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  1. 1

    Some approaches to the study of human migration.

    Nabi AK; Krishnan P

    In: Methodology for population studies and development, edited by Kuttan Mahadevan, Parameswara Krishnan. New Delhi, India, Sage, 1993. 82-121.

    Migration can be obligatory (transfers in job, joining husbands place) or sequential (the movement of dependents), besides being voluntary. The major data sources for the study of migration are population censuses, sample surveys, and population registers. A continuous population registration system has been in existence in the Scandinavian countries, a few West European countries, Taiwan, Israel, Japan, and some East European countries. Developed countries have developed techniques of estimating migration without sample surveys by using other sources built in within their social system. The censuses are the most widely used data sources for migration research where direct questions on migration (place of birth, place of last residence, place of residence at a specific prior date, and duration of residents) set the focus on the volume, level and pattern, differential selectivity, origin, and destination. Migration can be measured by the direct (census or sample survey) and indirect (residual methods from vital statistics and survival ratios based on census and/or life table) approaches. Selectivity in migration deals with differences in migration related to age, sex, marital status, education, occupation, ethnic origin, and language. Other topics addressed include determinants of migration; statistical generalizations and laws (Ravenstein's laws, push-pull theory); typologies; economic, spatial, behavioral, and mathematical approaches in migration theory; Zelinsky's hypothesis of migration/mobility transition; and the demographic, economic, and social consequences of migration. The migration process in multidimensional, time and space specific, thus a single theory is not comprehensive enough to explain its dynamics. Instead, a series of theories can be formulated: theory of migration for peasants, theory of migration for intellectuals, and theory of migration for cultural groups. This necessitates the development of comprehensive typologies of migration.
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  2. 2


    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, [1991]. v, 36 p. (Report)

    The former government of Romania sought to maintain existing population and accelerate population growth by restricting migration, increasing fertility, and reducing mortality. The provision and use of family planning (FP) were subject to restrictions and penalties beginning in 1986, the legal marriage age for females was lowered to 15 years, and incentives were provided to bolster fertility. These and other government policies have contributed to existing environmental pollution, poor housing, insufficient food, and major health problems in the country. To progress against population-related problems, Romania most urgently needs to gather reliable population and socioeconomic data for planning purposes, establish the ability to formulate population policy and undertake related activities, rehabilitate the health system and introduce modern FP methods, education health personnel and the public about FP methods, promote awareness of the need for population education, and establish that women's interests are served in government policy and action. These topics, recommendations, and the role of foreign assistance are discussed in turn.
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  3. 3

    Contributions of the IGU and ICA commissions in population studies.

    Nag P

    POPULATION GEOGRAPHY. 1989 Jun-Dec; 11(1-2):86-96.

    This paper surveys the contributions of the International Geographic Union (IGU) and the International Cartographic Association (ICA) to the field of population studies over the past 3 decades. Reviewing the various focal themes of conferences sponsored by the organizations since the 1960s, the author examines the evolution of population studies in IGU and ICA. During the 1960s, IGU began holding symposia addressing the issue of population pressure on the physical and social resource in developing countries. However, it wasn't until 1972, at a meeting in Edmonton, Canada, when IGU first addressed the issue of migration. But since then, migration has remained on the the key concerns of IGU. In 1978, the union hosted a symposium on Population Redistribution in Africa -- the first in a series of conferences focusing on the issue of migration. As an outgrowth of migration, the IGU also began addressing the related issue of population education. The interest in migration has continued through the 1980s. In addition to studies of regional migration, the IGU has also focused on conceptual issues such as migrant labor, environmental concerns, women and migration, and urbanization. In 1984, IGU began cooperating with ICA in the areas of census cartography and population cartography. The author concludes his review of IGU and ICA activities by discussing the emerging trends in population studies. The author foresees a more refined study of migration and more sophisticated population mapping, the result of better study techniques and the use of computer technology.
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  4. 4

    [Recommendations of the Population World Plan of Action and of the United Nations Expert Group on Population Distribution, Migration and Development] Recomendaciones del Plan de Accion Mundial sobre Poblacion y del Grupo de Expertos de la Organizacion de las Naciones Unidas sobre Distribucion de la Poblacion, Migracion y Desarrollo.

    De Oliveira O

    In: Reunion Nacional sobre Distribucion de la Poblacion, Migracion y Desarrollo, Guadalajara, Jalisco, 11 de mayo de 1984, [compiled by] Mexico. Consejo Nacional de Poblacion [CONAPO]. Mexico City, Mexico, CONAPO, 1984. 21-31.

