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  1. 1

    The global partnership for development: A review of MDG 8 and proposals for the post-2015 development agenda.

    Kenny C; Dykstra S

    Washington, D.C., Center for Global Development, 2013 Jul. [49] p. (CGD Policy Paper No. 026)

    The eighth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 8) covered a ‘global partnership for development’ in areas including aid, trade, debt relief, drugs and ICTs. We have seen progress as well as gaps in the areas which were covered: more aid, but with quality lagging and a link to progress in MDG areas that was weak; a better rich world performance on tariffs but one that misses increasingly important parts of trade; broadly successful debt relief but an agenda on the support for private investment left uncovered; mixed progress on drugs access and absence of a broader global public health agenda; and a global ICT revolution with weak links to the MDGs or a global partnership. Migration, non-ICT technologies, the global environment, and global institutional issues were all completely unaddressed in MDG 8. Looking forward, by 2030, a global compact on development progress linking OECD DAC aid and policy reform to low income countries as target beneficiaries (the implicit model of MDG 8) would be irrelevant to three quarters of the world. Half of the rich world will be in non-DAC countries and the share of aid in global transfers will continue to shrink. Global public goods provision will increasingly require the active participation of (at least) the G20 nations. A post-2015 global partnership agenda should involve a mixed approach to compact and partnership issues: binding ‘global compact’ targets under specific post-2015 sectoral goals focused on the role for aid alongside a standalone global public goods goal with time bound, numerical targets covering trade, investment, migration, technology, the environment and global institutions.
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    The United Nations 2012 population projections.

    United Nations. Population Division

    Population and Development Review. 2013 Sep; 39(3):551-555.

    The latest biennial series of population estimates and projections issued by the United Nations Population Division -- known as the 2012 Revision -- was released in June 2013. The series is the most widely used statistical source for international demographic comparisons. The new estimates are advertised as taking into account the results of the 2010 round of censuses, resulting in some adjustments to the 2010 Revision’s baseline figures on total populations and vital rates and, in turn, changes in projection assumptions and projection outputs. Selected results of this exercise, taken from the publication World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision, Key Findings and Advance Tables (and from the press release announcing it), are reprinted by permission. (Excerpt)
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  3. 3

    The state of the world's children 2012. Children in an urban world.


    New York, New York, UNICEF, 2012. [156] p.

    When many of us think of the world’s poorest children, the image that comes readily to mind is that of a child going hungry in a remote rural community in sub-Saharan Africa -- as so many are today. But as The State of the World’s Children 2012 shows with clarity and urgency, millions of children in cities and towns all over the world are also at risk of being left behind. In fact, hundreds of millions of children today live in urban slums, many without access to basic services. They are vulnerable to dangers ranging from violence and exploitation to the injuries, illnesses and death that result from living in crowded settlements atop hazardous rubbish dumps or alongside railroad tracks. And their situations -- and needs -- are often represented by aggregate figures that show urban children to be better off than their rural counterparts, obscuring the disparities that exist among the children of the cities. This report adds to the growing body of evidence and analysis, from UNICEF and our partners, that scarcity and dispossession afflict the poorest and most marginalized children and families disproportionately. What does this mean for children? This document examines the situation of children growing up in urban settings and finds that denial of children’s rights to survival, health, nutrition, education and protection are widespread. It sheds light on the scale of these urban inequities and suggests ways to ensure that urban childhoods are safe, healthy, participatory and fulfilling. The report also includes sections on adolescents, HIV and other issues impacting the well-being of youth. (Excerpt)
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  4. 4

    The state of world population 2011. People and possibilities in a world of 7 billion.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2011. [132] p.

    The milestone of 7 billion is marked by achievements, setbacks and paradoxes. While women are on average having fewer children than they were in the 1960s, our numbers continue to rise. Globally, people are younger -- and older -- than ever before. In some of the poorest countries, high fertility rates hamper development and perpetuate poverty, while in some of the richest countries, low fertility rates and too few people entering the job market are raising concerns about prospects for sustained economic growth and about the viability of social security systems. While labour shortages threaten to stymie the economies of some industrialized countries, unemployed would-be migrants in developing countries are finding more and more national borders closed to them and the expertise they may have to offer. And while progress is being made in reducing extreme poverty, gaps between rich and poor are widening almost everywhere. The State of World Population 2011 explores some of these paradoxes from the perspective of individuals and describes the obstacles they confront -- and overcome -- in trying to build better lives for themselves, their families, communities and nations. Through personal stories, this report sheds light on the real-life challenges we face in our world of 7 billion. It is mainly a report from the field, from nine countries where the ordinary people who live there, the national experts who study demographic trends and the policymakers who must make decisions based on local conditions talk directly about their lives and work: China, Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, India, Mexico, Mozambique, Nigeria and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. (Excerpt)
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  5. 5

    Human resources for health: a gender analysis.

