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The global partnership for development: A review of MDG 8 and proposals for the post-2015 development agenda.
Washington, D.C., Center for Global Development, 2013 Jul.  p. (CGD Policy Paper No. 026)The eighth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 8) covered a ‘global partnership for development’ in areas including aid, trade, debt relief, drugs and ICTs. We have seen progress as well as gaps in the areas which were covered: more aid, but with quality lagging and a link to progress in MDG areas that was weak; a better rich world performance on tariffs but one that misses increasingly important parts of trade; broadly successful debt relief but an agenda on the support for private investment left uncovered; mixed progress on drugs access and absence of a broader global public health agenda; and a global ICT revolution with weak links to the MDGs or a global partnership. Migration, non-ICT technologies, the global environment, and global institutional issues were all completely unaddressed in MDG 8. Looking forward, by 2030, a global compact on development progress linking OECD DAC aid and policy reform to low income countries as target beneficiaries (the implicit model of MDG 8) would be irrelevant to three quarters of the world. Half of the rich world will be in non-DAC countries and the share of aid in global transfers will continue to shrink. Global public goods provision will increasingly require the active participation of (at least) the G20 nations. A post-2015 global partnership agenda should involve a mixed approach to compact and partnership issues: binding ‘global compact’ targets under specific post-2015 sectoral goals focused on the role for aid alongside a standalone global public goods goal with time bound, numerical targets covering trade, investment, migration, technology, the environment and global institutions.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2009. 94 p.Women bear the disproportionate burden of climate change, but have so far been largely overlooked in the debate about how to address problems of rising seas, droughts, melting glaciers and extreme weather, concludes The State of World Population 2009, released by UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund. The poor are especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change, and the majority of the 1.5 billion people living on $1 a day or less are women. The poor are more likely to depend on agriculture for a living and therefore risk going hungry or losing their livelihoods when droughts strike, rains become unpredictable and hurricanes move with unprecedented force. The poor tend to live in marginal areas, vulnerable to floods, rising seas and storms. The report draws attention to populations in low-lying coastal areas that are vulnerable to climate change and calls on governments to plan ahead to strengthen risk reduction, preparedness and management of disasters and address the potential displacement of people. Research cited in the report shows that women are more likely than men to die in natural disasters-including those related to extreme weather -- with this gap most pronounced where incomes are low and status differences between men and women are high. The State of World Population 2009 argues that the international community's fight against climate change is more likely to be successful if policies, programmes and treaties take into account the needs, rights and potential of women. The report shows that investments that empower women and girls -- particularly education and health -- bolster economic development and reduce poverty and have a beneficial impact on climate. Girls with more education, for example, tend to have smaller and healthier families as adults. Women with access to reproductive health services, including family planning, have lower fertility rates that contribute to slower growth in greenhouse-gas emissions in the long run.
Reproductive Health Matters. 2008 May; 16(31):22-32.This paper surveys the international legal frameworks, including the many guidelines, handbooks, resolutions, toolkits, conclusions and manuals produced by various United Nations bodies, that confirm an awareness of the protection issues specific to women and girls displaced by conflict. It explores the extent to which these documents address the gendered impacts of conflict-induced migration, and the role of United Nations bodies as international governmental organisations in implementing these norms. The main focus is upon internally displaced women and women refugees. In addition to problems of enforcing compliance with existing guidelines, the paper concludes that two areas - developing strategies to accommodate the realities of long-term, even permanent displacement and enhancing women's literal and legal literacy - require much greater attention on the part of governmental and non-governmental international organisations. (author's)
Forced Migration Review. 2006 May; (25): p..In southern Africa, trafficking of persons is a sensitive topic, frequently associated with irregular migration, prostitution or child labour. It is often approached in an ideological way without tackling its roots. Little is known about the root causes and magnitude of the trafficking phenomenon in southern Africa. Available information suggests that both internal and cross-border forms of trafficking are prevalent. Children are predominantly trafficked within their country of origin. The International Organization for Migration has documented internal trafficking of children in South Africa and external trafficking from Mozambique, Angola and the Great Lakes region to South Africa, primarily to serve the needs of the highly sophisticated regional sex industry. (excerpt)
