures implemented or proposed in cooperation with them have been adopted in full consideration of the prevailing standards of these countries, as different as they may be from 1 country to another. A common consideration has been that the returning migrant should reintegrate in his country of origin as far as possible in conditions allowing the returnee to attain self-sufficiency and social security coverage. However, this underlying context does not necessarily prevail in all world regions where different forms of labor migration take place. Therefore the measures experienced in the relationship of specific countries cannot be easily copied for implementation in other countries. Multilateral measures benefited a rather limited number of individuals only, in many instances skilled and highly skilled migrants.
International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales. 1988 Jun; 26(2):133-46.International labor standards take the form of Conventions and Recommendations that embody the agreements reached by a 2/3 majority of the representatives of Governments, Employers, and Workers of International Labour Office (ILO) member states. Originally designed to guard against the danger that 1 country or other would keep down wages and working conditions to gain competitive advantage and thereby undermine advances elsewhere, international labor standards have also been inspired by humanitarian concerns--the visible plight of workers and the physical dangers of industrialization and by the notion of social justice, which embraces wellbeing and dignity, security, and equality as well as a measure of participation in economic and social matters. ILO standards apply to workers generally and therefore also to migrant workers, irrespective of the fact that the general standards are complemented by standards especially for migrant workers. The social security protection of migrant workers has been dealt with in ILO instruments primarily from the angle of equality of treatment but also from that of the maintenance of acquired rights and rights in course of acquisition, including the payment of benefits to entitled persons resident abroad. The ILO Conventions on migrant workers and the Recommendations which supplement them deal with practically all aspects of the work and life of non-nationals such as recruitment matters, information to be made available, contract conditions, medical examination and attention, customs, exemption for personal effects, assistance in settling into their new environment, vocational training, promotion at work, job security and alternative employment, liberty of movement, participation in the cultural life of the state as well as maintenance of their own culture, transfer of earnings and savings, family reunification and visits, appeal against unjustified termination of employment or expulsion, and return assistance. ILO's supervisory mechanism consists basically of a dialogue between the ILO and the Government that is responsible for a law, regulation, or practice alleged to be in contravention of principles it voluntarily accepted. The control machinery is often set in motion by workers' organizations. The UN General Assembly is currently elaborating a new instrument designed to cover both regular and irregular migrant workers and their families.
Improving comparability of international migration statistics: contributions by the Conference of European Statisticians from 1971 to date.
INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW. 1987 Winter; 21(4):1017-37.This article summarizes the 3 main types of interrelated activities which the Conference of European Statisticians has worked on to improve the measurement and international comparability of international migration flows. The work has encompassed collaborating with the UN Statistical Commission on the preparation and implementation of the revised international recommendations on statistics of international migration, organizing a regular exchange of data on immigration and emigration flows among the UN Economic Commission for Europe countries and selected countries in other regions, and conducting bilateral studies on international migration within the framework of the Conference's program of work in this field of statistics. The bulk of the work which has been carried out to date by the conference has been conducted rather anonymously and even unobtrusively by the staff of national statistical offices in Economic Commission for Europe countries; they have achieved a modest but important amount of progress during the past 15 years. There is reason to expect that further progress will be made over the next decade, particularly if national statistical offices in the region continue to undertake bilateral studies and endeavor to improve their migration statistics. However, more substantial progress could be achieved if additional countries and organizations established projects aimed at achieving these ends (author's modified).
INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW. 1987 Winter; 21(4):996-1016.This article reviews the UN's efforts to improve international migration statistics. The review addresses the challenges faced by the UN, the direction in which this effort is going, gaps in the current approach, and priorities for future action. The content of the UN recommendations has changed in the past and seems to be moving toward further changes. At each stage, the direction of change corresponds broadly to earlier shifts in the overall context of world social-economic affairs and related transformations in international travel and migration patterns. Early (1953) objectives were vaguely stated in terms of social, economic, and demographic impacts of long term settlement. 1976 recommendations continued the focus on long term resettlement and, at the same time, gave more attention to at least 1 kind of short term (work-related) movement. Most recent recommendations have given more attention to other classes of short term travellers, such as refugees and contract workers. Recommendations on the measures and data sources have changed over time, also. The 1953 recommendations were limited to flow data from international border statistics. 1976 recommendations drew attention to stock data and the use of civil registration data to supplement border crossing data. Recent UN reflections recognize that the volume of border crossings has now reached the point where many countries simply refuse to gather data on all travellers, choosing instead to make estimates. It is implied that either sample surveys at border points and/or visas and entry permits may be the best way of counting various specific kinds of migrants. Future recommendations corresponding to contemporary and emerging concerns will require that the guidelines be restructured: 1) to give more explicit attention in international migration statistics to citizenship and access to political and welfare benefits; 2) to distinguish more carefully various sub-classes of movers; 3) to expand objectives of data collection to include an assessment of social impacts to complement the current focus on demographic and economic impacts; 4) and to give more careful attention to ways of estimating undocumented migrants and workers within large streams of other travellers.
[Democracy, migration and return: Argentinians, Chileans and Uruguayans in Venezuela] Democracia, migracion y retorno: los Argentinos, Chilenos y Uruguayos en Venezuela.
Caracas, Venezuela, Universidad Catolica Andres Bello, Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales, 1986 Jul. 36 p. (Documento de Trabajo No. 29)Data from national censuses, migration registers, and the migration survey of 1981 were used to estimate the volume of migration from Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay to Venezuela in the past 35 years as well as the number returning to their countries of origin through programs established by international agencies. Immigrants from the 3 countries to Venezuela have in the past been a tiny minority. In 1950, they numbered just 1277 persons and represented .59% of persons born abroad. They were enumerated at 5531 in the 1961 census, at 8086 in the 1971 census, and at 43,748 in the 1981 census. In 1981, they accounted for 4.1% of the foreign born population. Between 1971-84, 13,074 Argentinians, 23,907 Chileans, and 6947 Uruguayans entered Venezuela. From 1971-79, 45,848 immigrants from the 3 countries entered Venezuela, with 13,000 more entering than exiting in 1978 alone. 1973-78 were years of economic prosperity and progress in Venezuela. From 1980-84, as economic conditions deteriorated, almost a quarter of a million persons left Venezuela, including 129,834 foreigners and 107,321 Venezuelans. About 2000 persons from Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay left Venezuela in the 5-year period. To determine whether the reemergence of democracy in Argentina and Uruguay in the 1980s had prompted the return of migrants from these countries, the subpopulation returning with the aid of 2 international organizations was studied. The records were examined of all individuals returning to the 3 countries between January 1983-June 1986 with the assistance of the Intergovernmental Committee for Migration or the UN High Commission for Refugees. 462 women and 395 men were repatriated during the study period. 46.4% of those repatriated were 20-49 years old and 39.7% were under 20. About 60% of the Uruguayans but only about 25% of the Argentinians and Chileans were assisted by the UN High Commission for Refugees. The crude activity rate was 52.2% for repatriated men and 34.2% for repatriated women. Activity rates were 58.4% for Uruguayans, 48.7% for Argentinians, and 48.0% for Chileans. The repatriation was highly selective; 79.5% of Chileans, 74.3% of Argentinians, and 67.4% of Uruguayans declared themselves to be professionals, technicians, or related workers. Of the 857 persons repatriated from Venezuela, 550 went to Argentina, 196 to Uruguay, and 107 to Chile. An additional 4 Chileans went to Sweden. The Argentinian colony in Venezuela has shrunk and will probably continue to do so, the Chilean colony has not declined and may actually grow because of economic and political conditions in Chile, and the Uruguayan colony has hardly declined, suggesting that immigration is continuing.