    Highlights are presented of the expert meeting on population distribution, migration, and development held in Hammamet, Tunisia, in March 1983 to prepare for the 1984 World Population Conference. Rafael Salas, Secretary General of the World Population Conference, indicated in the inaugural address of the meeting that changes in the past 10 years including the increasing importance of short-term movements, illegal migrations, and refugees would require international agreements for their resolution. In the area of internal migrations, Salas suggested that in addition to migration to metropolitan areas which continues to predominate, short-term movements of various kinds need to be considered in policy. Improvement in the quality of life of the urban poor is an urgent need. Leon Tabah, Adjunct Secretary General of the World Population Conference, pointed out that population distribution and migration had received insufficient attention in the 1975 World Population Conference, and that the World Population Plan of Action should be modified accordingly. Among the most important findings of the meeting were: 1) The Plan of Action overstressed the negative effects of urbanization and rural migration. Available evidence suggests that migration and urbanization are effects rather than causes of a larger process of unequal regional and sectorial development 2) The historical context of each country should be considered in research and planning regarding population movements. 3) Analyses of the determinants and consequences of migration were reexamined in light of their relationship to the processes of employment, capital accumulation, land tenure, technological change, ethnic and educational aspects, and family dynamics. 4) The need to consider interrelationships between urban rural areas in formulation of policy affecting population distribution was emphasized. 5) National development strategies and macroeconomic and sectoral policies usually have stronger spatial effects than measures specifically designed to influence population distribution, and should be examined to ensure compatability of goals. 6) Population distribution policies should not be viewed as ends in themselves but as measures to achieve larger goals such as reducing socioeconomic inequalities. 7) Multiple levels of analysis should be utilized for understanding the causes and consequences of population movements. 8) Programs of assistance should be organized for migrants and their families. 9) The human and labor rights of migrants and nonmigrants should be considered in policy formulation. 10) Policies designed to improve living and working conditions of women are urgently needed.
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  5. 5

    [National Conference on Population Distribution, Migration and Development, Guadalajara, Jalisco, May 11, 1984] Reunion Nacional sobre Distribucion de la Poblacion, Migracion y Desarrollo, Guadalajara, Jalisco, 11 de mayo de 1984.

    Mexico. Consejo Nacional de Poblacion [CONAPO]

    Mexico City, Mexico, CONAPO, 1984. 107 p.

    Proceedings of a national conference on population distribution, migration, and development held in Guadalajara, Mexico, in May 1984 in preparation for the 1984 World Population Conference are presented. 2 opening addresses explain the objectives and relevance of the national conference, while the 1st conference paper outlines the recommendations of the World Population Plan of Action and of an expert meeting sponsored by the UN in Tunisia in 1983 on the topic of population distribution, migration, and development. The main conference papers discuss recent evolution of population distribution in Mexico; migration, labor markets, and development, including migratory flows and the economic structure of Mexico, recommendations of the World Population Conference of 1974, the migration policy of the Mexican National Development Plan, and the National Employment Service as an instrument of migration policy; and reflections on the World Population Conference, the Mexican government, and the design of an international migration policy, including commentarty on the recommendations of the expert committee on international migration convened in preparation for the World Population Conference, and comments on problems in design of migration policy. The main recommendations of the conference were 1) the principles of the World Population Plan of Action, particularly in regard to respect for fundamental human rights, be reaffirmed; 2) policies designed to influence population movement directly be supplemented by and coordinated with other social and economic policies likely to produce the same effect; 3) coordination among all sectors be improved to ensure effective implementation of policy goals; 4) efforts be undertaken to provide more detailed information on internal migratory movements; 5) laws governing migration and population distribution in Mexico be carefully analyzed and possibly modified; and 6) a clear and realistic international migration policy be formulated which would take into account the need for more detailed data on international migration, a clear definition of policy objectives in international migration, respect of basic human rights, and coherence between external and internal international migration policies.
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  6. 6

    [World population at a turning point? Results of the International Conference on Population, Mexico, August 14-16, 1984] De wereldbevolking op een keerpunt? Resultaten van de Internationale Bevolkingsconferentie, Mexico, 6-14 augustus 1984.

    Cliquet RL; van de Velde L

    Brussels, Belgium, Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudien [CBGS], 1985. viii, 274 p. (CBGS Monografie No. 1985/3)

    The aim of this report is to summarize the results of the International Conference on Population, held in Mexico City in August 1984, and to review the findings of working groups and regional meetings held in preparation for the conference. Chapters are included on developments in the decade since the 1974 World Population Conference, world population trends, fertility and the family, population distribution and migration, mortality and morbidity, population and the environment, results of five regional U.N. conferences, the proceedings and results of the Mexico City conference, and activities involving Belgium.
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  7. 7

    Demographic trends and their development implications.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    In: Third Asian and Pacific Population Conference (Colombo, September 1982). Selected papers. Bangkok, Thailand, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1984. 9-40. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 58)

