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Your search found 46 Results

  1. 1
    374608

    Women’s labour migration: an overview from Mexico, Moldova and the Philippines.

    United Nations. UN Women

    New York, New York, UN Women, [2017]. 7 p. (Policy Brief No. 1)

    UN Women’s project "Promoting and Protecting Women Migrant Workers’ Labour and Human Rights: Engaging with International, National Human Rights Mechanisms to Enhance Accountability" is a global project funded by the European Union (EU) and anchored nationally in three pilot countries: Mexico, Moldova, and the Philippines. The project promotes women migrant workers’ rights and their protection against exclusion and exploitation at all stages of migration. One of the key results of the project has been the production of high-quality knowledge products. These have provided the foundation of the project’s advocacy and capacity building objectives. This Brief draws from the project’s knowledge products and provides an overview of the key situational and policy concerns for women migrant workers in each of the three pilot countries.
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  2. 2
    374604

    Using the international human rights system to protect and promote the rights of women migrant workers.

    United Nations. UN Women

    New York, New York, UN Women, [2017]. 7 p. (Policy Brief No. 6)

    This Brief provides an overview of the international human rights system as it applies to the promotion and protection of women migrant workers’ rights. Using examples from UN Women’s joint EU-funded project "Promoting and Protecting Women Migrant Workers’ Labour and Human Rights: Engaging with International, National Human Rights Mechanisms to Enhance Accountability" (the Project), which is anchored nationally in three pilot countries: Mexico, Moldova, and the Philippines, this Brief illustrates how these mechanisms can be used by governments, civil society and development partners, to enhance the rights of women migrant workers in law and practice.
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  3. 3
    374603

    Women migrant workers and remittances.

    United Nations. UN Women

    New York, New York, UN Women, [2017]. 4 p. (Policy Brief No. 3)

    Remittances and their potential to contribute to development are becoming a central focus of global migration governance. With women making up approximately half of all migrant workers globally, there is a shifting focus of many policies and programmes to include remittances sent by women. Based on research and lessons learned from the joint UN Women–EU-funded global project, “Promoting and protecting women migrant workers’ labour and human rights: Engaging with international, national human rights mechanisms to enhance accountability”, which is piloted in Mexico, Moldova and the Philippines, this Brief considers the different ways that women transfer and spend remittances, and provides recommendations to better understand and maximize these remittances.
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  4. 4
    357077
    Peer Reviewed

    Routes of infection: Exports and HIV incidence in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Oster E

    Journal of the European Economic Association. 2012 Oct; 10(5):1025-1058.

    This paper estimates whether exports affect the incidence of HIV in Africa. This relationship has implications for HIV prevention policy as well as for the consequences of trade increases in Africa. I estimate this impact using two sources of data on HIV incidence, one generated based on UNAIDS estimates and the other based on observed HIV mortality. These data are combined with data on export value and volume. I find a fairly consistent positive relationship between exports and new HIV infections: doubling exports leads to a 10%-70% increase in new HIV infections. Consistent with theory, this relationship is larger in areas with higher baseline HIV prevalence. I interpret the result as suggesting that increased exports increase the movement of people (trucking), which increases sexual contacts. Consistent with this interpretation, the effect is larger for export growth than for income growth per se and is larger in areas with more extensive road networks.
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  5. 5
    344704

    [Crisis in human resources for health: millennium development goals for maternal and child health threatened] Tekort aan gezondheidswerkers in Afrika: millenniumdoelstellingen voor moeder- en kindzorg in gevaar.

    Beltman JJ; Stekelenburg J; van Roosmalen J

    Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde. 2010; 154(5):A1159.

    International migration of health care workers from low-income countries to the West has increased considerably in recent years, thereby jeopardizing the achievements of The Millennium Development Goals, especially number 4 (reduction of child mortality) and 5 (improvement of maternal health).This migration, as well as the HIV/AIDS epidemic, lack of training of health care personnel and poverty, are mainly responsible for this health care personnel deficit. It is essential that awareness be raised amongst donors and local governments so that staffing increases, and that infection prevention measures be in place for their health care personnel. Western countries should conduct a more ethical recruitment of health care workers, otherwise a new millennium development goal will have to be created: to reduce the human resources for health crisis.
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  6. 6
    326035

    Identification of the obstacles to the signing and ratification of the UN Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers: the Asia-Pacific Perspective.