In: Migration and development in the Caribbean: the unexplored connection. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1985. 321-47. (Westview Special Studies on Latin America and the Caribbean.)Although emigration from the Caribbean has long been viewed as beneficial to the region's economic development, it is increasingly clear that it also represents an impediment and a lost opportunity. After analyzing migration-for-development programs for other regions and identifying those factors that were most effective while also relevant to the Caribbean, the authors propose a set of programs that would reduce the cost of emigration to Caribbean development and multiply the benefits. The proposals include 1) Caribbean remittance banks, 2) incentive programs to recruit US-based Caribbean professionals from private and public life, and 3) a set of measures to encourage the next generation of Caribbean professionals to use their skills in their home countries. An alternative is presented that is between the statist approach to emigration of the Cuban government and the wholly individualistic approach of the rest of the Caribbean governments. It uses the available ways to reconcile the personal right to emigrate with the collective concern for economic development. It involves steps by Caribbean governments, by donor governments like that of the US who are interested in the region, and by international development institutions. To the extent that economic development is a primary concern of those interested in the Caribbean, increased attention should be given to migration as a central factor in the development equation.
Policy initiatives of the multilateral development banks and the United Nations specialized agencies.
In: Migration and development in the Caribbean: the unexplored connection. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1985. 301-20. (Westview Special Studies on Latin America and the Caribbean.)The International Labour office (ILO) of the UN analyzes manpower supply and demand and creates guidelines on the treatment of both legal and illegal migrant workers. The UN Economic and Social council (ECOSOC) oversees economic and social issues concerning population. The World Health Organization (WHO) oversees health issues relating to population. The World Bank has been the active member of the World Bank group in Latin America and the Caribbean because only Haiti qualifies to borrow from the soft loan affiliate of the Bank--the International Development Association (IDA). In 1983, the World Bank/IDA made 12 loans to the Caribbean countries totaling $205 million, $120 million of which went to Jamaica. The Bank has shown that special techniques are needed for successful rural development projects involving community understanding and participation, and that traditional development techniques will not work. An interesting change in World Bank philosophy and policy has been the recognition of the need for devising and adopting appropriate technologies to the needs of the rural areas; such technologies include community involvement in water and sanitation, the use of simple hand pumps, low-cost housing, and small-scale irrigation. These solutions are a far cry from the earlier belief that the large dam and power station and the mechanization of agriculture are the cure-all. The 3rd institution specifically geared to making loans to the Caribbean countries is the Caribbean Development Bank, whose accumulated lending amounted to $435 million as of 31 December 1983.
In: Migration and development in the Caribbean: the unexplored connection. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1985. 140-56. (Westview Special Studies on Latin America and the Caribbean.)The island of Hispaniola is divided between Haiti and the Dominican Republic, each with 5 or 6 million people. The constrasts between the countries, however, are more striking. Haiti is overwhelmingly poor and black and has an autocratic government. The Dominican Republic is considerably more advanced economically and boasts a functioning democracy. This chapter examines international (from both countries to the US and from Haiti to the Dominican Republic) migration, rural-urban migration, and development in both countries. The key to resolving the interrelated issues of migration and development in Hispaniola is a balanced program of economic, social, and political development in Haiti. The current situation of containing Haitian migration pressures through US Coast Guard surveillance at sea and Dominican border patrols by land provides a practical solution for curtailing illegal Haitian migration in the short run. However, it could serve merely to bottle up growing problems of poverty and unemployment in Haiti, leading to even greater perhaps uncontainable pressures for out-migration at some future point, unless coupled with a forceful program to improve conditions within the country. A successful development strategy for Haiti will require firm and substantial commitments by the government of Haiti and the international community. The recent record of the Duvalier government in promoting national development has been disappointing, but it is not bad or hopeless as often protrayed by critics abroad. The 2 major issues of migration that influence development in the Dominican Republic are the substanitial emigration of Dominicans to the US and the longstanding question of Haitian workers in the Dominican Republic. The situation of the latter at this point is relatively stable and calm, with recognition of the contribution Haitian workers make to the Dominican economy but with a fear of possible political turmoil and economic collapse in Haiti, in which large numbers of Haitians pour across the unsecurable border seeking refuge in the Dominican Republic.
