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The global partnership for development: A review of MDG 8 and proposals for the post-2015 development agenda.
Washington, D.C., Center for Global Development, 2013 Jul.  p. (CGD Policy Paper No. 026)The eighth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 8) covered a ‘global partnership for development’ in areas including aid, trade, debt relief, drugs and ICTs. We have seen progress as well as gaps in the areas which were covered: more aid, but with quality lagging and a link to progress in MDG areas that was weak; a better rich world performance on tariffs but one that misses increasingly important parts of trade; broadly successful debt relief but an agenda on the support for private investment left uncovered; mixed progress on drugs access and absence of a broader global public health agenda; and a global ICT revolution with weak links to the MDGs or a global partnership. Migration, non-ICT technologies, the global environment, and global institutional issues were all completely unaddressed in MDG 8. Looking forward, by 2030, a global compact on development progress linking OECD DAC aid and policy reform to low income countries as target beneficiaries (the implicit model of MDG 8) would be irrelevant to three quarters of the world. Half of the rich world will be in non-DAC countries and the share of aid in global transfers will continue to shrink. Global public goods provision will increasingly require the active participation of (at least) the G20 nations. A post-2015 global partnership agenda should involve a mixed approach to compact and partnership issues: binding ‘global compact’ targets under specific post-2015 sectoral goals focused on the role for aid alongside a standalone global public goods goal with time bound, numerical targets covering trade, investment, migration, technology, the environment and global institutions.
Migration as a Risk Factor for HIV Infection among Youths in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from the DHS.
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 2013 Jul; 648(1):136-158.Of the estimated 10 million youths living with HIV worldwide, 63 percent live in sub-Saharan Africa. This article focuses on migration as a risk factor of HIV infection among the youths in sub-Saharan Africa. The study is based on multilevel modeling, applied to the youth sample of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), conducted from 2003 to 2008 in nineteen countries. The analysis takes into account country-level and regional-level variations. The results suggest that across countries in sub-Saharan Africa, migrants have on average about 50 percent higher odds of HIV infection than nonmigrants. The higher risk among migrants is to a large extent explained by differences in demographic and socioeconomic factors. In particular, migrants are more likely to be older, to have been married, or to live in urban areas, all of which are associated with higher risks of HIV infection. The higher risk among youths who have been married is particularly pronounced among young female migrants.
Population and Development Review. 2013 Sep; 39(3):551-555.The latest biennial series of population estimates and projections issued by the United Nations Population Division -- known as the 2012 Revision -- was released in June 2013. The series is the most widely used statistical source for international demographic comparisons. The new estimates are advertised as taking into account the results of the 2010 round of censuses, resulting in some adjustments to the 2010 Revision’s baseline figures on total populations and vital rates and, in turn, changes in projection assumptions and projection outputs. Selected results of this exercise, taken from the publication World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision, Key Findings and Advance Tables (and from the press release announcing it), are reprinted by permission. (Excerpt)
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2012.  p.When many of us think of the world’s poorest children, the image that comes readily to mind is that of a child going hungry in a remote rural community in sub-Saharan Africa -- as so many are today. But as The State of the World’s Children 2012 shows with clarity and urgency, millions of children in cities and towns all over the world are also at risk of being left behind. In fact, hundreds of millions of children today live in urban slums, many without access to basic services. They are vulnerable to dangers ranging from violence and exploitation to the injuries, illnesses and death that result from living in crowded settlements atop hazardous rubbish dumps or alongside railroad tracks. And their situations -- and needs -- are often represented by aggregate figures that show urban children to be better off than their rural counterparts, obscuring the disparities that exist among the children of the cities. This report adds to the growing body of evidence and analysis, from UNICEF and our partners, that scarcity and dispossession afflict the poorest and most marginalized children and families disproportionately. What does this mean for children? This document examines the situation of children growing up in urban settings and finds that denial of children’s rights to survival, health, nutrition, education and protection are widespread. It sheds light on the scale of these urban inequities and suggests ways to ensure that urban childhoods are safe, healthy, participatory and fulfilling. The report also includes sections on adolescents, HIV and other issues impacting the well-being of youth. (Excerpt)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2011.  