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Population 2005. 2004 Sep-Oct; 6(3):1-4.The UN Population Fund issued its annual State of World Population Report Sept. 15, focusing on progress achieved 10 years after the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo. It records broad gains in government acceptance of the ICPD Program of Action, and notes significant improvements in the quality and reach of family planning programs, and in the development of safe motherhood and HIV prevention efforts. But inadequate resources, gender bias and gaps in serving the poor and adolescents are undermining further progress, according to the report, The Cairo Consensus at Ten: Population, Reproductive Health and the Global Effort to End Poverty. In its review of achievements and constraints nearly half way to the 2015 completion target date, the report examines actions taken across the related areas of population and poverty, environmental protection, migration and urbanization; discrimination against women and girls; and key reproductive health issues including access to contraception, maternal health, HIV/AIDS, and the needs of adolescents and people in emergency situations. (excerpt)
Population 2005. 2004 Jun; 6(2):4.This meeting recognizes the 10th anniversary of the historic International Conference on Population and Development, held in Cairo, Egypt. The Cairo conference dealt with a wide range of issues – each extremely important in its own right. The organizers of this event, however, felt it was necessary to limit our focus in order that our time and energy can be utilized to their best advantage. For this reason, Forum 2004 will highlight four areas: Migration, HIV/AIDS, Aging, and Reproductive Health. It is our fervent hope that what will emerge from this meeting is a clearer vision of where we have to go and what we must do to ensure that the goals of the Cairo Program of Action will be met. Ten years ago, I wrote a newspaper opinion article in which I emphasized that the specific targets of the Program of Action were realistic and obtainable. But I stressed that it was important to monitor progress along the way that it would be irresponsible to allow the ICPD document to be swept into the dustbins of history. Many nations are indeed implementing or attempting to implement the Program of Action. But progress has not been uniform. Much still needs to be done, particularly in the world’s least developed countries. (excerpt)
Quebec, Canada, Universite Laval, Centre de Cooperation Internationale en Sante et Developpement, 1995 Oct. , 25, 7 p.The International Cooperation Center in Health and Development (CCISD) based at the Faculty of Medicine of Laval University in Quebec prepared this summary report on agencies that support AIDS control programs in West Africa. It allows one to know who is doing what and where. It is far from being complete since all who had been contacted were not necessarily available or did not always respond to questions. One will find this document appealing. Some sectors polarize funding agencies in AIDS control. CCISD does not aim to evaluate what is being done but to state what exists. It is still striking to see that sectors responsible for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are not sufficiently financed in the subregion. It would be good for funding agencies and national AIDS control programs to plan regular regional meetings. This would allow them to specify courses of intervention and especially benefit both in terms of accumulated experiences in the field. The chapters of the summary report discuss the epidemiology of AIDS and STDs in West Africa (HIV/AIDS prevalence and the link between migration and AIDS), the role of funding agencies, lessons learned, the question of whether Africans have taken to heart the AIDS epidemic, the African Development Bank and AIDS control in Africa, the World Bank and the regional AIDS control project for Francophone Africa, and Canada and the AIDS control program in Francophone Africa. The report provides a list of funding agencies and a contact person in those agencies.
New York, New York, UNFPA, . v, 36 p. (Report)The former government of Romania sought to maintain existing population and accelerate population growth by restricting migration, increasing fertility, and reducing mortality. The provision and use of family planning (FP) were subject to restrictions and penalties beginning in 1986, the legal marriage age for females was lowered to 15 years, and incentives were provided to bolster fertility. These and other government policies have contributed to existing environmental pollution, poor housing, insufficient food, and major health problems in the country. To progress against population-related problems, Romania most urgently needs to gather reliable population and socioeconomic data for planning purposes, establish the ability to formulate population policy and undertake related activities, rehabilitate the health system and introduce modern FP methods, education health personnel and the public about FP methods, promote awareness of the need for population education, and establish that women's interests are served in government policy and action. These topics, recommendations, and the role of foreign assistance are discussed in turn.