[Unpublished, 1985]. 11 p. (DP/RILM/11.)The Expert Group Meeting on Remittances From International Labour Migration was held at the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) from 2-4 September, 1985. The meeting was convened to discuss issues and policies concerning remittances by workers who had been going in large numbers from developing countries in the ESCAP region to West Asia. 3.6 million workers from ESCAP countries are now employed in West Asia, which creates both problems and opportunities. The massive labor flow has helped the labor-importing countries to overcome their domestic labor shortages and thus has removed a crucial bottleneck in the productive utilization of their revenues from the oil boom of the 1970s. It also helped the ESCAP countries by relieving their unemployment pressures. A satisfactory solution to the problems that arise in the process of large-scale migration and remittance flows may be found by means of cooperation between labor-supplying and labor-receiving countries. Remittances are not an unqualified gain. A large out-migration of skilled and professional workers can have adverse consequences for the economies of labor-exporting countries. Remittances can cause many distortions in the economy, including exorbitant rises in land values. The recent slowdown in labor demand in Weest Asia is due to a fall in oil revenues and completion of large-scale infrastructure and other construction projects. Further labor absorption in that region may not take place; a substantial return flow has already begun.
[Unpublished, 1985]. ii, 66 p. (DP/RILM/10.)This review of the trend of labor exports from the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region to the Middle East in recent years and the emerging socioeconomic situation in labor-importing countries points to the conclusion that further growth in labor exports from the ESCAP region is not promising. The continuing pressure on oil prices resulting from world supply and demand and the sharp fall in oil revenues on which the development activities of labor-importing countries in the Middle East are almost exclusively dependent leads to this negative conclusion. The situation, however, is not entirely negative. The economics of the labor-importing countries still possess certain inherent strengths based on their substantial reserves of oil and the newly built and acquired capital and liquid financial assets. Even assuming that the present slack in the oil market will continue for some time, economic activities in the oil-exporting countries can still continue at a reasonable pace once the crisis that has overtaken these economics from a sudden downturn in oil revenues is smoothed out. Available evidence indicates that these countries are now embarking on an intensive phase of development that concentrates more on industrial, agricultural, and service sectors rather than the construction phase. The labor requirements for these new phases of development will still be substantial but will have a different skill composition. Although most of the present stock of unskilled labor from the ESCAP region may have to return home, they may be replaced by new groups of skilled labor. The present study may serve as a useful basis for helping ESCAP to make more precise forecasts and projections.
Banking and other facilities for remittances by migrant workers from the ESCAP Region to the Middle East.
[Unpublished, 1985]. 40 p. (DP/RILM/7.)This paper focuses on the labor-importing countries of the Middle East and how to maximize the flow of remittances to labor-exporting countries. This can be achieved if expatriate workers from Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) member countries employed in the Middle East remit their earnings to home countries in foreign exchange through official banking channels, comprising both commercial banks and exchange companies operating in the host countries. In general, there is no lack of banking facilities is Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Bahrain. Due to the slump in oil prices, banking capacity may be excessive. United Arab Emirates is now engaged in consolidating its banks. In all 3 countries, banking is organized on modern lines, but they can be induced to improve their performance, cooperate with each other in the field of remittances, and handle remittances for all the labor-exporting ESCAP countries without discrimination. Labor-importing Economic Commission For Western Asia (ECWA) countries could be approached to help fill existing gaps. For instance, Saudi Arabia could be requested to allow banking on Thursday evenings or to permit joint venture exchange companies, managed by ESCAP banks, to provide remittance facilities at remote sites where neither bank branches nor offices of domestic exchange companies exist. Mobile banking is another possibility. As far as clandestine dealers are concerned, the position is rather difficult. They are not guilty of any breach of law. Perhaps new legislation could curb their activities within the countries concerned, so as to throttle their business outside. The labor-exporting countries must 1st do all that lies in their power, individually and collectively, to tackle the problem of leakage of foreign exchange earnings.