    George A

    [Johannesburg, South Africa], University of the Witwatersrand, Centre for Health Policy, Health Systems Knowledge Network, 2007 Jul. [58] p.

    In this paper I discuss gender issues manifested within health occupations and across them. In particular, I examine gender dynamics in medicine, nursing, community health workers and home carers. I also explore from a gender perspective issues concerning delegation, migration and violence, which cut across these categories of health workers. These occupational categories and themes reflect priorities identified by the terms of reference for this review paper and also the themes that emerged from the accessed literature. This paper is based on a desk review of literature accessed through the internet, search engines, correspondence with other experts and reviewing bibliographies of existing material. These efforts resulted in a list of 534 articles, chapters, books and reports. Although most of the literature reviewed was in English, some of it was also in Spanish and Portuguese. Material related to training and interpersonal patient-provider relations that highlights how occupational inequalities affect the availability and quality of health care is covered by other review papers commissioned by the Women and Gender Equity Knowledge Network. (Excerpt)
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  6. 6

    State of world population 2009. Facing a changing world: women, population and climate.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2009. 94 p.

    Women bear the disproportionate burden of climate change, but have so far been largely overlooked in the debate about how to address problems of rising seas, droughts, melting glaciers and extreme weather, concludes The State of World Population 2009, released by UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund. The poor are especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change, and the majority of the 1.5 billion people living on $1 a day or less are women. The poor are more likely to depend on agriculture for a living and therefore risk going hungry or losing their livelihoods when droughts strike, rains become unpredictable and hurricanes move with unprecedented force. The poor tend to live in marginal areas, vulnerable to floods, rising seas and storms. The report draws attention to populations in low-lying coastal areas that are vulnerable to climate change and calls on governments to plan ahead to strengthen risk reduction, preparedness and management of disasters and address the potential displacement of people. Research cited in the report shows that women are more likely than men to die in natural disasters-including those related to extreme weather -- with this gap most pronounced where incomes are low and status differences between men and women are high. The State of World Population 2009 argues that the international community's fight against climate change is more likely to be successful if policies, programmes and treaties take into account the needs, rights and potential of women. The report shows that investments that empower women and girls -- particularly education and health -- bolster economic development and reduce poverty and have a beneficial impact on climate. Girls with more education, for example, tend to have smaller and healthier families as adults. Women with access to reproductive health services, including family planning, have lower fertility rates that contribute to slower growth in greenhouse-gas emissions in the long run.
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  7. 7
    Peer Reviewed

    Legal aspects of conflict-induced migration by women.

    Macklin A

    Reproductive Health Matters. 2008 May; 16(31):22-32.

    This paper surveys the international legal frameworks, including the many guidelines, handbooks, resolutions, toolkits, conclusions and manuals produced by various United Nations bodies, that confirm an awareness of the protection issues specific to women and girls displaced by conflict. It explores the extent to which these documents address the gendered impacts of conflict-induced migration, and the role of United Nations bodies as international governmental organisations in implementing these norms. The main focus is upon internally displaced women and women refugees. In addition to problems of enforcing compliance with existing guidelines, the paper concludes that two areas - developing strategies to accommodate the realities of long-term, even permanent displacement and enhancing women's literal and legal literacy - require much greater attention on the part of governmental and non-governmental international organisations. (author's)
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  8. 8
    Peer Reviewed

    Health and foreign policy: influences of migration and population mobility.

    MacPherson DW; Bushulak BD; Macdonald L

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 Mar; 85(3):200-206.