    Piper N; Iredale R

    [Paris, France], UNESCO, International Migration and Multicultural Policies Section, 2003 Oct. 68 p. (UNESCO Series of Country Reports on the Ratification of the UN Convention on Migrants; SHS/2003/MC/1 REV)

    The overall aim of this report is to investigate ways to gain wider acceptance of the ICMR in the specific context of the Asia Pacific region. This report: investigates why a sample of major sending and receiving countries in the Asia Pacific region have not ratified the Convention, and develops recommendations to encourage more ratifications in this region and beyond. The main research methods employed were semi-structured interviews with key informants in seven selected countries in the Asia Pacific region. Informants were sought from among the following groups: politicians and/or governmental officials (at national and local level), NGO representatives (migrant support groups and human rights groups), academics, embassy staff (labour attaches), lawyers (bar associations), trade unions and employers/industry organizations, and National Human Rights Commissions (see Appendix I for more details). Interviews were arranged with the assistance of local coordinators, most of whom are members of the APMRN. The actual interview schedule was designed to test the obstacles and opportunities created by ratifying the Convention from a legal, social and political perspective. This also included an examination of the role the media are playing in the acceptance of human rights for migrants. Other materials informing the report comes from websites, and from newspaper clippings and copies of legal and semi-legal documents provided by the country coordinators. (excerpt)
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  7. 7
    326027

    Strangers in foreign lands: Diversity, vulnerability and the rights of migrants.

    de Varennes F

    [Paris, France], UNESCO, 2003. 37 p. (SHS/SRP/MIG/2003/PI/H/2)

    Globalization and increased population flows across borders have created a daunting challenge for the international community: the need to address the particular vulnerability of migrants. While migrant workers often make significant contributions to the economies and societies of the State in which they work and of their State of origin they remain, from a legal point of view, more vulnerable than many other groups who have the benefit of clearer and more wide-ranging international and regional legal protections. This is because the development and acceptance - especially from more developed States - of international legal standards to protect migrants' rights has been very slow, with the UN Convention on the Protection of all Migrant Workers and Members of their Families only entering into force in 2003. The rights contained in the Migrant Workers' Convention are human rights. They are indicators as to how governments may protect migrants and better manage the problems and opportunities of international migration. This may also help avoid the dangers of racism, intolerance and xenophobia which may result when there is not a balanced view of both positive and negative aspects of migration movements and their effects on the economies and societies of both host States and States of origin. The global challenge which international migration represents calls for a global approach. UNESCO - as part of its role in the field of migration, social integration and cultural diversity - has been bringing together researchers, policy-makers, NGOs and other interested parties to deal with various facets of this challenge, including the adoption of the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity and the launch of a much needed campaign for the ratification of the Migrant Workers' Convention. (author's)
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  8. 8
    321814

    Delay in tuberculosis care: One link in a long chain of social inequities [editorial]

    Allebeck P

    European Journal of Public Health. 2007 Oct; 17(5):409.

    In public health teaching, tuberculosis (TB) has been a traditional example of how disease occurrence is determined by the triad agent, environment, host. And it has since long been standard textbook knowledge that there are strong socioeconomic determinants behind all three components: The agent is more prevalent and is spread more easily in conditions of crowding and poor hygienic conditions, and under these conditions several host factors are also more prevalent, such as malnutrition and alcoholism. In recent years another dimension has been added to the socioeconomic patterning of TB: An already very solid mass of research has highlighted the social and economic aspects of care and follow-up of patients with TB. A recent example of this research is the paper by Wang et al. in this issue of the journal, on differences in both patient's delay and doctor's delay in the diagnosis of TB, when comparing residents and non-residents (rural immigrants) in Shanghai. (excerpt)
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  9. 9
    320929

    Labour migration in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: current issues and next political steps.

    Patzwaldt K

    [Paris, France], UNESCO, International Migration and Multicultural Policies Section, 2004 Jun 1. 16 p. (UNESCO Series of Country Reports on the Ratification of the UN Convention on Migrants; SHS/2004/MC/3)

    With the UN Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families having entered into force on July 1, 2003, the UNESCO Central and East European Network on Migration Research (CEENOM) has got both a new focus on migrant workers and a new instrument for policy recommendations to national governments. The aim of the present research and analysis is therefore to identify, which obstacles impede the accession of Eastern European and Central Asian countries to the convention and how these could be overcome. Additionally, debate on the provisions of the convention highlights the need for protection of migrant workers and stimulates the search for feasible solutions to labour migration related problems. Finally, it strengthens the link between Central and Eastern European research institutes and policy-makers involved by concentrating on the role and consequences of this distinct legal instrument. (excerpt)
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  10. 10
    314640

    Collection of international instruments and other legal texts concerning refugees and others of concern to UNHCR. 3. Regional instruments: Africa, Middle East, Asia, Americas. Provisional release.