p.The milestone of 7 billion is marked by achievements, setbacks and paradoxes. While women are on average having fewer children than they were in the 1960s, our numbers continue to rise. Globally, people are younger -- and older -- than ever before. In some of the poorest countries, high fertility rates hamper development and perpetuate poverty, while in some of the richest countries, low fertility rates and too few people entering the job market are raising concerns about prospects for sustained economic growth and about the viability of social security systems. While labour shortages threaten to stymie the economies of some industrialized countries, unemployed would-be migrants in developing countries are finding more and more national borders closed to them and the expertise they may have to offer. And while progress is being made in reducing extreme poverty, gaps between rich and poor are widening almost everywhere. The State of World Population 2011 explores some of these paradoxes from the perspective of individuals and describes the obstacles they confront -- and overcome -- in trying to build better lives for themselves, their families, communities and nations. Through personal stories, this report sheds light on the real-life challenges we face in our world of 7 billion. It is mainly a report from the field, from nine countries where the ordinary people who live there, the national experts who study demographic trends and the policymakers who must make decisions based on local conditions talk directly about their lives and work: China, Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, India, Mexico, Mozambique, Nigeria and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. (Excerpt)
[Johannesburg, South Africa], University of the Witwatersrand, Centre for Health Policy, Health Systems Knowledge Network, 2007 Jul.  p.In this paper I discuss gender issues manifested within health occupations and across them. In particular, I examine gender dynamics in medicine, nursing, community health workers and home carers. I also explore from a gender perspective issues concerning delegation, migration and violence, which cut across these categories of health workers. These occupational categories and themes reflect priorities identified by the terms of reference for this review paper and also the themes that emerged from the accessed literature. This paper is based on a desk review of literature accessed through the internet, search engines, correspondence with other experts and reviewing bibliographies of existing material. These efforts resulted in a list of 534 articles, chapters, books and reports. Although most of the literature reviewed was in English, some of it was also in Spanish and Portuguese. Material related to training and interpersonal patient-provider relations that highlights how occupational inequalities affect the availability and quality of health care is covered by other review papers commissioned by the Women and Gender Equity Knowledge Network. (Excerpt)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2009. 94 p.Women bear the disproportionate burden of climate change, but have so far been largely overlooked in the debate about how to address problems of rising seas, droughts, melting glaciers and extreme weather, concludes The State of World Population 2009, released by UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund. The poor are especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change, and the majority of the 1.5 billion people living on $1 a day or less are women. The poor are more likely to depend on agriculture for a living and therefore risk going hungry or losing their livelihoods when droughts strike, rains become unpredictable and hurricanes move with unprecedented force. The poor tend to live in marginal areas, vulnerable to floods, rising seas and storms. The report draws attention to populations in low-lying coastal areas that are vulnerable to climate change and calls on governments to plan ahead to strengthen risk reduction, preparedness and management of disasters and address the potential displacement of people. Research cited in the report shows that women are more likely than men to die in natural disasters-including those related to extreme weather -- with this gap most pronounced where incomes are low and status differences between men and women are high. The State of World Population 2009 argues that the international community's fight against climate change is more likely to be successful if policies, programmes and treaties take into account the needs, rights and potential of women. The report shows that investments that empower women and girls -- particularly education and health -- bolster economic development and reduce poverty and have a beneficial impact on climate. Girls with more education, for example, tend to have smaller and healthier families as adults. Women with access to reproductive health services, including family planning, have lower fertility rates that contribute to slower growth in greenhouse-gas emissions in the long run.