    International interest in the relationship between globalization and health is growing, and this relationship is increasingly figuring in foreign policy discussions. Although many globalizing processes are known to affect health, migration stands out as an integral part of globalization, and links between migration and health are well documented. Numerous historical interconnections exist between population mobility and global public health, but since the 1990s new attention to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases has promoted discussion of this topic. The containment of global disease threats is a major concern, and significant international efforts have received funding to fight infectious diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome). Migration and population mobility play a role in each of these public health challenges. The growing interest in population mobility's health-related influences is giving rise to new foreign policy initiatives to address the international determinants of health within the context of migration. As a result, meeting health challenges through international cooperation and collaboration has now become an important foreign policy component in many countries. However, although some national and regional projects address health and migration, an integrated and globally focused approach is lacking. As migration and population mobility are increasingly important determinants of health, these issues will require greater policy attention at the multilateral level. (author's)
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  9. 9

    Population, environment and development. The concise report.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2001. vi, 60 p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/202)

    The present report has been prepared in response to Economic and Social Council resolution 1995/55 of 28 July 1995, in which the Council endorsed the terms of reference and the topic-oriented and prioritized multi-year work programme proposed by the Commission on Population and Development at its twenty-eighth session. According to the multi-year work programme, which was to serve as a framework for the assessment of the progress achieved in the implementation of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development, a new series of reports on a special set of the themes would be prepared annually. The Commission, in its decisions 1999/1 and 2000/1, decided that the special theme for the year 2001 should be population, environment and development, which is the topic of the present report. The general trends of rapid population growth, sustained but uneven economic improvement and environmental degradation are generally well accepted. However, how population size and growth, environmental change and development interact on each other is not well established. This report reviews what is known about these interrelationships. The report analyses recent information and policy perspectives on population, environment and development. The topics investigated in this report include: the evolution of population and the environment at major United Nations conferences; temporal trends in population, environment and development; government views and policies concerning population, environment and development; population size and growth, environment and development; migration, population change and the rural environment; health, mortality, fertility and the environment; and population, environment and development in urban settings. The presentation of these topics is followed by conclusions. Annex I deals with the availability and quality of data; and annex II deals with theories and frameworks for modelling the impact of population growth on the physical environment. (excerpt)
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  10. 10

    Environmentally-Induced Population Displacements and Environmental Impacts Resulting from Mass Migrations, International Symposium, Geneva, 21-24 April 1996.

    United Nations. High Commissioner for Refugees; International Organization for Migration; Refugee Policy Group

    Geneva, Switzerland, International Organization for Migration, 1996. 128 p.

    This report provides a summary of proceedings and papers presented at the 1996 UN Conference on the Interactions between Mass Migrations and Environmental Impacts. The conference was organized and funded by the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, the International Organization for Migration, and the Refugee Policy Group. The conference aimed to determine how to break the mutually reinforcing cycle of environmental damage and mass migration. The discussions focused on the development of policy guidelines that would minimize detrimental impacts and designation of responsible entities for initiating and coordinating action. There was a consensus on a Statement of Principles for preventing and mitigating environmentally induced population displacement and for addressing the negative environmental consequences of mass migration. The Statement of Principles focused on descriptions of the problems and a framework for action for environmentally induced population displacements, environmental impacts of mass migrations, and breaking the cycle. The Summary of Proceedings included the warning in the closure statement that environmental degradation was an international and not a local problem that was linked to political strife, conflict over natural resources, and international political arrangements. The 13 background papers are summarized. Background papers focused on issues such as satellite monitoring and aerial photography, assorted case studies, failures in settlement planning and shelter management, remote sensing and geographic information systems technology, and approaches that mitigate the environmental impact of refugees. Environmental changes are charted for natural causes and man-made causes by time frame of the impact, scale and intensity of impact, predictability, reversibility, and main organizations involved. These two charts help match policy options to the problem.
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  11. 11

    Programme of Action of The Conference. Draft programme of action of the International Conference on Population and Development.

    International Conference on Population and Development [ICPD] (1994: Cairo). Preparatory Committee

    [Unpublished] 1994 May 13. 113 p. (A/CONF.171/L.1)

    The draft program of action is presented for the International Conference on Population and Development to be held in Cairo, Egypt, September 5-13, 1994. It was approved by the Preparatory Committee at its third session held in New York April 20-22, 1994. The preamble and principles are first presented. The basis for action, objectives, and actions are then presented on each of the following topics: interrelationships between population, sustained economic growth and sustainable development; gender equality, equity, and empowerment of women; the family, its roles, composition and structure; reproductive rights and family planning; health, morbidity, and mortality; population distribution, urbanization, and internal migration; international migration, population, development, and education; technology, research, and development; national action; international cooperation; partnership with the nongovernmental sector; and a follow-up to the conference.
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  12. 12

    The Tokyo Declaration: toward a global partnership in population and development.