    United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNHCR, 2006 Nov. [385] p.

    The first edition of the Collection of International Instruments Concerning Refugees was published in 1979. Thereafter, the compilation was updated regularly as new developments took place in the international law relating to refugees and other persons of concern to UNHCR. The 2006 edition takes account of the increasingly apparent inter-relationship and complimentarity between, on one hand, international refugee law and, on the other, human rights, humanitarian, criminal and other bodies of law. The Collection features over 240 instruments and legal texts drawn from across this broad spectrum. Compared to the earlier edition of the Collection, this edition includes many international instruments and legal texts relating to issues such as statelessness, the internally displaced and the asylum-migration debate (such as trafficking, smuggling, maritime and aviation law and migrants) as well as matters such as torture, discrimination, detention and the protection of women and children. The range of relevant regional instruments and legal texts have also been enhanced, not least to ensure that they are used more effectively while advocating for refugees and others of concern to UNHCR. Today, users can access veritable reference resources by electronic means. The Collection itself is accessible on-line. For users not able to access electronic facilities, it provides, in hard copy, the most important instruments in a manner easy to use in daily work. Indeed, even for those otherwise able to take advantage of electronic facilities, the availability of these instruments systematically in a single source offers unique facility and benefits. (excerpt)
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  11. 11
    314639

    Collection of international instruments and other legal texts concerning refugees and others of concern to UNHCR. 1. International instruments: UNHCR, refugees and asylum, statelessness, internally displaced persons, migrants, human rights. Provisional release.

    United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNHCR, 2006 Nov. [585] p.

    The first edition of the Collection of International Instruments Concerning Refugees was published in 1979. Thereafter, the compilation was updated regularly as new developments took place in the international law relating to refugees and other persons of concern to UNHCR. The 2006 edition takes account of the increasingly apparent inter-relationship and complimentarity between, on one hand, international refugee law and, on the other, human rights, humanitarian, criminal and other bodies of law. The Collection features over 240 instruments and legal texts drawn from across this broad spectrum. Compared to the earlier edition of the Collection, this edition includes many international instruments and legal texts relating to issues such as statelessness, the internally displaced and the asylum-migration debate (such as trafficking, smuggling, maritime and aviation law and migrants) as well as matters such as torture, discrimination, detention and the protection of women and children. The range of relevant regional instruments and legal texts have also been enhanced, not least to ensure that they are used more effectively while advocating for refugees and others of concern to UNHCR. Today, users can access veritable reference resources by electronic means. The Collection itself is accessible on-line. For users not able to access electronic facilities, it provides, in hard copy, the most important instruments in a manner easy to use in daily work. Indeed, even for those otherwise able to take advantage of electronic facilities, the availability of these instruments systematically in a single source offers unique facility and benefits. (excerpt)
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  12. 12
    314638

    Collection of international instruments and other legal texts concerning refugees and others of concern to UNHCR. 2. International instruments: international humanitarian law, international criminal law, international maritime and aviation law, miscellaneous. Provisional release.

    United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNHCR, 2006 Nov. [415] p.

    The first edition of the Collection of International Instruments Concerning Refugees was published in 1979. Thereafter, the compilation was updated regularly as new developments took place in the international law relating to refugees and other persons of concern to UNHCR. The 2006 edition takes account of the increasingly apparent inter-relationship and complimentarity between, on one hand, international refugee law and, on the other, human rights, humanitarian, criminal and other bodies of law. The Collection features over 240 instruments and legal texts drawn from across this broad spectrum. Compared to the earlier edition of the Collection, this edition includes many international instruments and legal texts relating to issues such as statelessness, the internally displaced and the asylum-migration debate (such as trafficking, smuggling, maritime and aviation law and migrants) as well as matters such as torture, discrimination, detention and the protection of women and children. The range of relevant regional instruments and legal texts have also been enhanced, not least to ensure that they are used more effectively while advocating for refugees and others of concern to UNHCR. Today, users can access veritable reference resources by electronic means. The Collection itself is accessible on-line. For users not able to access electronic facilities, it provides, in hard copy, the most important instruments in a manner easy to use in daily work. Indeed, even for those otherwise able to take advantage of electronic facilities, the availability of these instruments systematically in a single source offers unique facility and benefits. (excerpt)
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  13. 13
    314256

    Reflections on initiatives to address human trafficking.

