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  1. 1

    A demographic perspective on women in development in Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar and Viet Nam.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1998. xvi, 135 p. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 148)

    The selection of Cambodia, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar and Viet Nam for inclusion in the study was based on a number of considerations. The ESCAP secretariat has undertaken the publication of country profiles of women in 16 other countries, namely Bangladesh, China, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Islamic Republic of Iran, Japan, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vanuatu. The four countries included in this study, while exhibiting significant social and cultural differences, are all located in South-East Asia; they are the four least developed countries in South-East Asia on most indicators; and their economies are in transition to more open, market-oriented economies, In each of the four countries, women have traditionally played an important social role marked by considerable gender equity. Equal inheritance among children is possible, and often the norm. In the Lao People's Democratic Republic, for example, husbands traditionally move to the household of their wife and the youngest daughter inherits the family home. The proportion of households headed by women is substantial in all four countries, and quite high in Cambodia and Viet Nam. Female labour force participation rates exceed those of men in Cambodia and the Lao People's Democratic Republic, and the female labour force is larger than the male labour force in Viet Nam. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Population and development issues in Botswana: a national report for the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo - September 1994.

    Botswana. Ministry of Finance and Development Planning

    [Gaborone], Botswana, Ministry of Finance and Development Planning, 1993 Sep. [4], 43 p.

    This review of Botswana's experience with population issues and programs served both as input for the 1994 International Conference on Population and development and as an opportunity to highlight current concerns and their implications for future development. After 2 decades in which the economy grew more rapidly than the population, Botswana is experiencing a slow-down in economic growth which lends a certain urgency to creating a plan of action in regard to population growth and development. After an introductory chapter, the demographic context is reviewed in terms of trends, components of change, mortality, fertility, migration, and urbanization. Factors which have contributed to these changes, such as education, improvements in health, and growing employment are analyzed, and the role of the government is outlined. Important findings included in the report are improvements from 1981 to 1991 such as an increase in life expectancy at birth (56.3 to 62.7 years), a decrease in the infant mortality rate (71 to 45.1/1000), a decline in the total fertility rate (from an adjusted figure of 7.1 to 5.3), and an increase in those working for cash (from 48 to 80.1% of total employment). The report also identifies persistent problems such as unemployment, poverty, unwanted pregnancies, AIDS, unsafe abortions, and environmental degradation. The third chapter provides an important exploration of the links among population variables, economic development, and the environment and focuses on the impact of and on the labor force, basic needs, education, health, the infrastructure and communication, sanitary conditions, energy sources, food and clothing, and natural resources. In the next chapter, the implicit population policies and development planning issues are examined. At present, Botswana has only an implicit population policy contained in its national development plan, although efforts are underway to devise a distinct national population policy. Chapter 5 describes various types of service delivery offered by the maternal-child health (MCH) and family planning (FP) programs. Progress in the MCH/FP programs is shown by targets achieved in various indicators such as the percentage of women attending prenatal care clinics and knowledge of at least one FP method. The serious problems of maternal mortality and morbidity and of teenage pregnancy will be obvious priorities for a national safe motherhood program. In conclusion, the main findings of the report are summarized, and the future strategy for sustainable population and development is discussed in terms of new economic and social development opportunities, policy planning, data collection and analysis, training, and information, education, and communication needs.
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  3. 3

    The International Conference on Population and Development, September 5-13, 1994, Cairo, Egypt. Nepal's country report.

    Nepal. National Planning Commission

    Kathmandu, Nepal, National Planning Commission, 1993 Sep. vi, 49 p.

    Prepared for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, this country report from Nepal opens with a description of the geographic features and administrative regions, zones, and districts of the country. 91% of the population of Nepal is rural, and agriculture accounts for 57% of the gross domestic product. Nepal has made some socioeconomic gains from 1961 to 1991 which are reflected in improved life expectancy (from 34 to 54.4 years), a decline in the infant mortality rate (from 200 to 102), and an improvement in the literacy rate (from 9 to > 40%). However, the per capital income of US $180 and rapid population growth have impeded improvement in the standard of living. The new government of Nepal is committed to establishing a better balance between population and the environment. This report provides a discussion of population growth and structure; population distribution, urbanization, and migration; the environment and sustainable development; the status of women; population policies and programs (highlighting the population policy of the plan for 1992-97); the national family planning program and health programs; and intervention issues. A 15-point summary is provided, and details of the objectives, priorities, and major policy thrust in regard to population and development of the Eight Plan (1992-97) are appended.
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  4. 4

    Statement: India.

