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Health and health services in Judaea, Samaria and Gaza 1983-1984: a report by the Ministry of Health of Israel to the Thirty-Seventh world Health Assembly, Geneva, May 1984.
Jerusalem, Israel, Ministry of Health, 1984 Mar. 195 p.Health conditions and health services in Judea, Samaria, and Gaza during the 1967-83 period are discussed. Health-related activities and changes in the social and economic environment are assessed and their impact on health is evaluated. Specific activities performed during the current year are outlined. The following are specific facets of the health care system that are the focus of many current projects in these districts; the development of a comprehensive network of primary care programs and centers for preventive and curative services has been given high priority and is continuing; renovation and expansion of hospital facilities, along with improved staffing, equipment, and supplies for basic and specialty health services increase local capabilities for increasingly sophisticated health care, and consequently there is a decreasing need to send patients requiring specialized care to supraregional referral hospitals, except for highly specialized services; inadequacies in the preexisting reporting system have necessitated a continuting process of development for the gathering and publication of general and specific statistical and demographic data; stress has been placed on provision of safe drinking water, development of sewage and solid waste collection and disposal systems, as well as food control and other environmental sanitation activities; major progress has been made in the establishment of a funding system that elicits the participation and financial support of the health care consumer through volunary health insurance, covering large proportions of the population in the few years since its inception; the continuing building room in residential housing along with the continuous development of essential community sanitation infrastructure services are important factors in improved living and health conditions for the people; and the health system's growth must continue to be accompanied by planning, evaluation, and research atall levels. Specific topics covered include: demography and vital statistics; socioeconomic conditions; morbidity and mortality; hospital services; maternal and child health; nutrition; health education; expanded program immunization; environmental health; mental health; problems of special groups; health insurance; community and voluntary agency participation; international agencies; manpower and training; and planning and evaluation. Over the past 17 years, Judea, Samaria, and Gaza have been areas of rapid population growth and atthe same time of rapid socioeconomic development. In addition there have been basic changes in the social and health environment. As measured by socioeconomic indicators, much progress has been achieved for and by the people. As measured by health status evaluation indicators, the people benefit from an incresing quantity and quality of primary care and specialty services. The expansion of the public health infrastructure, combined with growing access to and utilization of personal preventive services, has been a key contributor to this process.
Copenhagen, Denmark, World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, 1986. 62 p.A Consultation on Sexuality was convened by the Regional Office for Europe of the World Health Organization (WHO) in Copenhagen in November 1983 to examine the sexual dimensions of health problems. Sexuality influences thoughts, feelings, actions, and interactions and thus physical and mental health. Since health is a fundamental human right, so must sexual health also be a basic human right. 3 basic elements of sexual health were identified: 1) a capacity to enjoy and control sexual and reproductive behavior in accordance with social and personal ethics; 2) freedom from fear, shame, guilt, false beliefs, and other psychological factors inhibiting sexual response and impairing sexual relationships; and 3) freedom from organic disorders, diseases, and deficiencies that interfere with sexual and reproductive functions. The purpose of sexual health care should be the enhancement of life and personal relationships, not only counseling or care related to procreation and sexually transmitted diseases. Barriers to sexual health include myths and taboos, sexual stereotypes, and changing social conditions. In addition, sexuality is repressed among groups such as the mentally handicapped, the physically disabled, the elderly, and those in institutions whose sexual needs are not acknowledged. Homosexuals are often stigmatized because their sexual expression is at variance with dominant cultural values. Sex education programs and health workers must broaden their traditional approach to sexual health so they can help people to plan and achieve their own goals. Family planning programs must expand from their traditional goal of avoiding unwanted births and help people balance the need for rational planning on the one hand and the satisfaction of irrational sexual desires on the other hand. Promoting sexual health is an integral part of the promotion of health for all.
Apartheid and health. Part I. Report of an international conference held at Brazzaville, People's Republic of the Congo, 16-20 November 1981. Part II. The health implications of racial discrimination and social inequality: an analytical report to the conference.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1983. 258 p.This mongraph is organized into 2 parts. Part I includes an introduction consisting od election of officers, method of work, and participants. Opening statements by Comlan A. A. Quenum, Regional Director for Africa, World Health Organization (WHO); Alfred Nzo, Secretary-General of the African National Congress; John Nyati Pokela, Chairman of the Pan Africanist Congress of Azania; Iyambo Indongo, Secretary of Health, South West Africa People's Organization; and Halfdan Mahler, Director-General, World Health Organization are given. The main themes of discussion were the choice between health or apartheid, an analysis of the system of health care delivery in South Africa, and the interrealtionships between apartheid and maternal and child health, workers' health, and mental health. In the course of its discussions the Conference reached a consensus on the following: 1) direction, coordination, and management; 2) health systems infrastructure; and 3) health science and technology. The strategy for health for all by the year 2000 in the African Region, action against apartheid and its harmful effects on health development is discussed, as is the place of the struggle against apartheid in regional and global strategies. The Brazzaville Declaration is given. In Pari II, the health implications of racial discrimination and social inequality are discussed. An introduction is given and the nature of apartheid is discussed, as is the origin of South African society and its health care system. Living conditions and disease patterns, the extent and effect of malnutrition, the impact of apartheid on psychosocial development, occupational health and disease, and the politics of care are also discussed in Part II. The concluding discussion covers disease and health care in South Africa and the constitution of the World Health Organization.