Perspectives on Global Development and Technology. 2004; 3(1-2):131-152.This paper considers influences of globalization on three relevant health policy issues in South Africa, namely, private health sector growth, health professional migration, and pharmaceutical policy. It considers the relative role of key domestic and global actors in health policy development around these issues. While South Africa has not been subject to the overt health policy pressure from international organizations experienced by governments in many other low- and middle-income countries, global influence on South Africa's macroeconomic policy has had a profound, albeit indirect, effect on our health policies. Ultimately, this has constrained South Africa's ability to achieve its national health goals. (author's)
Population 2005. 2004 Sep-Oct; 6(3):1-4.The UN Population Fund issued its annual State of World Population Report Sept. 15, focusing on progress achieved 10 years after the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo. It records broad gains in government acceptance of the ICPD Program of Action, and notes significant improvements in the quality and reach of family planning programs, and in the development of safe motherhood and HIV prevention efforts. But inadequate resources, gender bias and gaps in serving the poor and adolescents are undermining further progress, according to the report, The Cairo Consensus at Ten: Population, Reproductive Health and the Global Effort to End Poverty. In its review of achievements and constraints nearly half way to the 2015 completion target date, the report examines actions taken across the related areas of population and poverty, environmental protection, migration and urbanization; discrimination against women and girls; and key reproductive health issues including access to contraception, maternal health, HIV/AIDS, and the needs of adolescents and people in emergency situations. (excerpt)
Population 2005. 2004 Jun; 6(2):4.This meeting recognizes the 10th anniversary of the historic International Conference on Population and Development, held in Cairo, Egypt. The Cairo conference dealt with a wide range of issues – each extremely important in its own right. The organizers of this event, however, felt it was necessary to limit our focus in order that our time and energy can be utilized to their best advantage. For this reason, Forum 2004 will highlight four areas: Migration, HIV/AIDS, Aging, and Reproductive Health. It is our fervent hope that what will emerge from this meeting is a clearer vision of where we have to go and what we must do to ensure that the goals of the Cairo Program of Action will be met. Ten years ago, I wrote a newspaper opinion article in which I emphasized that the specific targets of the Program of Action were realistic and obtainable. But I stressed that it was important to monitor progress along the way that it would be irresponsible to allow the ICPD document to be swept into the dustbins of history. Many nations are indeed implementing or attempting to implement the Program of Action. But progress has not been uniform. Much still needs to be done, particularly in the world’s least developed countries. (excerpt)
In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume II, compiled by United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 416-28. (Population Studies No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)Human rights relating to population questions in Africa cannot be divorced from the meaning and implications of human rights in all other spheres. In developing Africa, many important population issues implicate human rights: the welfare of children, youths, the aged, and women; regulation of the levels and patterns of fertility; mortality, morbidity; and migration, internal as well as external, including refugee movements; family welfare and marriage; problems of employment, wages, equal pay, and working hours; access to adequate education and means for cultural expression and identity; and problems of family planning in relation to mother and child care. The relationship between human rights and fertility involves: 1) the rights relating to marriage and the family, specifically to enhance the legal status of women in the home, community, and in national development; and 2) the rights to freely and responsibly decide the number and spacing of children, including the increase, as well as the decrease in fertility. Migration, population distribution, and human rights have been promoted and respected in varying degrees, depending on each country's internal and external policies. Internal migration, distribution, and settlement in nearly all the independent African countries have resulted in rapid urbanization despite inadequate infrastructure. To counter the overurbanization, many support the spreading of development projects throughout the entire country promoting balanced development between rural and urban areas. Historically international migration was customary; with the advent of sovereignty, crossing borders even among related ethnic groups has come under close scrutiny. The international community has come to accept responsibility for protecting and caring for refugees. Human rights, morbidity, mortality, and health care include the right to good health and freedom from disease and sickness, the right to food and freedom from hunger and malnutrition. Increased action at national and international levels is necessary to encourage the governments of Africa to promote the realization of human rights with respect to current and projected population trends.