    Pattanaik B

    Forced Migration Review. 2006 May; (25):[2] p..

    For many, including authors of some of the articles which follow in this issue of FMR, anti-trafficking activities should prioritise strengthening the criminal justice response and enabling those affected to testify against those who have exploited them. Some in the anti-trafficking community focus only on trafficking for purposes of sexual exploitation and naively believe that criminalisation of prostitution would end trafficking. Those who focus on repatriation of trafficked persons or who 'rescue' them from brothels or other workplaces often fail to ask 'victims' whether they want to be stopped from working and sent home - or would prefer to remain if they could find legal, paid employment. It has recently become fashionable for researchers and activists to address the 'demand' side of trafficking. However, once again, a conflation between 'demand for paid sex' and 'demand for the labour/services of a trafficked person' is seen in many of these studies. If it is not clearly conceptualised, 'demand' can be an extremely problematic term. The pioneering work of Bridget Anderson and Julia O'Connell-Davidson, and the recent work of the International Labour Organisation on demand, are valuable resources for anyone conducting research or developing programmes on demand. (excerpt)
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  14. 14
    293077

    Workers' remittances: a boon to development. Money sent home by African migrants rivals development aid.

    Mutume G

    Africa Renewal. 2005 Oct; 19(3):10-13.

    Every day, thousands of Africans living abroad line up in money-transfer offices to wire home the odd dollar they are able to save. From the US, Saudi Arabia, Germany, Belgium, Switzerland and France -- the top sources of remittances to developing countries -- some of the money finds its way deep into the rural areas of Africa. There, it may send a child to school, build a house or buy food to sustain those remaining at home. Over the years, some of the money has made its way to the Kayes region of Mali. There, the World Bank reports, contributions from Malians living in France have helped build 60 per cent of the infrastructure. About 40 Malian migrant associations in France supported nearly 150 projects, valued at €3 mn over a decade. (excerpt)
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  15. 15
    286820

    U.N. reports on violence against women migrant workers.

    Population 2005. 2003 Dec; 5(4):1, 3-4, 6 passim.

    December 19, 2001, the United Nations General Assembly created resolution 56/131 in regard to violence against women migrant workers. The G.A. emphasized the need for governments to strengthen their efforts to protect and promote the rights and welfare of women migrant workers, through sustained bilateral, regional, interregional and international cooperation and by developing strategies and joint action. The Assembly detailed recommendations to prevent violence against women migrant workers, punish abusers and create a supporting environment for victims of this type of abuse. Also in the resolution was the request for the Secretary-General to submit a report on the problem of violence against women migrant workers and on the implementation of the resolution 56/131 to be submitted to the fifty-eighth session of the General Assembly. (excerpt)
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  16. 16
    276986
    Peer Reviewed

    Rights of foreign workers and the politics of migration in South-East and East Asia.

    Piper N

    International Migration. 2004; 42(5):71-97.

    The issue of cross-border migration in South-East and East Asia is linked to the integration of regional, if not global, labour markets. The types of labour that arc currently in demand have changed substantially since the 1990s in terms of (1) overall magnitude, (2) gender composition, and (3) increased diversification. This paper, however, focuses upon those workers classified as unskilled as they constitute numerically the largest and most vulnerable group. The challenges to provide adequate protection from, and prevention of, exploitative and abusive practices that seriously minimize the socio-economic benefits for these workers are linked to migration policies and the issue of rights in the origin and destination countries. This paper's objective is to provide a broad outline of the emerging trends and issues revolving around contemporary cross-border labour migration and the politics of migrants' rights in South-East and East Asia, illustrated by the difficulties experienced with the ratification of the 1990 United Nations Convention on the Rights of All Migrants and their Families (ICMR). The data this paper is based upon were collected for a report commissioned by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) with fieldwork carried out in seven countries located in the Asia Pacific region. It is argued that ratification of the ICMR is obstructed by politics and by a lack of political will. A rights-based approach to the protection of migrant labour is thus related to a number of macro and micro level issues, revolving around development and practices of "good governance" in addition to interstate relations. This means that the promotion of migrants' lights requires a holistic approach addressing national and transnational issues in an era of increasing mobility across border (author's)
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  17. 17
    186469

    Can AIDS be stopped?