    Meeting of Eminent Persons on Population and Development (1994: Tokyo)

    INTEGRATION. 1994 Jun; (40):4-7.

    Population is a global issue which greatly affects the social, economic, and cultural development of all nations. Since population factors play a decisive role in all human endeavors, especially in safeguarding the environment and pursuing sustainable development, they are of vital concern to both developed and developing countries. More is known now than ever before about what is needed to slow population growth, alleviate poverty, enhance women's status, combat gender inequalities, abolish illiteracy, and reduce infant, child, and maternal mortality. A strong political commitment and the mobilization of popular support for effective action are called for. Almost all developing countries have national population policies and programs aimed at integrating population into development strategies and meeting the rapidly increasing demand for family planning information and services. Participants of the Meeting of Eminent Persons on Population and Development in Tokyo, Japan, January 26-27, 1994, issued a declaration under the auspices of the UN Population Fund, the United Nations University, and the Japan Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The text of the declaration is presented in sections on population and sustainable development, women's role in decision making, reproductive health and family planning, population distribution and migration, South-South cooperation, from commitment to action, the 1994 International Conference of Population and Development, resource mobilization, and a call to action.
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  13. 13
    Peer Reviewed

    Informal but effective: regional consultative processes as a tool in managing migration.

    von Koppenfels AK

    International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales. 2001; 39(6):61-84.

    During the 1990s, the number of regional consultative processes focusing on migration increased significantly. These non-binding fora brought together representatives of States, civil society and international organizations at the regional level to discuss migration-related issues in cooperative manner. Regional consultative processes, which are increasingly supported by governments, are partly a response to the growing complexity and diversity of international migration. Their emergence attests the importance that governments attach to a regional approach to migration management. Regional processes act informally, focusing on cooperative dialogue with an emphasis on information exchange and technical cooperation. The information exchange and confidence-building that occurs in regional processes is quite important in terms of developing links between States and influencing the likelihood of future bilateral and multilateral agreements. This article focuses upon the development of regional processes, using examples as illustrations. It suggests that the development of regional processes can be understood in term of a four- stage model: first, the decision to address issues of concern in a cooperative regional forum; second, to agree upon a "common language"; third, to agree upon a list of goals and, fourth, a shift toward a more operational process. (author's)
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  14. 14

    Statement: Bangladesh.

    Chowdhury AK

    [Unpublished] 1999. Presented at the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, Thirty-second session, New York, New York, March 22-31, 1999 [4] p.

    This is a statement delivered by the leader of the Bangladesh Delegation to the Thirty-Second Session of the Commission on Population and Development; it focuses on issues related to international migration and on resources for the implementation of the Cairo Program of Action. The delegation reports that the Technical Symposium on International Migration and Development has discovered complex interrelationships between poverty, environmental degradation and international migration. It is stressed that recipient countries should take greater responsibility for the protection of female migrant workers, since they are particularly prone to harassment and exploitation in the workplace. Furthermore, the delegation commends the symposium for its contribution to its understanding of the dynamics and effects of migration. It is noted that international collaboration is needed to prevent the loss of human assets from the investing country through a compensatory mechanism. In view of the importance of migration to both developed and developing countries, Bangladesh supports the holding of an International Conference on Migration and Development (ICMD). With regard to the issues of adequacy of resources for the implementation of the Cairo Plan of Action, it is observed that the donor community plays an important role in financing population activities in most developing countries. All countries should achieve the committed target for assistance in order to ensure the success of the implementation process of the Cairo Plan of Action. Finally, the delegation emphasizes that the mobilization of resources for population and development should be given a high priority in the global development agenda.
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  15. 15

    Statement on Agenda 3: Follow-up actions to the recommendations of the ICPD (E/CN.9/1999/3).

    Pierce CS

    [Unpublished] 1999. Presented at the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, Thirty-second session, New York, New York, March 22-31, 1999 [4] p.