Reproductive Health Matters. 2008 May; 16(31):22-32.This paper surveys the international legal frameworks, including the many guidelines, handbooks, resolutions, toolkits, conclusions and manuals produced by various United Nations bodies, that confirm an awareness of the protection issues specific to women and girls displaced by conflict. It explores the extent to which these documents address the gendered impacts of conflict-induced migration, and the role of United Nations bodies as international governmental organisations in implementing these norms. The main focus is upon internally displaced women and women refugees. In addition to problems of enforcing compliance with existing guidelines, the paper concludes that two areas - developing strategies to accommodate the realities of long-term, even permanent displacement and enhancing women's literal and legal literacy - require much greater attention on the part of governmental and non-governmental international organisations. (author's)
Forced Migration Review. 2006 May; (25): p..In southern Africa, trafficking of persons is a sensitive topic, frequently associated with irregular migration, prostitution or child labour. It is often approached in an ideological way without tackling its roots. Little is known about the root causes and magnitude of the trafficking phenomenon in southern Africa. Available information suggests that both internal and cross-border forms of trafficking are prevalent. Children are predominantly trafficked within their country of origin. The International Organization for Migration has documented internal trafficking of children in South Africa and external trafficking from Mozambique, Angola and the Great Lakes region to South Africa, primarily to serve the needs of the highly sophisticated regional sex industry. (excerpt)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 Mar; 85(3):200-206.International interest in the relationship between globalization and health is growing, and this relationship is increasingly figuring in foreign policy discussions. Although many globalizing processes are known to affect health, migration stands out as an integral part of globalization, and links between migration and health are well documented. Numerous historical interconnections exist between population mobility and global public health, but since the 1990s new attention to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases has promoted discussion of this topic. The containment of global disease threats is a major concern, and significant international efforts have received funding to fight infectious diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome). Migration and population mobility play a role in each of these public health challenges. The growing interest in population mobility's health-related influences is giving rise to new foreign policy initiatives to address the international determinants of health within the context of migration. As a result, meeting health challenges through international cooperation and collaboration has now become an important foreign policy component in many countries. However, although some national and regional projects address health and migration, an integrated and globally focused approach is lacking. As migration and population mobility are increasingly important determinants of health, these issues will require greater policy attention at the multilateral level. (author's)
Washington, D.C., United States Department of State, Office of the Under Secretary for Global Affairs, 2006 Jun.  p.The Department of State is required by law to submit a Report each year to the U.S. Congress on foreign governments' efforts to eliminate severe forms of trafficking in persons. This Report is the sixth annual TIP Report. It is intended to raise global awareness, to highlight the growing efforts of the international community to combat human trafficking, and to encourage foreign governments to take effective actions to counter all forms of trafficking in persons. The Report has increasingly focused the efforts of a growing community of nations on sharing information and partnering in new and important ways. A country that fails to make significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking in persons, per U.S. law, receives a "Tier 3" assessment in this Report. Such an assessment could trigger the withholding of nonhumanitarian, non-trade-related assistance from the United States to that country. In assessing foreign governments' efforts, the TIP Report highlights the "three P's"-- prosecution, protection, and prevention. But a victim-centered approach to trafficking requires us equally to address the "three R's"-- rescue, rehabilitation, and reintegration. The U.S. law that guides these efforts, the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) of 2000, as amended, makes clear from the outset that the purpose of combating human trafficking is to ensure just and effective punishment of traffickers, to protect their victims, and to prevent trafficking from occurring. (excerpt)
Perspectives on Global Development and Technology. 2004; 3(1-2):131-152.This paper considers influences of globalization on three relevant health policy issues in South Africa, namely, private health sector growth, health professional migration, and pharmaceutical policy. It considers the relative role of key domestic and global actors in health policy development around these issues. While South Africa has not been subject to the overt health policy pressure from international organizations experienced by governments in many other low- and middle-income countries, global influence on South Africa's macroeconomic policy has had a profound, albeit indirect, effect on our health policies. Ultimately, this has constrained South Africa's ability to achieve its national health goals. (author's)
Paris, France, UNESCO, Division of Cultural Policies and Intercultural Dialogue, Culture and Development Section, 2005. 85 p. (CLT/CPD/CAD-05/4A)Placing the HIV- and AIDS-related experiences of the countries of the southern Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia) into social and cultural perspective is uniquely important. Within these three 'second wave' countries of the former Soviet Union, alarming claims that 'drug-driven epidemics are spiralling out of control' run counter to the relatively low number of individuals officially identified as HIV positive. The proportionate increase in the number of individuals affected has been substantial each year since the late 1990s, yet HIV and AIDS remain poorly documented, misunderstood, and highly stigmatised in the region. Analyses of the social and cultural factors influencing the ability of these countries to determine national strategies, implement effective prevention programmes, and develop better monitoring systems can assist in rectifying the differences between dire future predictions and the current modest prevalence rates. (excerpt)
International Organization for Migration: experience on the need for medical evacuation of refugees during the Kosovo crisis in 1999.