    Epstein H; Chen L

    In: While the world sleeps: writing from the first twenty years of the global AIDS plague, edited by Chris Bull. New York, New York, Thunder's Mouth Press, 2003. 401-412.

    Public concern over the global AIDS epidemic, particularly in Africa, has grown enormously in recent years, but there is considerable debate about what the international community can and should do about it. Especially controversial has been the high cost of antiretroviral drugs used to extend the lives of people with AIDS. The pharmaceutical companies that make these drugs price them beyond reach of the world's poor, but in November 2001 at the WTO meeting in Doha, Qatar, these companies were forced to accede to pressure from developing-country governments, nongovernmental organizations, and activists, and allow poor governments to adjust certain rigid patent rules applying to vaccines and drugs in order to protect public health. Despite this apparent triumph of international pressure, far more needs to be done. A coalition of governments and nongovernmental organizations, led by the UN, recently launched the Global Fund Against AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (referred to here as the Global Fund), and its performance will test how well such a global institution can confront the most serious health crises of our time, and perhaps in all of human history. (excerpt)
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  18. 18
    182756

    Levels and trends of international migration to selected countries in Asia.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2003. ix, 101 p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/218)

    The primary objective of the present report is to examine the levels and trends of population migration to selected countries in Asia using available statistics as a guide, and focusing primarily on changes that have occurred since 1970. The report discusses the burgeoning of labour migration during the past decades, in response to the development of strong economies in Eastern, Southeastern and Western Asia. It also touches on permanent settlement of people and refugee flows that have characterized several countries in Asia. (excerpt)
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  19. 19
    180665
    Peer Reviewed

    Strengthening India's reponse to HIV / AIDS.

    Motihar R; Mahendra VS

    Sexual Health Exchange. 2003; (1):[2] p..

    At the end of 2OO1, an estimated 40 million adults and children were living with HIV/AIDS worldwide, of whom 8.6 million in the Asia-Pacific region - more than any other region besides sub-Saharan Africa. Sixty percent of Asia-Pacific HIV infections were in India alone, translating into almost 4 million people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), the second largest number after South Africa. Although India's adult HIV-prevalence rate is low at about 0.8%, this converts into staggering numbers due to India's enormous population. HIV is spreading among highly vulnerable groups such as sex workers and truck drivers, and beyond, among the general population. (author's)
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  20. 20
    182006

    Changing trends and major issues in international migration: an overview of UNESCO programmes.

    Timur S

    International Social Science Journal. 2000 Sep; 165:255-268.

    This article gives an overview of related UNESCO activities over the past 50 years. Numerous UNESCO publications, results of various conferences, symposia and experts meetings serve to remind us of the important role that international migration has played in the process of social transformations throughout the world. (excerpt)
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  21. 21
    142264

    Advancement of women. Violence against women migrant workers.

    United Nations. General Assembly

    [Unpublished] 1997 Sep 17. Prepared for the fifty-second session. Item 107 of the provisional agenda. 11 p. (A/52/356)

    This article reports on strategies that have been undertaken to address the issue of violence against women migrant workers. Its contents are divided into 5 sections. Chapter 1 is the introduction. Chapter 2 summarizes the measures introduced by Member States to put an end to violence against women migrant workers, which covers legal, bilateral and regional interventions, reintegration strategies, and other measures addressing the issue. Chapter 3 presents some views and comments on the different issue indicators. Chapter 4 discusses the actions taken by organizations of the UN system on the situation of women migrant workers, including strategies taken by the Commission on the Status of Women, the Commission on Human Rights, the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, and the Inter-agency Committee on Women and Gender Equality. The fifth and final chapter presents the conclusions concerning the responses of Member States, authorities, and bodies within the UN system, and intergovernmental organizations.
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  22. 22
    140207

    Advancement of women: Argentina, Bangladesh, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guinea-Bissau, Marshall Islands, Philippines and Portugal: draft resolution. Violence against women migrant workers.