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific Expert Group Meeting on Remittances from International Labour Migration, 2-4 September 1985, Bangkok, Thailand [collected papers].
[Unpublished, 1985].  p.The Expert Group Meeting on Remittances From International Labour Migration was held at the Economic and Social Commission For Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) in Bangkok from 2-4 September, 1985. The titles of papers presented at the meeting include 1) Banking and Other Facilities For Remittances by Migrant Workers from the ESCAP Region to the Middle East, 2) Remittances from International Labour Migration: A Case Study of Bangladesh, 3) Labour Migration and Remittances in Pakistan, 4) Remittances of Indian Migrants to the Middle East: An Assessment with Special Reference To Migrants From Kerala State, 5) An Assessment of West Asian Demand For Migrant Workers from the ESCAP Region, 6) Labour Migration and Remittances in the Republic of Korea, 7) Issues in International Labour Migration Remittance, 8) Prospects or Joint Ventures and Other Forms of Economic Co-operation Between the Middle Eastern Oil Exporting Countries and the Labour Exporting Developing Countries in the ESCAP Region in the Context of Remittances From Labour Migration, 9) Overseas Employment and Remittances: A Case Study of the Philippines, 10) International Labour Migration and Remittances: Experience in Thailand, and 11) Report of the Expert Group Meeting on Remittances From International Labour Migration.
INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW. 1988 Spring; 22(1):4-27.The immigration of ECOWAS (Economic Community of Western African States) citizens into Nigeria following the 1980 ECOWAS treaty on international migration is discussed. Consideration is given to international migration in Nigeria before and after the treaty, the effect of Nigeria's oil boom on immigration, and the impact of drought and war in other parts of Western Africa. Factors leading to the expulsion of ECOWAS aliens, and public response to the order, are also examined. Data are from official sources. (ANNOTATION)
In: La Mujer Migrante, Segundo Seminario Latinoamericano, organizado por la Oficina Regional del Servicio Social Internacional y la Oficina Argentina de S.S.I., Buenos Aires, 9-12 de Septiembre de 1.985. Caracas, Venezuela, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, 1986. 47-54.Southern South America has principally produced rather than received refugees in the past 2 decades, although at present Argentina, Uruguay and Bolivia receive refugees. Refugee women are primarily urban and in many cases are obliged to abandon their countries of origin because of their relationships with politically militant men. Forced migration differs from economically oriented migration because external factors rather than the wishes of the individual are the motivating factor. Exile implies a loss of social power. Forced emigration of women occurs in the context of a slow process of incorporation of women into the social, political, and economic life of the nations. The need to include women in the development process in active roles has been increasingly recognized since World War II. The 1975 UN World Conference in Mexico City in observance of the International Year of Women, the UN Decade for Women, the 1980 World Conference on the Decade of Women held in Copenhagen, the 1985 round table on refugee women held in Geneva by the UN High Commission for Refugees, and the 1985 World Conference in Nairobi to evaluate the achievements of the UN Decade for Women all were intended to promote a fuller participation of women in all aspects of life. The need for refugee women to assume new roles and new functions within their families is often a cause of rupture of marital relationships. The processes of exile, adjustment to the new country, and return to the country of origin are all destabilizing. A study of 36 Chilean women who returned after periods of exile averaging 5 years, primarily in Europe, indicated that many were troubled by their status as foreigners and the need to seek new channels of participation and communication in the country of exile. The UN High Commission for Refugees attempts to help refugee women by assisting them in their immediate needs for food and housing, and by promoting their longterm integration into the country of asylum and their eventual return to their homelands. Voluntary agencies implement the programs of the High Commission, which are intended to help the refugee woman achieve self-sufficiency.