    This is a statement by the Deputy Director of the Technical and Policy Division of the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) on the Report of the Technical Symposium on International Migration and Development of the Administration Committee on Coordination Task Force on Basic Social Services for All. The technical symposium served as a forum for an objective discussion and assessment of approaches to international migration issues facing policy makers in both countries of origin and destination. The presentations provided insights on fostering orderly migration flows, counteracting the economic and social marginalization of migrants, and increasing the focus on the human rights and gender dimensions of migration issues. The Symposium underscored the impact of globalization of capital and trade flows and the emergence of regional economic cooperation modalities on migration. The importance of remittance was identified as a mechanism that influenced the development of international migration. Furthermore, the issues of irregular migration and irregular employment were presented, and the need to improve the situation of migrants and foreign residents in receiving countries were discussed. In addition, the Technical Symposium provided an objective examination of key policy issues in international migration and development. It emphasized the need to increase international cooperation in the development of an approach for orderly migration management that takes into consideration, human rights and gender issues. Lastly, it drew attention to both the media and education as important elements in the creation of a more positive attitude towards migration.
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  16. 16

    Statement to the Thirty-Second Session of the Commission on Population and Development. Report of the Secretary-General on population growth, structure, and distribution. Agenda item 3. Follow-up actions to the recommendations of the International Conference on Population and Development. Draft.

    Heligman L

    [Unpublished] 1999. Presented at the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, Thirty-second session, New York, New York, March 22-31, 1999 3 p.

    The Report on World Population Monitoring, focusing on the population growth, structure and distribution is summarized by the Assistant Director of the Population Division of the UN. The report reviews changes in world population size and rate of growth. It also provides information on urban and rural areas, on changes in mortality, fertility and migration, and on the policies that governments have adopted in response to population and development concerns. Continued high rates of population growth remain an issue of policy concern for many countries of the world. On the other hand, a growing number of countries are expressing concern about their low rates of population growth. The impressive gains in health and life expectancy that the world has witnessed over the past decades have not been enough. About 40% of all deaths worldwide are due to infectious and parasitic diseases, respiratory infections, malnutrition, maternal mortality, and neonatal mortality. Finally, the twentieth century has seen the rise of urban centers and the concentration of population in urban areas. If this trend continues, half of the world's population is expected to be urban by 2006.
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  17. 17

    From Nairobi to Beijing. Second review and appraisal of the implementation of the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women. Report of the Secretary-General.

    United Nations. Secretary-General

    New York, New York, United Nations Publications, 1995. XXI, 366 p.

    This document contains the second review and appraisal of the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies (NFLS) for the Advancement of Women to the Year 2000 undertaken by the UN in preparation for the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women (WCW). The book opens with an overview and an introductory section presenting the UN mandates and resolutions that pertain to this review. Section 1 then provides an overview of the current global economic and social framework in terms of 1) trends in the global economy and in economic restructuring as they relate to the advancement of women, 2) the gender aspects of internal and external migration, 3) trends in international trade and their influence on the advancement of women, and 4) other factors affecting the implementation of the NFLS. Section 2 discusses the following critical areas of concern: 1) the persistent and growing burden of poverty on women, 2) inequality in access to education and other means of maximizing the use of women's capacities, 3) inequality in access to health and related services, 4) violence against women, 5) the effects of armed or other kinds of conflict on women, 6) inequality in women's access to and participation in the definition of economic structure and policies and the productive process, 7) inequality between men and women in the sharing of power and decision-making, 8) insufficient mechanisms to promote the advancement of women, 9) lack of awareness of and commitment to recognized women's human rights, 10) insufficient use of the mass media to promote women's contributions to society, and 11) lack of adequate recognition and support for women's contribution to managing natural resources and safeguarding the environment. The final section details international action to implement the NFLS.
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  18. 18

    Population issues briefing kit 1997.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1997. 24 p.

    This UN Population Fund Briefing Kit for 1997 provides information on ten topics. The first discussion, on reproductive rights, reproductive health, and family planning (FP) is augmented by information on how FP saves lives by allowing women to properly time, space, and end births and on recognition of the human right to plan and regulate family size. Section 2 covers issues related to population, development, and the empowerment of women and reviews the mandates included in the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, the 1995 World Summit for Social Development, and the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women. Section 3 links population with sustainable development and environmental degradation and calls for recognition of the skill of women as effective managers of natural resources. The fourth section reviews population trends which estimate an annual increase in world population of 81 million people at a growth rate of 1.5%. Section 5 presents demographic trends by region and highlights the concepts of the "rate of natural increase" and of the "total fertility rate." Section 6 considers migration in terms of internal migration and urbanization and of international migration. The seventh section discusses information, education, and communication as a means of increasing the empowerment contained in the acquisition of knowledge. Section 8 covers the data barrier posed by the lack of reliable vital statistics and/or the failure to disaggregate data in many countries. Filling this data gap is shown to be a priority, especially in order to include the work of women in national accounting and censuses. Section 9 outlines the challenges for population programs in the 21st century, and the final section considers the necessity to craft policies to support the family in its role of providing support and protection for its members.
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  19. 19

    [And after Cairo? Sixteen chapters for a program of action] Le Caire, et apres? Seize chapitres pour un programme d'action.