    United Nations. General Assembly

    [Unpublished] 1996 Nov 5. 4 p. (A/C.3/51/L.17)

    This UN resolution opens by recalling previous resolutions about violence against women migrant workers, the conclusions of world conferences, and the report of the Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights that all emphasize the importance of protecting the human rights of vulnerable groups. The resolution also notes that large numbers of women cross international borders seeking work and that both sending and receiving states benefit from this activity. The resolution expresses concern about continued acts of violence taken by employers against women migrant workers and notes that some receiving states have taken measures to alleviate the plight of these women. The resolution acknowledges the report of the Secretary-General on violence against women migrant workers and a 1996 expert meeting held in the Philippines. In accord with the UN's determination to prevent and eliminate all forms of violence against women and girls, the resolution encourages Member States to enact protective legislation; periodically review the implementation of this legislation to ensure its effectiveness; consider adopting legislative sanctions against intermediaries who exploit women migrant workers; conduct regular consultations to identify problems; and sign, ratify, or accede to the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families and the 1926 Slavery Convention. The resolution also recommends ways the UN community can address this problem.
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  23. 23
    140213

    Further promotion and encouragement of human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the question of the programme and methods of work of the commission. Alternative approaches and ways and means within the United Nations system for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences.

    Coomaraswamy R

    [Unpublished] 1997 Feb 12 36 p. (E/CN.4/1997/47)

    This report of the UN Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women focuses on all forms of violence against women in the community. The introduction briefly reviews the past and projected work of the Rapporteur. Section I defines violence in the community and the role of the community in women's lives, especially in controlling women's sexuality and limiting or supporting women's human rights. Section II reviews international human rights law relating to violence against women, especially that contained in the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Section III considers rape and sexual violence against women, including sexual harassment, offering heinous examples from various countries and considering the response of the criminal justice system as well as the legal framework and state strategies to combat rape and sexual violence. Section IV focuses on trafficking in women and forced prostitution, again using specific examples to illustrate the points and considering national laws on trafficking in women and the few noteworthy state strategies to combat trafficking and forced prostitution that have been instituted in response to pressure from nongovernmental organizations. Section V deals with violence against women migrant workers, and Section VI reviews violence resulting from religious extremism. The final section offers general and specific recommendations of actions to end the violence.
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  24. 24
    139710

    Message from the Director.

    Erturk Y

    INSTRAW NEWS. 1998; (28):4-6.

    This article, which introduces an issue of INSTRAW News that commemorates the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, opens by expressing support for the Declaration and concern for the gap between the articulation and implementation of human rights. This gap is especially apparent in the stubborn persistence of gender inequalities. Throughout the world, women's rights are violated and their very lives threatened by violence and the threat of violence. Women's advocates have managed to bring the issue of domestic violence to the fore in many countries, but other countries bow to the traditional notion that what happens in the private sphere is not a public sphere concern. Additional threats to the rights of women are found in the trend towards defining identity on the basis of community membership rather than on an individual basis. This ignores the fact that cultures, traditions, and religions are not gender neutral and routinely transgress women's human rights. This also questions whether cultural imperatives in a multicultural world render the very notion of universal human rights inappropriate or whether cultural diversity can be respected without endangering human rights. Situating identity in notions of community can also lead to atrocities such as ethnic cleansing. Another threat is found in the lack of infrastructure to address the violation of the human rights of women international migrant workers and of displaced women. INSTRAW is committed to conducting research to bridge the gap between policy initiatives and women's demands and emphasizes that constructs of masculinity must be examined to transform unequal gender structures.
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  25. 25
    087734

    International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families. [Status].

    United Nations

    In: Multilateral treaties, index and current status, Tenth Cumulative Supplement, compiled by M.J. Bowman and D.J. Harris. Nottingham, England, University of Nottingham Treaty Centre, 1993. 107-8.

    On 19 February 1993, Egypt became a party to this Convention. The Convention seeks to establish a comprehensive regime for the protection of the rights of all migrant workers and members of their families. It is divided into nine parts, as follows: 1) Definitions and scope; 2) Non-discrimination; 3) Human rights; 4) Other rights; 5) Provisions applicable to particular categories of workers; 6) Promotion of appropriate conditions in connection with migration; 7) Application of the Convention (in connection with which a Committee on the Protection of the Rights of Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families is established); 8) General provisions; and 9) Final provisions.
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