In: To cure all hunger. Food policy and food security in Sudan, edited by Simon Maxwell. London, England, Intermediate Technology Publications, 1991. 191-206.Targeting on grounds of equity, cost, or minimizing interference fails to consider whether targeting is politically possible. In the case of the USAID-sponsored famine-relief and emergency food aid operation in Darfur, western Sudan, in 1985, the expressed intention of target this relief was not fulfilled. The target group received inadequate amounts of relief grain owing to the lack of targeting by area councils within Darfur, and the lack of targeting within area councils. After severe rainfall failures in 1982, 1983 and 1984, large numbers of people in western Sudan faced severe food shortage, abnormal migrations, and increased risk of destitution. USAID, the principal donor for relief operations to western Sudan in 1984-85, approved 82,000 metric tons (mt) of relief grain for western Sudan in September 1984, and then a further 250,000 mt in late 1984 and early 1985. The target population for the first 41,000 mt of relief sorghum was the neediest one-fourth later, the neediest one-third. A USAID document provided estimates of people and the way the area councils conceived sheltering throngs of the target group. There was 153,141 seriously affected in Kutum area council, 102,907 in Mellit, and 507,348 in Geneina representing around 25% of Darfur's population, the size of the target group envisaged for the first 41,000 mt of relief grain. USAID made concessions to the Darfur regional government allowing South Darfur a higher proportion of early allocations than need dictated. Save the Children Fund experienced serious difficulties with the local contractor to distribute food from area-council level. Aid agencies and donors need to consider how targeting is to be accomplished and how to confront influential local players with interests contrary to such targeting. Allocations of relief grain could be made on the assumption that targeting will be only partially achieved; and through alternative forms of relief.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund, 1988. xii, 78,  p. (Report No. 91)To enable Malaysia to attain self-reliance in the population aspects of its national development, an assessment of the nation's basic needs was conducted by a mission that visited Malaysia 9-27 September 1985. The report concentrates primarily on the period 1978-1985. Malaysia, with a per capita gross national product of US $1980 in 1984, is classified as an upper-middle-income country. Malaysia has a high literacy rate (73.4%), a low crude death rate (5.9%, 1985-1990), and a moderate annual growth rate (2.1%, 1985-1990). Its population numbered an estimated 16 million by mid-1986. Since the mid-1960s, the government has supported family planning as a policy instrument for reducing the rate of population growth. Recently the government has committed itself to what is known as the "new population policy"--the attainment of a population of 70 million over a period of 115 years. The government has sought to equalize regional rates of development through the dispersal of industry and the building of new towns. The government is also engaged in integrated rural or in situ development to meet the immediate needs of the rural population and ensure an orderly pace of rural-to-urban migration. Malaysia's progress in integrating population factors into development planning and policy formulation stems in part from its excellent system of demographic statistics. A Census of Population and Housing covering the entire country was carried out in 1980. Malaysia has benefited from many excellent demographic research studies and well-developed training programs in population, especially those from the Population Studies Unit at the University of Malaysia, the National Population and Family Development Board, and the Socio-Economic Research Unit in the Prime Minister's Department. The Mission recommends consideration of various measures designed to enhance the role of women in development, including 1) the provision of dependable child-care facilities, 2) a re-examination of maternity leave programs, 3) the establishment of specific training programs meeting demands of modernization and industrialization, 4) programs within family life education to advocate the sharing of domestic work by men and women, and 5) the provision of facilities to reduce women's domestic work load.