Nairobi, Kenya, United Nations Environment Programme [UNEP], .  p. (UNEP Environment Brief No. 2)35% of the world's land consists of dry lands supporting 850 million people who face desertification risks. They tend to be already disadvantaged. These lands exist on every continent. 75% of Australia, 34% of Africa, 31% of Asia, 19% of Americas, and 2% of Europe face the risk of desertification. About 75% of dry lands are already desertified. Between 1985-75, the Sahara migrated southward about 100 km. Drought does not cause desertification but manmade forces do. These forces include poverty, inequitable distribution of resources, unsuitable land use and farming methods, overgrazing, intensive cash cropping onto marginal land best used for pastoralism, settling of previously nomadic peoples, and deforestation which tends to precede desertification. Desertified land can heal itself slowly once the forces that caused the desertification no longer exist. Encroaching dunes and sand sheets, deteriorating croplands and rangelands, water-logging and salinization of irrigated land, destruction of trees and shrubs, and deterioration in either the quantity or the quality of ground and surface water constitute desertification. Desertification contributed to the ruin of the Sumerian, Babylonian, Harappan, and Roman civilizations. Irrigation sparked 3 periods of rapid population growth in Iraq, 2 of which crashed due to water-logging and salinization (1800 B.C. and 900 A.D.). Desertification worsens the already existing poverty of the affected population thus forcing them to migrate to cities or other countries. Solutions lie in improved farming systems, sand dune fixation, and end to overgrazing and overcropping, erection of windbreaks and shelter belts, reforestation, and improved soil and water conservation. Each affected country must develop a national plan to fight desertification such as Tunisia did. The UN Environment Programme serves as a catalyst for doing so.
POPULATION GEOGRAPHY. 1989 Jun-Dec; 11(1-2):86-96.This paper surveys the contributions of the International Geographic Union (IGU) and the International Cartographic Association (ICA) to the field of population studies over the past 3 decades. Reviewing the various focal themes of conferences sponsored by the organizations since the 1960s, the author examines the evolution of population studies in IGU and ICA. During the 1960s, IGU began holding symposia addressing the issue of population pressure on the physical and social resource in developing countries. However, it wasn't until 1972, at a meeting in Edmonton, Canada, when IGU first addressed the issue of migration. But since then, migration has remained on the the key concerns of IGU. In 1978, the union hosted a symposium on Population Redistribution in Africa -- the first in a series of conferences focusing on the issue of migration. As an outgrowth of migration, the IGU also began addressing the related issue of population education. The interest in migration has continued through the 1980s. In addition to studies of regional migration, the IGU has also focused on conceptual issues such as migrant labor, environmental concerns, women and migration, and urbanization. In 1984, IGU began cooperating with ICA in the areas of census cartography and population cartography. The author concludes his review of IGU and ICA activities by discussing the emerging trends in population studies. The author foresees a more refined study of migration and more sophisticated population mapping, the result of better study techniques and the use of computer technology.
In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population projections: methodology of the United Nations. New York, N.Y., United Nations, 1984. 25-32. (Population Studies, No. 83; ST/ESA/SER.A/83)The United Nations population projection assumptions are statements of expected trends in fertility, mortality and migration in the world. In every assessment, each of the 3 demographic components is unambiguously specified at the national level for each of the 5-year periods during the population interval (1950-2025). The approach used by the UN in preparing its projections is briefly summarized. At the general level, the analyst relies on available information of past events and current demographic levels and differentials, the demographic trends and experiences of similar countries in the region and his or her informed interpretations of what is likely to occur in the future. One common feature of the UN population projections that guides the analyst in preparing the assumptions is the general conceptual scheme of the demographic transition, or the socio-economic threshold hypothesis of fertility decline. As can be observed from the projected demographic trends reported in this paper, population stabilization at low levels of fertility, mortality and migration is the expected future for each country, with the only important differences being the timing of the stabilization. Irrespective of whether the country is developed, with very low fertility (for example, the Federal Republic of Germany or Japan), or developing with high fertility (such as, Bangladesh or the Syrian Arab Republic), it is assumed that fertility will arrive at replacement levels in the not too distant future. Serious alternative theories or hypotheses of population change, such as declining population size, are not only very few in number, but they tend to be somewhat more unacceptable and inconvenient to the demographic analyst as well as being considerably less palatable to goverments.
Summary report of the Third Annual New York United Nations Fund for Population Activities/Non-Governmental Organizations Consultation.
New York, N.Y., NGLS, 1984 Mar 13. 27 p.The Third Annual New York Consultation of the UNFPA and Non-Governmental Organizations was attended by approximately 150 leaders of NGO's, their representatives, population specialists, government and international agency members. This summary report provides basic information and recommendations on fertility and the family; migration and population distribution; population, resources and the environment; and mortality and morbidity. The panel addresses by participating speakers are included in the report. A discussion follows each address. Topics covered include: a critique of plans and questions; patterns of NGO action in UN Inter-Governmental Conferences; and political realities before the International Population Conference.