    Chaturvedi YN

    [Unpublished] 1999. Presented at the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, Thirty-second session, New York, New York, March 22-31, 1999 [3] p.

    This is a statement delivered by the Secretary of the Department of Family Welfare of the Government of India at the Thirty-second Session of the UN Commission on Population and Development. India, according to the Secretary, has been able to relate its population problem to important elements of population growth, structure and distribution. India is experiencing a growing urbanization of population distribution. International migration has an impact on both sending and receiving countries. There is a relationship between the macroeconomic environment, population growth rate, and the elimination of poverty. India supports the conclusion drawn in the report on International Migration and Development that the introduction of ill-conceived control mechanisms or a disproportionate focus on control might contribute to irregular migration. With respect to the report on the flow of financial resources, India believes that the Special Session of the General Assembly in June must provide the necessary impetus for improvements in funding and should generate the political will for meeting the domestic resource mobilization commitments. The patterns of external assistance and domestic expenditure are highly congruent, but the decline from 31% to 24% in the share of external assistance borne by multilateral organizations is significant. The statistic needs to be reversed in order to preserve and promote multilateralism and multilateral development cooperation. In conclusion, India expresses its commitment to increasing social spending in its budget and plan outlays.
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  5. 5

    EU -- statement.

    European Union

    [Unpublished] 1999. Presented at the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, Thirty-second session, New York, New York, March 22-31, 1999 [3] p.

    This document presents the reactions of the European Union (EU) delegation to the 1999 World Population Monitoring Report. According to the EU delegation, the Monitoring Report contains valuable information on past and present trends of demographic change. It presents major demographic trends covering the period from the World Population Conference 1974 in Bucharest to the present and through the year 2050. Furthermore, the report offers some comments on the determinants of fertility and mortality changes, highlights the issue of urbanization, and discusses the socioeconomic implications and challenges of population aging. The EU believes that population aging and intergenerational solidarity are essential issues in the review of progress made toward the Cairo Program of Action for 2004. The report commends the quality of work of the Population Division and hopes that concerns about population growth, poverty, food provision and the environment will be addressed consistently over coming years. Concerning the future work program of the Population Division, the EU hopes that the 2000 monitoring report addresses issues of education, male identity and responsible fatherhood. In addition, they agree with the recommendations regarding topics for the years 2001-04. Lastly, the EU suggests that a thorough discussion of the quinquennial review and appraisal presented by the Population Division should be conducted.
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  6. 6

    Statement on Agenda 3: Follow-up actions to the recommendations of the ICPD (E/CN.9/1999/3).

    Pierce CS

    [Unpublished] 1999. Presented at the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, Thirty-second session, New York, New York, March 22-31, 1999 [4] p.

    This is a statement by the Deputy Director of the Technical and Policy Division of the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) on the Report of the Technical Symposium on International Migration and Development of the Administration Committee on Coordination Task Force on Basic Social Services for All. The technical symposium served as a forum for an objective discussion and assessment of approaches to international migration issues facing policy makers in both countries of origin and destination. The presentations provided insights on fostering orderly migration flows, counteracting the economic and social marginalization of migrants, and increasing the focus on the human rights and gender dimensions of migration issues. The Symposium underscored the impact of globalization of capital and trade flows and the emergence of regional economic cooperation modalities on migration. The importance of remittance was identified as a mechanism that influenced the development of international migration. Furthermore, the issues of irregular migration and irregular employment were presented, and the need to improve the situation of migrants and foreign residents in receiving countries were discussed. In addition, the Technical Symposium provided an objective examination of key policy issues in international migration and development. It emphasized the need to increase international cooperation in the development of an approach for orderly migration management that takes into consideration, human rights and gender issues. Lastly, it drew attention to both the media and education as important elements in the creation of a more positive attitude towards migration.
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  7. 7

    The World Summit for Social Development

    Philippine Legislators' Committee on Population and Development Foundation

    PEOPLE COUNT. 1995 Jan; 4(12):1-4.