In: Migration and development in the Caribbean: the unexplored connection. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1985. 140-56. (Westview Special Studies on Latin America and the Caribbean.)The island of Hispaniola is divided between Haiti and the Dominican Republic, each with 5 or 6 million people. The constrasts between the countries, however, are more striking. Haiti is overwhelmingly poor and black and has an autocratic government. The Dominican Republic is considerably more advanced economically and boasts a functioning democracy. This chapter examines international (from both countries to the US and from Haiti to the Dominican Republic) migration, rural-urban migration, and development in both countries. The key to resolving the interrelated issues of migration and development in Hispaniola is a balanced program of economic, social, and political development in Haiti. The current situation of containing Haitian migration pressures through US Coast Guard surveillance at sea and Dominican border patrols by land provides a practical solution for curtailing illegal Haitian migration in the short run. However, it could serve merely to bottle up growing problems of poverty and unemployment in Haiti, leading to even greater perhaps uncontainable pressures for out-migration at some future point, unless coupled with a forceful program to improve conditions within the country. A successful development strategy for Haiti will require firm and substantial commitments by the government of Haiti and the international community. The recent record of the Duvalier government in promoting national development has been disappointing, but it is not bad or hopeless as often protrayed by critics abroad. The 2 major issues of migration that influence development in the Dominican Republic are the substanitial emigration of Dominicans to the US and the longstanding question of Haitian workers in the Dominican Republic. The situation of the latter at this point is relatively stable and calm, with recognition of the contribution Haitian workers make to the Dominican economy but with a fear of possible political turmoil and economic collapse in Haiti, in which large numbers of Haitians pour across the unsecurable border seeking refuge in the Dominican Republic.
Report of the Director-General. Growth and adjustment in Asia: issues of employment, productivity, migration and women workers.
Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Office, 1985. iv, 127 p.This report presents the activities of the International Labour Office (ILO) in Asia for the 5 years since the ILO's Ninth Asian Regional Conference of 1980. The economic recession has severely affected socioeconomic development in many states. Per capita income has fallen in a number of poorer developing countries, due to rapid population growth. The impact of the recession has varied greatly; the average rate of growth of South East Asian economies in the 1980s was higher than those of other regions. However, the recession has inevitably brought about a fall in tax receipts and thus increased budget deficits. Technical cooperation remains a major means for the ILO to achieve its goals, but its technical cooperation program faces severe funding constraints now. Regional projects now promote technical cooperation among developing countries (TCDC). This report 1) highlights the major development issues of the 1980s in Asia, 2) reviews ILO operations in the region for 1980-1984, 3) summarizes TCDC activities and identifies the ways of promoting TCDC in the region, 4) considers the issues of Asian migrant workers and female employment, and 5) formulates conclusions. An appendix reports on actions taken on the conclusions and resolutions adopted by the Ninth Asian Regional Conference.
Report on the evaluation of SEN/77/P04: population/socio-spatial/regional planning (population/amenagement du territoire).
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Dec. xiii, 34,  p.The Senegal population/socio-spatial/regional planning project illustrates a truly integrated approach to population and development planning. The evaluation Mission concluded overall that the project's achievements are positive. The project's main accomplishments have been the establishment of a sophisticated population data bank, the preparation of national and regional population projections, an analysis of migration movements, and the production of related maps and tables using primarily 2ndary data sources. The technical quality and detail of the work undertaken, as well as its potential usefulness, were high. However, the Mission also found that various constraints specific to this project have considerably limited its achievements. These include inadequately formulated project objectives and planned activities, poorly defined conceptual framework, low absorptive capacity of the implementing agency, and severe United Nations Fund for Population Activities budget reductions. The value of the work was found to be lessened because the data assembled have not yet been systematically integrated into other relevant data banks, properly disseminated or utilized. The Mission recommended measures which will help conserve the valuable data bank and other results of the project and will assist in the transfer to nationals of the knowledge and skills to update and utilize the data bank. Limited outside assistance--financial and technical--is needed for some of the recommended measures.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 May. xii, 156 p. (Report No. 67)A Needs Assessment and Program Development Mission visited the People's Republic of China from March 7 to April 16, 1983 to: review and analyze the country's population situation within the context of national population goals as well as population related development objectives, strategies, and programs; make recommendations on the future orientation and scope of national objectives and programs for strengthening or establishing new objectives, strategies, and programs; and make recommendations on program areas in need of external assistance within the framework of the recommended national population program and for geographical areas. This report summarizes the needs and recommendations in regard to: population policies and policy-related research; demographic research and training; basic population data collection and analysis; maternal and child health and family planning services; management training support for family planning services; logistics of contraceptive supply; management information system; family planning communication and education; family planning program research and evaluation; contraceptive production; research in human reproduction and contraceptives; population education and dissemination of population information; and special groups and multisectoral activities. The report also presents information on the national setting (geographical and cultural features, government and administration, the economy, and the evolution of socioeconomic development planning) and demographic features (population size, characteristics, and distribution, nationwide and demographic characteristics in geographical core areas). Based on its assessment of needs, the Mission identified mjaor priorities for assistance in the population field. Because of China's size and vast needs, external assistance for population programs would be diluted if provided to all provincial and lower administrative levels. Thus, the Mission suggests that a substantial portion of available resources be concentrated in 3 provinces as core areas: Sichuan, the most populous province (100,220,000 people by the end of 1982); Guandong, the province with the highest birthrate (25/1000); and Jiangsu, the most densely populated province (608 persons/square kilometer. In all the government has identified 11 provinces needing special attention in the next few years: Anhui, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jilin, Shaanxi and Shandong, in addition to Guangdong, Jiangsu, and Sichuan.