Croatian Medical Journal. 2002; 43(2):195-198.The International Organization for Migration (IOM) developed and implemented a three-month project entitled Priority Medical Screening of Kosovar Refugees in Macedonia, within the Humanitarian Evacuation Program (HEP) for Kosovar refugees from FR Yugoslavia, which was adopted in May 1999. The project was based on an agreement with the office of United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) and comprised the entry of registration data of refugees with medical condition (Priority Medical Database), and classification (Priority Medical Screening) and medical evacuation of refugees (Priority Medical Evacuation) in Macedonia. To realize the Priority Medical Screening project plan, IOM developed and set up a Medical Database linked to IOM/UNHCR HEP database, recruited and trained a four-member data entry team, worked out and set up a referral system for medical cases from the refugee camps, and established and staffed medical contact office for refugees in Skopje and Tetovo. Furthermore, it organized and staffed a mobile medical screening team, developed and implemented the system and criteria for the classification of referred medical cases, continuously registered and classified the incoming medical reports, contacted regularly the national delegates and referred to them the medically prioritized cases asking for acceptance and evacuation, and co-operated and continuously exchanged the information with UNHCR Medical Co-ordination and HEP team. Within the timeframe of the project, 1,032 medical cases were successfully evacuated for medical treatment to 25 host countries throughout the world. IOM found that those refugees suffering from health problems, who at the time of the termination of the program were still in Macedonia and had not been assisted by the project, were not likely to have been priority one cases, whose health problems could be solved only in a third country. The majority of these vulnerable people needed social rather than medical care and assistance - a challenge that international aid agencies needed to address in Macedonia and will need to address elsewhere. (author's)
Habitat Debate. 2001 Jun; 7(2): p..It is projected that the world population will rise from 5.7 billion in 1995 to 8.9 billion in 2050, growing at the rate of 1.3 per cent per annum in the period 1995- 2000 to 0.3 per cent per annum in the period 2045-2050. The assumption is that there will be a massive fertility decline in the majority of countries, a scenario expected to produce ageing populations, i.e. populations in which the proportion of children is declining and that of older persons is increasing. Voluntary and Forced Migration The world is polarized between the net-immigration in more developed countries and the net-emigration in the developing world. The developed world receives immigrants mainly from Asia and Latin America, and to a certain extent, Africa. Immigration patterns suggest that countries in Europe and North America are becoming less homogenous in terms of race and culture. (excerpt)
Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2005; 353.When the Bulletin of the World Health Organization dedicates an entire issue to health worker migration, it is a clear indication that the topic has global health significance. Buchan and Sochalski, recognized leading authorities on the subject of nurse migration, provide a descriptive overview of nurse migration patterns and core issues. They offer a detailed profile for 5 nursing workforce “destination” countries: Australia, Ireland, Norway, the United Kingdom, and the United States. By performing a comparative analysis, made possible by each country’s high-quality health system infrastructure and valid nursing workforce data, the authors have seized the opportunity to further examine this timely issue. (excerpt)
Population 2005. 2004 Sep-Oct; 6(3):1-4.The UN Population Fund issued its annual State of World Population Report Sept. 15, focusing on progress achieved 10 years after the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo. It records broad gains in government acceptance of the ICPD Program of Action, and notes significant improvements in the quality and reach of family planning programs, and in the development of safe motherhood and HIV prevention efforts. But inadequate resources, gender bias and gaps in serving the poor and adolescents are undermining further progress, according to the report, The Cairo Consensus at Ten: Population, Reproductive Health and the Global Effort to End Poverty. In its review of achievements and constraints nearly half way to the 2015 completion target date, the report examines actions taken across the related areas of population and poverty, environmental protection, migration and urbanization; discrimination against women and girls; and key reproductive health issues including access to contraception, maternal health, HIV/AIDS, and the needs of adolescents and people in emergency situations. (excerpt)
Population 2005. 2004 Jun; 6(2):4.This meeting recognizes the 10th anniversary of the historic International Conference on Population and Development, held in Cairo, Egypt. The Cairo conference dealt with a wide range of issues – each extremely important in its own right. The organizers of this event, however, felt it was necessary to limit our focus in order that our time and energy can be utilized to their best advantage. For this reason, Forum 2004 will highlight four areas: Migration, HIV/AIDS, Aging, and Reproductive Health. It is our fervent hope that what will emerge from this meeting is a clearer vision of where we have to go and what we must do to ensure that the goals of the Cairo Program of Action will be met. Ten years ago, I wrote a newspaper opinion article in which I emphasized that the specific targets of the Program of Action were realistic and obtainable. But I stressed that it was important to monitor progress along the way that it would be irresponsible to allow the ICPD document to be swept into the dustbins of history. Many nations are indeed implementing or attempting to implement the Program of Action. But progress has not been uniform. Much still needs to be done, particularly in the world’s least developed countries. (excerpt)
26th Annual Conference of the Indian Association for the Study of Population on Population, Health and Environment, 9-11 February 2004. Organized by Annamalai University, Annamalainagar. [Abstracts of papers presented].