    This report summarizes the recent demographic situation and considers prospective trends and their development implications among the 39 members and associate members of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). It presents data on the following: size, growth, and distribution of the population; age and sex structure; fertility and marriage; mortality; international migration; growth and poverty; food and nutrition; households and housing; primary health care; education; the working-age population; family planning; the elderly; and population distribution. Despite improvements in the frequency and quality of demographic data collected in recent years, big gaps continue to exist in knowledge of the demographic situation in the ESCAP region. Available evidence suggests that the population growth rate of the ESCAP region declined between 1970 and 1980, as compared with the preceding decade, but that its rate of decline was slow. Within this overall picture, there is wide variation, with the most developed countries having annual growth rates around 1% and some of the least developed countries having a figure near 3%. The main factors associated with the high growth rates are the past high levels of fertility resulting in young age structures and continuing high fertility in some countries, notably in middle south Asia. The population of countries in the ESCAP region is expected to grow from 2.5 billion in 1980, to 2.9 billion in 1990, and to 3.4 billion persons by the year 2000. This massive growth in numbers, which will be most pronounced in Middle South Asia, will occur despite projected continuing moderation in annual population growth rates. Fertility is expected to continue its downward trend, assuming a more widespread and equitable distribution of health, education, and family planning services. Mortality is expected to decline further from its current levels, where life expectancy is often at or around 50 years. In several countries, more than 10 in every 100 babies born die before their 1st birthday. The extension of primary health care services is seen as the key to reducing this figure. Rapid population growth and poverty tend to reinforce each other. Low income, lack of education, and high infant and child mortality contribute to high fertility, which in turn is associated with high rates of natural increase. High rates of natural increase feed back to depress socioeconomic development. High population growth rates and their correlates of young age structures and heavy concentrations of persons in the nonproductive ages tend to depress production and burden government expenditure with high costs for social overhead needs. Rapid population growth emerges as an important factor in the persistence of chronic undernutrition and malnutrition. It increases the magnitude of the task of improving the educational system and exacerbates the problem of substandard housing that is widely prevalent throughout Asia.
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  8. 8

    Report on the evaluation of SEN/77/P04: population/socio-spatial/regional planning (population/amenagement du territoire).

    Fabri MY; Pool DI; Simonen M

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Dec. xiii, 34, [7] p.

    The Senegal population/socio-spatial/regional planning project illustrates a truly integrated approach to population and development planning. The evaluation Mission concluded overall that the project's achievements are positive. The project's main accomplishments have been the establishment of a sophisticated population data bank, the preparation of national and regional population projections, an analysis of migration movements, and the production of related maps and tables using primarily 2ndary data sources. The technical quality and detail of the work undertaken, as well as its potential usefulness, were high. However, the Mission also found that various constraints specific to this project have considerably limited its achievements. These include inadequately formulated project objectives and planned activities, poorly defined conceptual framework, low absorptive capacity of the implementing agency, and severe United Nations Fund for Population Activities budget reductions. The value of the work was found to be lessened because the data assembled have not yet been systematically integrated into other relevant data banks, properly disseminated or utilized. The Mission recommended measures which will help conserve the valuable data bank and other results of the project and will assist in the transfer to nationals of the knowledge and skills to update and utilize the data bank. Limited outside assistance--financial and technical--is needed for some of the recommended measures.
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  9. 9

    China: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 May. xii, 156 p. (Report No. 67)

    A Needs Assessment and Program Development Mission visited the People's Republic of China from March 7 to April 16, 1983 to: review and analyze the country's population situation within the context of national population goals as well as population related development objectives, strategies, and programs; make recommendations on the future orientation and scope of national objectives and programs for strengthening or establishing new objectives, strategies, and programs; and make recommendations on program areas in need of external assistance within the framework of the recommended national population program and for geographical areas. This report summarizes the needs and recommendations in regard to: population policies and policy-related research; demographic research and training; basic population data collection and analysis; maternal and child health and family planning services; management training support for family planning services; logistics of contraceptive supply; management information system; family planning communication and education; family planning program research and evaluation; contraceptive production; research in human reproduction and contraceptives; population education and dissemination of population information; and special groups and multisectoral activities. The report also presents information on the national setting (geographical and cultural features, government and administration, the economy, and the evolution of socioeconomic development planning) and demographic features (population size, characteristics, and distribution, nationwide and demographic characteristics in geographical core areas). Based on its assessment of needs, the Mission identified mjaor priorities for assistance in the population field. Because of China's size and vast needs, external assistance for population programs would be diluted if provided to all provincial and lower administrative levels. Thus, the Mission suggests that a substantial portion of available resources be concentrated in 3 provinces as core areas: Sichuan, the most populous province (100,220,000 people by the end of 1982); Guandong, the province with the highest birthrate (25/1000); and Jiangsu, the most densely populated province (608 persons/square kilometer. In all the government has identified 11 provinces needing special attention in the next few years: Anhui, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jilin, Shaanxi and Shandong, in addition to Guangdong, Jiangsu, and Sichuan.
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  10. 10

    [National Conference on Population, Resources, Environment, and Development] Reunion Nacional sobre Poblacion, Recursos, Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo

    Mexico. Consejo Nacional de Poblacion [CONAPO]

    Mexico City, Mexico, Mexico. Consejo Nacional de Poblacion [CONAPO], 1984. 120 p.