In: Population distribution, migration and development. New York, N.Y., Dept. of International Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, 1984. 484-505.Add to my documents.
Studies in Family Planning. 1984 Nov-Dec; 15(6/1):296-302.The international Conference on Population, held in Mexico City in August 1984, met to review past developments and to make recommendations for future implementation of the World Population Plan of Action. Despite the several ifferences of opinion, the degree of controversy was minor for an intergovernmental meeting of this size. The 147 government delegations at the Conference reached overall agreement on recommendations for future international commitment to expanding population efforts in the future. This review examines the recommendations of the Mexico Conference with regard to health, family planning, women in development, research, and realted issues. The total 88 recommendations wre intended to reaffirm and refine the World Population Plan of Action adopted in Bucharest in 1974, and to strengthen the Plan for the next decade. Substantial improvement in development was noted including fertility and mortality declines, improvements in school enrollement and literacy rates, as well as access to health services. Economic trends, however, were much less encouraging. While the global rate of population growth has declined slightly since 1974, world population has increased by 770 million during the decade, with 90% of that increase in the developing countries. Part of the controversy at the Conference focused on the remarkable change of position by the US delegation, which largely reversed the policies expressed at Bucharest. The US delegation stated that population was a neutral issue in development, that development is the primary requirement in achieving fertility decline. Several recommendations emphasized the need to integrate population and development planning, and called for increased national and international efforts toward the eradication of mass hunger, illiteracy, and unemployment; achievement of adaquate health and nutrition levels; and improvement in women's status. The need for futher development of management, training, information, education and communication was recognized. A clear call to strenghten global efforts in population policies and programs emerged.
International Conference on Population, 1984. Population distribution, migration and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population Distribution, Migration and Development, Hammamet (Tunisia), 21-25 March 1983
New York, N.Y, United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, 1984. vi, 505 p. (no. ST/ESA/SER.A/89)These are the proceedings of one of the four expert groups convened in preparation for the International Conference on Population, held in Mexico City in August 1984. The aim of the expert groups was to examine critical, high-priority population issues and to make recommendations for revisions to the World Population Plan of Action. The present publication concerns the relationships among population distribution, migration, and development. It contains a report of the discussions and a list of recommendations concerning population distribution and internal migration, international migration, and the promotion of knowledge and policies. The report also includes a selection of background papers. These papers include a review of population distribution, migration, and development in relation to the World Population Plan of Action; a review of technical cooperation in this area; and a description of United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) assistance in the field of migration and population distribution.