[Unpublished] 1987. 15,  p.Asylum-seekers from Third World countries are an important subgroup of international migrants; their increasing number has led to reevaluations of asylum policies in Western Europe and Canada. This paper proposes a conceptual framework for the study of how asylum-seekers manipulate international migration channels and national asylum policies. The framework is applied to the case of the Tamil "boat people". Although the US is an ocean away from Europe's asylum troubles, the arrival of the Tamil boat people on Canada's shores highlights the point that physical barriers are not enough to deter asylum seekers. If the influx of asylum seekers into Western Europe remains high while European governments restrict the numbers given asylum, more asylum seekers will attempt to follow the Tamils to North America. On a more global scale, restrictive asylum policies in Europe could be used--particularly by Turkey, Thailand, Pakistan, and the Sudan--to justify refoulement (forced repatriation) of asylum seekers and even UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) registered refugees. The 2 models presented in this paper, one on the migration process experienced by asylum seekers and the other on the consequences of a "beggar thy neighbor" approach to asylum policies, illustrate the complex interaction between international migration and immigration laws. The international migration channels used by asylum seekers and the asylum laws and policies they try to manipulate are products of a fundamental conflict between an increasingly interdependent global economy and national government attempts to control territorial sovereignty.
International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales. 1986 Mar; 24(1):129-45.The social phenomenon of massive temporary international labor migration from the ESCAP region has emerged extremely rapidly. Within 10 years, the number of persons from ESCAP countries grew from a negligible one to 3.5 million. Related research and government policies have lagged behind this latest surge in migration. Most research conducted has been small-scale and lacks an analytical or theoretical framework. Policy formulation for temporary labor migration is difficult because most of the rapid growth in the industry has occurred as a result of private efforts, with a minimum of government intervention. It is now difficult, for the government to provide effective regulations or measures to stimulate and assist the process. Regulations on compulsory remittances or overseas minimum wages have proved to be unrealistic and, if not rescinded, are routinely circumvented. The most effective policies to assist return migrants may not be those which are intended to do so, but those which control the earlier stages of the migration process, such as recruitment, working conditions, and banking arrangements. The most valuable policies may also include those affecting education, training, employment, and general socioeconomic growth. Governments are recommended to provide social services for migrants and their families who are experiencing problems, and to institute community programs in areas with a large number of labor migrants. Governmental efforts to promote forms of labor migration beneficial to the workers would be valuable and should include measures to identify overseas labor markets for employing its nationals, government ot government labor contracts, and government participation in joint-venture projects. International migration should be analyzed in the context of theories and social change in order for governments to formulate effective measures for the reintegration of returning workers. Labor migration on the current scale has many social implications for the sending countries; relationships between employers and employees, the government and private sectors, and white and blue collar workers are affected. Social change and technological innovation will become more rapid, women's status and family roles will change markedly, and behavior is likely to become less conformist and more individualistic. (author's modified)
International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales. 1986 Mar; 24(1):77-93.Return migration and its consequences has attracted increasing attention since Western European countries adopted policies in the mid 1970s to stop the inflow of foreign workers and to promote reintegration of emigrants. This paper explores the definition of return migration, discusses the different contexts in which return migration arises, and points out the many gaps that exist in understanding return migration and its consequences. The report concludes that there is no consensus on the definition of return migration; future advances in its analysis and measurement depend on the availability of specific criteria to distinguish return movements from other migration taking place in the world today. Also, relatively little attention has been devoted to return flows of migrants in developing countries due to paucity of information and fluidity of some of the movements involved. Yet another area for concern is the lack of information pertaining to female emigrants. Some recommendations that may lead to the eventual satisfaction of these needs include: 1) defining returnees as persons who, having the nationality of the country that they are entering, have spent at least one year abroad and have returned with the intention of staying at least one year in the country of their nationality; 2) having coontries with important emigration flows monitor return migration by gathering and publishing information on returning migrants; 3) giving particular attention to the problems faced by female returnees and adopting measures to ensure equal aid to males and females; 4) studying and monitoring the consequences of return migration on whole families instead of on only certain members of the family; 5) monitoring the consequences of sizeable repatriation flows, giving particular attention to the success of reintegration programs; 6) developing novel methods to monitor and study the impact of return flows of emigrants whose situation in the receiving state was irregular.