    The three goals of the UN World Summit for Social Development are to attack poverty, build solidarity, and create jobs. Unprecedented population growth has led to recognition of the need for a new, people-centered vision of development to counter the mutually reinforcing threats posed to world stability by poverty, unemployment, and social disintegration. This population growth may result in an inability of humanity to adapt and create unrelenting pressure on the world's natural resources. It has become increasingly recognized that improvements in the status of women will be vital to ensuring the future of humanity. Giving women the ability to decide their family size will eliminate hundreds of thousands of maternal deaths each year and will slow population growth while it increases women's productivity and control over resources. As the industrialized nations engage in unsustainable patterns of production and consumption, the lowest-income countries are caught in a "poverty-population-environment spiral." Although population growth is gradually slowing, the population of the world could double by 2050, with 95% of the growth occurring in developing countries. Concern is also mounting over the increasing urbanization of the world as well as the fact that while the populations of poor countries are becoming larger and younger, the population of industrialized countries are becoming older and smaller. The new vision of sustainable development involves generating economic growth, distributing benefits equitably, and allowing the regeneration of the environment. Without such security, the world can not achieve peace. The symptoms of social discrimination include social exclusion, which affects 90% of the world's population; sex and racial discrimination, which lowers the quality of life and increases life-threatening risks for women, indigenous people, and Blacks; violence and abuse, reflected in fact that the US has the highest incidence of murder in the world, in the 200,000 street children in Brazil, in the 500,000 child prostitutes in Asia, and in violence against women world-wide; crime, which is increasing and is often drug-related; migration, which affects 1/115 people on earth; and conflict, which increasingly occurs within national borders and involves civilian casualties and which leads to military spending of approximately $800 billion a year.
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  8. 8

    Population, employment and income.

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]

    Rome, Italy, FAO, 1988. 33 p. (FAO Project INT/86/PO8)

    The objectives of this activity module for community groups, produced by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the UN, include developing an awareness of the relationships between population factors and employment, income, and the quality of life. Also examined are factors that influence decisions about rural-to-urban migration and how development and utilization of resources may increase future employment opportunities. The basic concepts of the relationship between rapid population growth and land use and between lessened employment opportunities and crime, are illustrated through 3 activities. Activity 1 instructs a group leader on conducting a group discussion on the employment/income expectations of the members. Subjects covered include lack of experience, lack of training, lack of capital, lack of education, and sexual stereotypes, all of which hinder productive employment. Activity 2 is designed to provoke discussion about rural-to-urban migration by having participants draw the house they would like to have someday. In the 3rd activity, an income-generating project for a youth group--making roofing tiles from rubber tires--is planned and implemented. Background information about the aims and objectives of each activity, and how it relates to African life, is provided for the group leader.
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  9. 9

    Using migration to enhance economic development in the Caribbean: three sets of proposals.

    Pastor RA; Rogers R

    In: Migration and development in the Caribbean: the unexplored connection. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1985. 321-47. (Westview Special Studies on Latin America and the Caribbean.)

    Although emigration from the Caribbean has long been viewed as beneficial to the region's economic development, it is increasingly clear that it also represents an impediment and a lost opportunity. After analyzing migration-for-development programs for other regions and identifying those factors that were most effective while also relevant to the Caribbean, the authors propose a set of programs that would reduce the cost of emigration to Caribbean development and multiply the benefits. The proposals include 1) Caribbean remittance banks, 2) incentive programs to recruit US-based Caribbean professionals from private and public life, and 3) a set of measures to encourage the next generation of Caribbean professionals to use their skills in their home countries. An alternative is presented that is between the statist approach to emigration of the Cuban government and the wholly individualistic approach of the rest of the Caribbean governments. It uses the available ways to reconcile the personal right to emigrate with the collective concern for economic development. It involves steps by Caribbean governments, by donor governments like that of the US who are interested in the region, and by international development institutions. To the extent that economic development is a primary concern of those interested in the Caribbean, increased attention should be given to migration as a central factor in the development equation.
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  10. 10

    Directory of population experts in Asia and the Pacific: 1987 supplement.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]. Population Division

    Bangkok, Thailand, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1987. xxvi, 323 p. (ST/ESCAP/551.)