    Opening remarks, presentations, comments, and conclusions are presented from the Mexican National Conference on Population, Resources, Environment, and Development, the last of a series of conferences held in preparation for the 1984 World Population Conference. The 3 papers, each with a commentary, concerned questions regarding the balance between population, resources, the environment, and development to be addressed by the World Population Conference; population, resources, and environment; and population and development. A list of comments of participants and the closing remarks are also included. Several concluding statements summarized the main points of the debate: 1) Relationships between demographic variables and economic and social processes are highly complex and the World Population Conference should take such complexities into account. 2) Reproductive and migratory behavior of the population is just 1 element influencing and being influenced by social and economic development. The decreasing rate of population growth alone cannot lead to development. 3) The quest for a better balance between resource utilization and environmental conservation, with the resulting improvement in living standards, requires immediate and realistic measures on the part of the State and the participation of the people not merely as objects but also as active subjects through their community organizations. 4) The regional dimension must be included in the analysis of disequilibrium between population and development, at both national and international levels, in order to provide a better comprehension of phenomena such as migration, urbanization, production and distribution of food, environmental deterioration, ant the qualitative development of the population. 5) Better conceptual, analytical, informative, and planning instruments must be developed regarding the themes of population and development. In particular, instruments for the medium- and longterm should be developed, since the time frame of population processes exceeds the usual programming limits. 6) Questions suitable for a forum such as the World Population Conference must be distinguished from those relating to national population policy. Nevertheless, common principles exist, such as full respect for human rights, national sovereignty, and the fundamental objectives of population policy, which should be to contribute to elevating the level and quality of life of human beings.
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  11. 11

    International Conference on Population, 1984. Population distribution, migration and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population Distribution, Migration and Development, Hammamet (Tunisia), 21-25 March 1983

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs

    New York, N.Y, United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, 1984. vi, 505 p. (no. ST/ESA/SER.A/89)

    These are the proceedings of one of the four expert groups convened in preparation for the International Conference on Population, held in Mexico City in August 1984. The aim of the expert groups was to examine critical, high-priority population issues and to make recommendations for revisions to the World Population Plan of Action. The present publication concerns the relationships among population distribution, migration, and development. It contains a report of the discussions and a list of recommendations concerning population distribution and internal migration, international migration, and the promotion of knowledge and policies. The report also includes a selection of background papers. These papers include a review of population distribution, migration, and development in relation to the World Population Plan of Action; a review of technical cooperation in this area; and a description of United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) assistance in the field of migration and population distribution.
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  12. 12

    Long-range global population projections, as assessed in 1980.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    Population Bulletin of the United Nations. 1982; (14):17-30.

    UN medium range projections prepared in the 1980 assessment projected the population of individual countries up to the year 2025. The long range projections discussed here were prepared by projecting the population of 8 major world regions from 2025-2100. The purpose of the projection was to observe the implications of the changes from the 1978 assessment made in the 1980 medium range projections on the long range projections of the world's populations. As in previous projections, high, medium, and low variants were prepared in which fertility is assumed to be constant at the replacement level but at different times in the future. In addition, these projections contain 2 variants not previously prepared--namely, the growth and decline variants, in which the ultimate net reproduction rate is 1.05 and 0.95, respectively. In all the variants, expectation of life at birth is assumed to reach 75 years for males and 80 for females. According to the current medium variant projection, the earth's population will become stationary after 2095 at 10.2 billion persons, compared with a total of 10.5 billion projected in the 1978 assessment. The lower projection is largely attributable to a recent decline in the growth rate of several countries in South Asia which was greater than previously assumed. When the world population becomes stationary, both crude birth and death rates would be about 13/1000. In the decline variant, total population would peak at 7.7 billion in 2055, then decline gradually to 7.2 billion in 2100. The total population as projected by the growth variant would equal 14.9 billion in 2100 and would still be growing slowly. Between 1980 and 2050, 95% of the world's growth will occur in the currently less developed regions. Their share of total population will increase from 75-85% during that period. The age structure in all regions is expected to converge to 1 in which the median age is 39 years, the proportion both below age 15 and above age 64 is about 19% each, and the dependency ratio is about 60. A precise degree of accuracy cannot be specified, but the argument is made that the actual future population of the world is very likely to fall within the range of the projection variants and probably not far from the medium variant. (author's)
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