MIGRATION WORLD. 1986; 14(5):13-20.In a 1946 Resolution on the Question of Refugees, the UN General Assembly stated: "the main task concerning displaced persons is to encourage and assist in every way possible their early return to their country of origin." In a number of situations around the world, refugees would find it impossible to go home, even if they wanted to. Among donor governments, the belief has arisen that refugees would go back to their homes were it not for the material assistance they receive in their country of asylum. Pressure to take positive action on the question of repatriation is being exerted by developing countries with substantial refugee populations. Most of the large scale repatriations that have taken place in the past have occurred in response to clear cut changes in the refugee's country of origin: a change of government, the end of a war, or the withdrawal of a colonial power. Since its foundation in 1951, the Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNCHR) has played an important role in the repatriation of exiled people. UNCHR is now actively promoting repatriation to countries where the causes of exodus have not been eliminated. An important step forward would be to extend UNCHR's mandate, allowing it to provide long-term assistance to returnees. It is important recognize that the tasks of providing protection to returnees and of helping them to reintegrate in their own country are closely connected.
ASIA-PACIFIC POPULATION JOURNAL. 1986 Mar; 1(1):75-9.During the past few years, reports have indicated that international migration from Asia and the Pacific to the Middle East has been decreasing. To consider this trend, the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) organized the Policy Workshop on International Migration in Asia and the Pacific from 15-21 October, 1986, at Bangkok. The Workshop 1st considered the magnitude of international migration. There were an estimated 930,000 Indian workers in the Middle East in 1983, 800,000 Pakistanis, 500,000 Filipinos, 300,000 Bangladeshis, and 200,000 each from the Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. Workers' remittances to the region reached US $8000-10,000 million per year in 1983. The government policies of the sending countries have been the least adequate in the area of return international labor migration. The Workshop recommended that governments of sending countries 1) ensure that the contracts signed by workers before their departure be honored, 2) provide workers with information on their legal rights in receiving countries before departure, 3) investigate and monitor recruiting agents, and 4) do everything possible to utilize workers' acquired skills on return. The Workshop also recommended that international agencies 1) create standards for data collection on international migration, 2) facilitate the exchange of information on international migration, and 3) sponsor research projects. The Workshop also recommended that governments obtain relevant information on the magnitude, origin, and expenditure of remittances and savings.
INITIATIVES IN POPULATION. 1986; 8(2):23-30.Like other parts of the world, the Asia and Pacific region has experienced mass movements of the population within and across countries. This report presents the issues and problems discussed, and the recommendations given at the Expert Group Meeting on International Migration in Asia and the Pacific, held in 1984 in Manila. The 9 issues discussed include: 1) available data on international migration are often inconsistent, incomplete, and inadequate for a thorough analysis of the migration situation; 2) the conventional economic theory of migration, and the modern view are different, but related; 3) are internal and international migration 2 distinct phenomena, or are they simply opposite ends of a continuum ranging from short-distance moves within a country to long-distance moves across national boundaries?; 4) permanent migration from Asia and the Pacific to the US, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand has risen sharply over the the past few years; 5) international migration could have considerable effects on the size, composition, growth, and structure of the populations of both sending and receiving countries; 6) temporary labor migration to the Middle East increased rapidly in the recent past; 7) temporary labor migration has benefits and costs to the home country and to the returning workers and their families; 8) refugee movements within and from Asia have had significant repercussions, not only in the lives of the migrants themselves, but also in the national policies and social structures of the asylum countries; and 9) international migration, if properly controlled and organized, could work for the benefit of every country involved.