    The platform adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo has 16 chapters. Chapter 1 discusses how women must be partners in development otherwise the international community cannot successfully tackle problems linked to population and the development. Each State, based on its own laws, economic priorities, and religious, moral, and cultural values as long as they conform to human rights as defined by the international community, must put the 15 principles enumerated in chapter 2 into effect. Another chapter addresses the links between population, economic growth, and sustainable development. One chapter is dedicated to equality between the sexes. Society's base unit, the family, is discussed in another chapter. Population growth and structure comprise another chapter. Reproductive health and family planning are covered in another chapter. Other chapters address health, morbidity, and mortality; population distribution and internal migration; international migration; population, development, and education; technology and research (biomedical, social, and economic); national initiatives; international cooperation; and association with the nongovernmental sector.
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  20. 20

    World population projections, 1992-93 edition. Estimates and projections with related demographic statistics.

    Bos E; Vu MT; Levin A; Bulatao RA

    Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992. vii, 515 p.

    Statistical tales provided population projections every 5 years between 1985 and 2030 and every 25 years between 1985 and 2150. Data were also given for the birth, death, natural increase, net migration, growth, fertility, net reproduction, and infant mortality rates. The projections were an update of this series in 1990, and take into account the impact of AIDS; other changes included the inclusion of the 15 countries of the former Soviet Union, the combined Germanys and Yemens, and the former Yugoslavian republics of Croatia and Slovenia. The overview of trends and projections indicated that Southeast Asia and Latin America have had rapid mortality and fertility decline, while most sub-Saharan African and Middle Eastern countries have had little change. Population growth for mid-1992 was estimated to be 5.44 billion. the projection for the year 2000 was 6.17 billion, which was a 12% increase over 1992 figures. 8.34 billion was the expected population for 2025, and 12.2 billion for 2050, of which 88% would be in countries currently defined as developing. The difference between these projections and those previously published in the 1989-90 edition was minimal for more developed countries, and lower for less developed countries due to the impact of AIDS. Population concentration is currently 59% in Asia, 15% in Europe, 14% in America, 12% in Africa, and 1% in Oceania. Changes will occur such that Africa's population will double, Europe's will be halved, and Asia's will remain stable. The fastest growing region in Africa in East Africa, followed by West Africa and then North Africa in 1992. The lowest growth rates in 1992 are in Europe and the countries of the former Soviet Union. Without China and India, the highest growth rates are found among low income countries. Upper income countries have only 10% of total world population. The population under 15 years of age is expected to decrease from 32% in 1992 to 25% in 2025; conversely, the elderly population aged 65 years and older is expected to increase from 6% in 1992 to 10% in 2025. Life expectancy is highest in Japan at 79 years and lowest in Guinea-Bissau at 39 years. The largest difference in life expectancy between men and women is in the Russian Federation at 10.5 years. There is low fertility, mortality, and slow growth in the Ukraine, Belarus, Georgia, and Moldova; moderate growth in Armenia, Kazakhstan, and Azerbaijan; and mid to high fertility in the other republics.
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  21. 21

    Population issues briefing kit, 1993.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1993. [2], 21 p.

    This 4th edition of the Population Issues Briefing Kit considers 10 issues in population and development. Chapters discuss the changing landscape of population growth; the need and guest for balanced growth in developing countries; needs for population programs in the year 2000; the human right to family planning; growing support for population policy; the potential returns from country-level investment in gender equality; balancing people and resources in safeguarding the global environment; migration and urbanization; the role of information, education, and communication in creating awareness; and population data.
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  22. 22

    Contributions of the IGU and ICA commissions in population studies.

    Nag P

    POPULATION GEOGRAPHY. 1989 Jun-Dec; 11(1-2):86-96.