Annamalainagar, India, Annamalai University, Centre for Population Studies, 2004. 98 p.One of the objectives of Madhya Pradesh population policy 2000 is to reduce the risk of death due to complications of pregnancy and delivery from an estimated 498 maternal deaths per 1,00,000 live births in 1997 to 220 by the year 2011. The policy calls for making emergency obstetric care services available in all development block level health care institutions by 2011. In order to prevent maternal deaths it is however necessary that EmOc services are made available right up to the village level so as to make possible the management of obstetric emergencies as and when they arise. Making these services available only up to the block level may not contribute significantly in reducing maternal mortality. The extent and nature of emergency obstetric care services may vary in different tires of the health care delivery system. The conceptual framework that has been developed here follows an evidence based approach for making available emergency obstetric care services at different levels of health care delivery system. The conceptual plan focuses on what can be done at the level of community and at different tires of public health care delivery system in managing, treating and referring patients with emergency complications. Starting of immediate treatment and prompt transfer of the patients to a health care facility where specialized services are available can save many young lives. Obstetric first aid to stabilize the patient before referral is life saving delay may mean death. It is recommended that the plan should constitute the basis for developing and expanding emergency obstetric care services in Madhya Pradesh in the efforts towards reducing the maternal mortality rate. (excerpt)
Manila, Philippines, WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2004.  p.The initial part of this report reviews the available literature and the surveys of health worker (and other skilled) migration in the Pacific region. This is linked to an examination of recent changes in the stock of health workers in PICs, with particular reference to emigration and immigration, and the impact of these changes on health care provision. The second part of the report reviews the data derived from surveys undertaken in a number of PICs and destination nations, on potential and actual migrants, presently or formerly employed in health care, that focus on the rationale and context for out-migration, and the potential for return migration (of SHPs currently overseas). This is linked to studies of immigrant SHPs in PICs, to examine their migration and employment history and their contribution to the maintenance and improvement of health care in the region. Finally this is reviewed in the context of existing policies that seek to influence the retention, and appropriate allocation of health workers, in PICs, and the potential for developing more effective policies. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations, 2001. vi, 60 p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/202)The present report has been prepared in response to Economic and Social Council resolution 1995/55 of 28 July 1995, in which the Council endorsed the terms of reference and the topic-oriented and prioritized multi-year work programme proposed by the Commission on Population and Development at its twenty-eighth session. According to the multi-year work programme, which was to serve as a framework for the assessment of the progress achieved in the implementation of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development, a new series of reports on a special set of the themes would be prepared annually. The Commission, in its decisions 1999/1 and 2000/1, decided that the special theme for the year 2001 should be population, environment and development, which is the topic of the present report. The general trends of rapid population growth, sustained but uneven economic improvement and environmental degradation are generally well accepted. However, how population size and growth, environmental change and development interact on each other is not well established. This report reviews what is known about these interrelationships. The report analyses recent information and policy perspectives on population, environment and development. The topics investigated in this report include: the evolution of population and the environment at major United Nations conferences; temporal trends in population, environment and development; government views and policies concerning population, environment and development; population size and growth, environment and development; migration, population change and the rural environment; health, mortality, fertility and the environment; and population, environment and development in urban settings. The presentation of these topics is followed by conclusions. Annex I deals with the availability and quality of data; and annex II deals with theories and frameworks for modelling the impact of population growth on the physical environment. (excerpt)