New York, New York, UNFPA, May 1983. 74 p. (Report No. 55)Reports on the need for population assistance in Thailand. Areas are identified which require assistance to achieve self-reliance in formulating and implementing population programs. Thailand has had a family planning program since 1970 and UNFPA has been assisting population projects and programs in Thailand since 1971. A Basic Needs Assessment Mission visited the country in April 1981. Thailand is experiencing a rapid decline in the population growth rate and mortality rates have been declining for several decades. The Mission makes recommendations for population assistance and identifies priority areas for assistance, such as population policy formation; data collection; demographic research; health and family planning; population information, education, and communication; and women and development. The Mission recommends that all population efforts be centralized in a single agency with no other function. Thailand is also in need of more personnel in key agencies dealing with population matters. The Mission also recommends that external aid be sought for technical assistance and that population projections be revised based on the 1980 census. Thailand has made a great deal of progress in developing its health infrastructure and services, but some problems still remain, especially in areas of staff recruitment and deployment and in providing rural services. The Mission also recommends that external assistance be continued for short term training seminars and workshops abroad for professionals. Seminars should be organized to assist officials in understanding the importance of population factors in their areas.
[Unpublished] 1983 Mar 1. 27 p. (IESA/P/ICP.1984/EG.II/30)The UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), in extending assistance for population concerns, has pursued a multifaceted program of work in order to respond to the wide ranging needs of the developing countries it serves. This paper examines its assistance in the area of population distribution and migration, taking into account how both internal and international migration affect and are affected by trends in socioeconomic development. Some of the issues that surface under the rubric "population distribution, migration, and development" are summarized. UNFPA's assistance to activities in population distribution, migration, and development fall into 4 categories: data collection, research and analysis, policy formulation and planning, and awareness creation. UNFPA has supported data collection in order to improve knowledge of migratory movements. It has funded research on interrelationships between population distribution and socioeconomic factors. Much of this research has focused on the interplay between population movement and labor force opportunities. The strengthening of institutions and the training of personnel involved in work on population distribution, migration, and development have made up an important part of UNFPA's work in this area. Generally, UNFPA does not support action programs in this area. Within the context of a comprehensive redistribution program, UNFPA may provide assistance for those service programs within its mandate--family planning service, population information campaigns, and educational support for the execution of such schemes. Thus far UNFPA's assistance in the field of population distribution, migration, and development has totaled about US$15 million. Much of the research supported by UNFPA has attempted to clarify the interactions between the migration flows and economic opportunities and has sought to identify viable policy options that countries may pursue in order to bring about more satisfactory patterns of population distribution. The bulk of UNFPA assistance in Africa for population redistribution and migration has been for research activities in this field. Most countries of the Asian and Pacific region are predominantly concerned about rural urban migration and are committed to formulating policies aimed at correcting or at least reducing the dislocations attendant on unbalanced distribution of population. The concern with employment related migration is evident in several of the projects dealing wtih internal migration tha UNFPA supports in the Asia and Pacific region. Several of the projects that UNFPA has financed in the Latin American and Caribbean region involve providing information to rural populations about economic and social conditions in urban areas. UNFPA has sponsored a Conference on International Migration in the Arab world and is financing a study on migration trends in Southern Europe. In general, the interregional and global activities supported by UNFPA have focused on methodological issues, the creation of awareness, and the dissemination of information.
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 1983 May; 467:62-77.Large Scale refugee flows, typically koccurring in developing countries, inspire the formation of transnational networks that pose new issues of policy Making, direction, execution, and legitimacy. Institutional responses to the presence of refugees, often in the poorest and least well-administered areas on earth, comprise reactions at the local, national, and transnational levels, including both intergovernmental and voluntary organizations. These responses produce ad hoc organizational entities to deal with unanticipated difficulties. Even after news of a refugee flow is spread, governments can still adopt an isolating policy but more likely will be forced to turn to such transnational networks for help. In a widely felt political disturbance, the positions of the great powers will have a substantial conditioning effect on the handling of refugees. Whatever the pattern of response, refugees tend to involve the asylum state in transnational networks in order to cope with local repercussions as well as care of those in flight. Later, the emphasis may well shift from emergency to diplomatic networks is shifting and unpredictable, conditioned by specific circumstances. Nevertheless, the High Commissioner for Refugees and other intergovenmental bodies serve as natural nuclei for expansion. More integrated modes of organization currently are of doubtful utility. (author's)