    This paper surveys the contributions of the International Geographic Union (IGU) and the International Cartographic Association (ICA) to the field of population studies over the past 3 decades. Reviewing the various focal themes of conferences sponsored by the organizations since the 1960s, the author examines the evolution of population studies in IGU and ICA. During the 1960s, IGU began holding symposia addressing the issue of population pressure on the physical and social resource in developing countries. However, it wasn't until 1972, at a meeting in Edmonton, Canada, when IGU first addressed the issue of migration. But since then, migration has remained on the the key concerns of IGU. In 1978, the union hosted a symposium on Population Redistribution in Africa -- the first in a series of conferences focusing on the issue of migration. As an outgrowth of migration, the IGU also began addressing the related issue of population education. The interest in migration has continued through the 1980s. In addition to studies of regional migration, the IGU has also focused on conceptual issues such as migrant labor, environmental concerns, women and migration, and urbanization. In 1984, IGU began cooperating with ICA in the areas of census cartography and population cartography. The author concludes his review of IGU and ICA activities by discussing the emerging trends in population studies. The author foresees a more refined study of migration and more sophisticated population mapping, the result of better study techniques and the use of computer technology.
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  23. 23

    Global population policy data base 1989.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. vi, 197 p. (Population Policy Paper No. 28; ST/ESA/SER.R/99)

    A description and selected elements of a database of the Population Division of the United Nations are presented. The database, entitled Global Review and Inventory of Population Policy, 1989, is available on diskette, and provides current data on population policies of 170 countries of the Division's Population Policy Data Bank. Policy topics considered include population growth, mortality, fertility, internal migration, immigration and emigration, as well as information on current and projected population sizes, current levels of fertility and mortality, current population growth rates, and proportions foreign born. The diskette contains 1 standard ASCII data file, 1 LOTUS 1-2-3 spreadsheet data file, and machine-readable dictionaries. This descriptive text reports country positions on population growth, fertility, mortality, internal migration/spatial distribution, international migration, and past responses to population inquiries. Annex I summarizes variables on the diskette, while Annex II describes them in greater detail. Annex III contains diskette order forms. Statistical tables of the relative frequency of different policy positions are finally included in the document.
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  24. 24
    Peer Reviewed

    Improving comparability of international migration statistics: contributions by the Conference of European Statisticians from 1971 to date.

    Kelly JJ

    INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW. 1987 Winter; 21(4):1017-37.

    This article summarizes the 3 main types of interrelated activities which the Conference of European Statisticians has worked on to improve the measurement and international comparability of international migration flows. The work has encompassed collaborating with the UN Statistical Commission on the preparation and implementation of the revised international recommendations on statistics of international migration, organizing a regular exchange of data on immigration and emigration flows among the UN Economic Commission for Europe countries and selected countries in other regions, and conducting bilateral studies on international migration within the framework of the Conference's program of work in this field of statistics. The bulk of the work which has been carried out to date by the conference has been conducted rather anonymously and even unobtrusively by the staff of national statistical offices in Economic Commission for Europe countries; they have achieved a modest but important amount of progress during the past 15 years. There is reason to expect that further progress will be made over the next decade, particularly if national statistical offices in the region continue to undertake bilateral studies and endeavor to improve their migration statistics. However, more substantial progress could be achieved if additional countries and organizations established projects aimed at achieving these ends (author's modified).
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  25. 25

    A world divided.

    Brown LR; Jacobson JL

    POPULI. 1987; 14(1):39-47.

    This reevaluation of the demographic transition theory of Notestein (1945) presents a view of developing countries trapped in the 2nd stage and unable to achieve the economic and social gains counted upon to reduce births. Among the half of the world's countries that have not yet reached the demographic transition, 5 regions have growth rates of 2.2% or more yearly, or 20-fold per century, a are unable to prevent declining living standards and deteriorating ecological life-support systems. These are Southeast Asia (except Japan, China, and possibly Thailand and Indonesia), Latin America, the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East and Africa. In these countries, death rates will begin to rise, reversing the process of demographic transition. Examples of this phenomenon include 7 countries in West Africa with deteriorating agricultural and fuelwood yields, such that a World Bank study concluded that desertification is inevitable without a technological breakthrough. The elements of the life-support system, food, water, fuelwood and forests, are interrelated, and their failure will create "ecological refugees." When economic resources of jobs and income are added to biological resources, conflict and social instability will further hamper implementation of sound population policies. For the 1st time, governments are faced with the task of reducing birth rates as living conditions deteriorate, a challenge requiring new approaches. There are examples, such as China, where broad-based, inexpensive health care systems and well-designed family planning programs have encouraged small families without widespread economic gains. The most needed ingredient is leadership.
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