    The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific issues this 1987 supplement to the 1984 DIRECTORY OF POPULATION EXPERTS IN ASIA AND THE PACIFIC. A complete re-survey of population experts was made since the publication of the 1984 directory in order to update addresses and to identify additional population experts. This volume is divided into 2 parts: first is an 18-page index listing experts by 37 fields of specialization, followed by 323 pages of experts' personal profiles. Index entries include an abbreviation of the country in which the expert is working and the page number of his/her personal profile. Profiles are organized alphabetically by surname. Personal data include date of birth, current address and telephone number, education, mother tongue, proficiency in other languages, areas of expertise, description, employer, responsibilities, employment record, previous consultancies, and important publications.
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  11. 11
    Peer Reviewed

    The return of international labour migrants in the ESCAP Region.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales. 1986 Mar; 24(1):129-45.

    The social phenomenon of massive temporary international labor migration from the ESCAP region has emerged extremely rapidly. Within 10 years, the number of persons from ESCAP countries grew from a negligible one to 3.5 million. Related research and government policies have lagged behind this latest surge in migration. Most research conducted has been small-scale and lacks an analytical or theoretical framework. Policy formulation for temporary labor migration is difficult because most of the rapid growth in the industry has occurred as a result of private efforts, with a minimum of government intervention. It is now difficult, for the government to provide effective regulations or measures to stimulate and assist the process. Regulations on compulsory remittances or overseas minimum wages have proved to be unrealistic and, if not rescinded, are routinely circumvented. The most effective policies to assist return migrants may not be those which are intended to do so, but those which control the earlier stages of the migration process, such as recruitment, working conditions, and banking arrangements. The most valuable policies may also include those affecting education, training, employment, and general socioeconomic growth. Governments are recommended to provide social services for migrants and their families who are experiencing problems, and to institute community programs in areas with a large number of labor migrants. Governmental efforts to promote forms of labor migration beneficial to the workers would be valuable and should include measures to identify overseas labor markets for employing its nationals, government ot government labor contracts, and government participation in joint-venture projects. International migration should be analyzed in the context of theories and social change in order for governments to formulate effective measures for the reintegration of returning workers. Labor migration on the current scale has many social implications for the sending countries; relationships between employers and employees, the government and private sectors, and white and blue collar workers are affected. Social change and technological innovation will become more rapid, women's status and family roles will change markedly, and behavior is likely to become less conformist and more individualistic. (author's modified)
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  12. 12

    The meaning, modalities and consequences of return migration.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales. 1986 Mar; 24(1):77-93.

    Return migration and its consequences has attracted increasing attention since Western European countries adopted policies in the mid 1970s to stop the inflow of foreign workers and to promote reintegration of emigrants. This paper explores the definition of return migration, discusses the different contexts in which return migration arises, and points out the many gaps that exist in understanding return migration and its consequences. The report concludes that there is no consensus on the definition of return migration; future advances in its analysis and measurement depend on the availability of specific criteria to distinguish return movements from other migration taking place in the world today. Also, relatively little attention has been devoted to return flows of migrants in developing countries due to paucity of information and fluidity of some of the movements involved. Yet another area for concern is the lack of information pertaining to female emigrants. Some recommendations that may lead to the eventual satisfaction of these needs include: 1) defining returnees as persons who, having the nationality of the country that they are entering, have spent at least one year abroad and have returned with the intention of staying at least one year in the country of their nationality; 2) having coontries with important emigration flows monitor return migration by gathering and publishing information on returning migrants; 3) giving particular attention to the problems faced by female returnees and adopting measures to ensure equal aid to males and females; 4) studying and monitoring the consequences of return migration on whole families instead of on only certain members of the family; 5) monitoring the consequences of sizeable repatriation flows, giving particular attention to the success of reintegration programs; 6) developing novel methods to monitor and study the impact of return flows of emigrants whose situation in the receiving state was irregular.
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