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Paris, France, UNESCO, Division of Cultural Policies and Intercultural Dialogue, Culture and Development Section, 2005. 85 p. (CLT/CPD/CAD-05/4A)Placing the HIV- and AIDS-related experiences of the countries of the southern Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia) into social and cultural perspective is uniquely important. Within these three 'second wave' countries of the former Soviet Union, alarming claims that 'drug-driven epidemics are spiralling out of control' run counter to the relatively low number of individuals officially identified as HIV positive. The proportionate increase in the number of individuals affected has been substantial each year since the late 1990s, yet HIV and AIDS remain poorly documented, misunderstood, and highly stigmatised in the region. Analyses of the social and cultural factors influencing the ability of these countries to determine national strategies, implement effective prevention programmes, and develop better monitoring systems can assist in rectifying the differences between dire future predictions and the current modest prevalence rates. (excerpt)
International Social Science Journal. 2000 Sep; 165:255-268.This article gives an overview of related UNESCO activities over the past 50 years. Numerous UNESCO publications, results of various conferences, symposia and experts meetings serve to remind us of the important role that international migration has played in the process of social transformations throughout the world. (excerpt)
Freetown, Sierra Leone, Ministry of Education, 1984. 80 p. (UNFPA/UNESCO Project SIL/76/POI)The National Programme in Social Studies in Sierra Leone has created this textbook in the social sciences for secondary school students. Unit 1, "Man's Origins, Development and Characteristics," presents the findings of archaeologists and anthropologists about the different periods of man's development. Man's mental development and population growth are also considered. Unit 2, "Man's Environment," discusses the physical and social environments of Sierra Leone, putting emphasis on the history of migrations into Sierra Leone and the effects of migration on population growth. Unit 3, "Man's Culture," deals with cultural traits related to marriage and family structure, different religions of the world, and traditional beliefs and population issues. Unit 4, "Population and Resources," covers population distribution and density and the effects of migration on resources. The unit also discusses land as a resource and the effects of the land tenure system, as well as farming systems, family size and the role of women in farming communities. Unit 5, "Communication in the Service of Man", focuses on modern means of communication, especially mass media. Unit 6, "Global Issues: Achievements and Problems," discusses the identification of global issues, such as colonialism, the refugee problem, urbanization, and the population problems of towns and cities. The unit describes 4 organizations that have been formed in response to problems such as these: the UN, the Red Cross, the International Labor Organization, and the Co-operative for American Relief.
In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume I. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 562-72. (Population Studies, No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)The interaction between population dynamics and education is examined through the experiences and goals of the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Education is an important feature contributing to social and economic development. UNESCO's responsibility since 1948 has been to promote the examination of population programs as affecting international understanding. Sir Julian Huxley as Director General in 1948 emphasized overpopulation as affecting the type of civilization and rate of development and environmental problems. A balance was needed between population and natural resources. UNESCO's role was to educate people about the seriousness of the problems. UNESCO with other agencies sponsored the World Population Conference of 1954 in Rome. Basic human rights and responsibilities were reiterated at a General Conference in 1968. In 1970, the Director General was authorized to assist Member States in addressing population and family planning issues. A brief view of the state of education in 1974 and institutional problems is given. The most common characteristics are the ever-increasing demand for education and the availability of education for a lifetime. However, educational reform was also needed. Education has been influenced both by population dynamics, decolonization and democratization, and rapid population growth. School facilities would need to be increased. The problem is concentrated in developing countries where urban growth is growing at 4.5%/year. The change in structure of the age pyramid means decreasing numbers of economically active persons must teach increasing numbers of young people; finances would be strained to finance educational services. Rapid population growth is also an obstacle to attaining targets and balanced development. Education's influence on demographics is not so straightforward, but indications are that literacy is correlated with lower birth rates. Population education is in its infancy and primarily focuses on formal education which will lead to informed decisions; culture influences the curriculum. Migration causes and effects, the role of international cooperation, and methods of introducing population education are discussed.