A demographic perspective on women in development in Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar and Viet Nam.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1998. xvi, 135 p. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 148)The selection of Cambodia, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar and Viet Nam for inclusion in the study was based on a number of considerations. The ESCAP secretariat has undertaken the publication of country profiles of women in 16 other countries, namely Bangladesh, China, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Islamic Republic of Iran, Japan, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vanuatu. The four countries included in this study, while exhibiting significant social and cultural differences, are all located in South-East Asia; they are the four least developed countries in South-East Asia on most indicators; and their economies are in transition to more open, market-oriented economies, In each of the four countries, women have traditionally played an important social role marked by considerable gender equity. Equal inheritance among children is possible, and often the norm. In the Lao People's Democratic Republic, for example, husbands traditionally move to the household of their wife and the youngest daughter inherits the family home. The proportion of households headed by women is substantial in all four countries, and quite high in Cambodia and Viet Nam. Female labour force participation rates exceed those of men in Cambodia and the Lao People's Democratic Republic, and the female labour force is larger than the male labour force in Viet Nam. (excerpt)
International Social Science Journal. 2000 Sep; 165:255-268.This article gives an overview of related UNESCO activities over the past 50 years. Numerous UNESCO publications, results of various conferences, symposia and experts meetings serve to remind us of the important role that international migration has played in the process of social transformations throughout the world. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR], Evaluation and Policy Analysis Unit, 2002 Dec. 14 p. (New Issues in Refugee Research Working Paper No. 72)In recent years, the reluctance of western governments to admit asylum seekers and the introduction of restrictive migration policies has caused many people to turn to their last resort - human smugglers. This paper attempts to analyse the role of smugglers in the movement of asylum seekers into Western Europe through the region of former Yugoslavia. Although all of the five newly formed states of former Yugoslavia are affected by the phenomenon of human smuggling, Bosnia and Herzegovina is most often used as a stepping stone for migrants who are moving north and west. Bosnia is consequently the central focus of this paper. The paper explains why the former Yugoslavia is used as a transit region, by whom it is used, where the smuggled people come from and where they are going to. In addition, the paper provides a description of the experiences that asylum seekers must endure during their journey through the region. As a clandestine and uncontrolled movement, there is a lack of information and statistics on migrant smuggling. The evidence on which this work is based upon is mainly gathered from UNHCR files, media and government sources and existing studies. (excerpt)
Environmentally-Induced Population Displacements and Environmental Impacts Resulting from Mass Migrations, International Symposium, Geneva, 21-24 April 1996.
Geneva, Switzerland, International Organization for Migration, 1996. 128 p.This report provides a summary of proceedings and papers presented at the 1996 UN Conference on the Interactions between Mass Migrations and Environmental Impacts. The conference was organized and funded by the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, the International Organization for Migration, and the Refugee Policy Group. The conference aimed to determine how to break the mutually reinforcing cycle of environmental damage and mass migration. The discussions focused on the development of policy guidelines that would minimize detrimental impacts and designation of responsible entities for initiating and coordinating action. There was a consensus on a Statement of Principles for preventing and mitigating environmentally induced population displacement and for addressing the negative environmental consequences of mass migration. The Statement of Principles focused on descriptions of the problems and a framework for action for environmentally induced population displacements, environmental impacts of mass migrations, and breaking the cycle. The Summary of Proceedings included the warning in the closure statement that environmental degradation was an international and not a local problem that was linked to political strife, conflict over natural resources, and international political arrangements. The 13 background papers are summarized. Background papers focused on issues such as satellite monitoring and aerial photography, assorted case studies, failures in settlement planning and shelter management, remote sensing and geographic information systems technology, and approaches that mitigate the environmental impact of refugees. Environmental changes are charted for natural causes and man-made causes by time frame of the impact, scale and intensity of impact, predictability, reversibility, and main organizations involved. These two charts help match policy options to the problem.