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Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2017. 86 p.Sexual abuse of children and adolescents is a gross violation of their rights and a global public health problem. It adversely affects the health of children and adolescents. Health care providers are in a unique position to provide an empathetic response to children and adolescents who have been sexually abused. Such a response can go a long way in helping survivors recover from the trauma of sexual abuse. WHO has published new clinical guidelines Responding to children and adolescents who have been sexually abused aimed at helping front-line health workers, primarily from low resource settings, in providing evidence-based, quality, trauma-informed care to survivors. The guidelines emphasize the importance of promoting safety, offering choices and respecting the wishes and autonomy of children and adolescents. They cover recommendations for post-rape care and mental health; and approaches to minimizing distress in the process of taking medical history, conducting examination and documenting findings.
WPA International Competency-Based Curriculum for Mental Health Providers on Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Violence Against Women.
World Psychiatry. 2017 Jun; 16(2):223-224.Add to my documents.
Lancet. Psychiatry. 2015 Jun; 2(6):487-8.Add to my documents.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2009. 91 p.The report calls for action both within the health sector and beyond to improve the health and lives of girls and women around the world. The report provides the latest and most comprehensive evidence available on women's specific needs and health challenges over their entire life. The report includes the latest global and regional figures on the health and leading causes of death in women from birth, through childhood, adolescence and adulthood, to older age.
Intimate partner violence and women's physical and mental health in the WHO multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence: An observational study.
Lancet. 2008 Apr; 371(9619):1165-1172.This article summarises findings from ten countries from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women. Standardised population-based surveys were done between 2000 and 2003. Women aged 15-49 years were interviewed about their experiences of physically and sexually violent acts by a current or former intimate male partner, and about selected symptoms associated with physical and mental health. The women reporting physical violence by a partner were asked about injuries that resulted from this type of violence. 24 097 women completed interviews. Pooled analysis of all sites found significant associations between lifetime experiences of partner violence and self-reported poor health (odds ratio 1.6 [95% CI 1.5-1.8]), and with specific health problems in the previous 4 weeks: difficulty walking (1.6 [1.5-1.8]), difficulty with daily activities (1.6 [1.5-1.8]), pain (1.6 [1.5-1.7]), memory loss (1.8 [1.6-2.0]), dizziness (1.7 [1.6-1.8]), and vaginal discharge (1.8 [1.7-2.0]). For all settings combined, women who reported partner violence at least once in their life reported significantly more emotional distress, suicidal thoughts (2.9 [2.7-3.2]), and suicidal attempts (3.8 [3.3-4.5]), than non-abused women. These significant associations were maintained in almost all of the sites. Between 19% and 55% of women who had ever been physically abused by their partner were ever injured. In addition to being a breach of human rights, intimate partner violence is associated with serious public-health consequences that should be addressed in national and global health policies and programmes. WHO; Governments of the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and UK; Rockefeller Foundation; Urban Primary Health Care project of the Government of Bangladesh; Swedish Agency for Research Cooperation with Developing Countries (SAREC/Sida); United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA); and Trocaire. (author's)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 Nov; 85(11):822.Armed conflicts and natural disasters cause substantial psychological and social suffering to affected populations. Despite a long history of disagreements, international agencies have now agreed on how to provide such support. The Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC), established in response to United Nations General Assembly Resolution 46/182, is a committee of executive heads of United Nations agencies, intergovernmental organizations, Red Cross and Red Crescent agencies and consortia of nongovernmental organizations responsible for global humanitarian policy. In 2005, the IASC established a task force to develop guidelines on mental health and psychosocial support in emergencies. The guidelines use the term "mental health and psychosocial support" to describe any type of local or outside support that aims to protect or promote psychosocial well being or to prevent or treat mental disorders. Although "mental health" and "psychosocial support" are closely related and overlap, in the humanitarian world they reflect different approaches. Aid agencies working outside of the health sector have tended to speak of supporting psychosocial well being. Health sector agencies have used the term mental health, yet historically also use "psychosocial rehabilitation" and "psychosocial treatment" to describe nonbiological interventions for people with mental disorders. Exact definitions of these terms vary between and within aid organizations, disciplines and countries, and these variations fuel confusion. The guidelines' reference to mental health and psychosocial support serves to unite a broad group of actors and communicates the need for complementary supports. (excerpt)
Political Declaration on HIV / AIDS. Draft resolution submitted by the President of the General Assembly.
New York, New York, United Nations, General Assembly, 2006 Jun 2. 8 p. (A/60/L.57)We, Heads of State and Government and representatives of States and Governments participating in the comprehensive review of the progress achieved in realizing the targets set out in the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS, held on 31 May and 1 June 2006, and the High-Level Meeting, held on 2 June 2006. Note with alarm that we are facing an unprecedented human catastrophe; that a quarter of a century into the pandemic, AIDS has inflicted immense suffering on countries and communities throughout the world; and that more than 65 million people have been infected with HIV, more than 25 million people have died of AIDS, 15 million children have been orphaned by AIDS and millions more made vulnerable, and 40 million people are currently living with HIV, more than 95 per cent of whom live in developing countries. Recognize that HIV/AIDS constitutes a global emergency and poses one of the most formidable challenges to the development, progress and stability of our respective societies and the world at large, and requires an exceptional and comprehensive global response. (excerpt)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 1954; 11:201-228.The information contained in the table that follows was obtained from a questionnaire sent by WHO in June 1953 to all Member States in order to elicit information on the types of health statistics and related vital statistics that are available in different countries, how they are obtained, and to what extent they are made available to the international organizations. The questionnaire asked for information on causes of death, causes of foetal death, and notifiable diseases, in addition to the subjects listed in the table. It will be seen that only a certain number of countries answered fully that part of the questionnaire with which we are concerned here. The reason is fairly obvious: statistics pertaining to health in its various aspects are numerous, varied, and scattered among many government departments apart from the health administrations--for instance, among the ministries of social welfare (social insurance returns, hospital statistics), of defence (army, navy, and air force health statistics), and of education (school medical inspection, number of students and graduates in medicine and in allied professions). To compile a complete inventory of existing health statistics would require many months of patient search in publications and reports and correspondence with the many national administrations concerned. (excerpt)
How we define poverty - eradicating extreme poverty and hunger. [Definición de la pobreza: Erradicación de pobreza y hambre extremos]
UN Chronicle. 2002 Dec; 39(4): p..To talk about poverty and define it empirically seem like an easy task from the privileged point of view of the cultured and educated, or by means of moderate or highly acquired capacity that makes it possible to distinguish the parameters that identify it. By 2003, there will be over two billion poor people in the world fighting for survival. My colleagues and Dominican acquaintances, through their own experiences, agree on the definition of poverty as the total absence of opportunities, accompanied by high levels of undernourishment, hunger, illiteracy, lack of education, physical and mental ailments, emotional and social instability, unhappiness, sorrow and hopelessness for the future. Poverty is also characterized by a chronic shortage of economic, social and political participation, relegating individuals to exclusion as social beings, preventing access to the benefits of economic and social development and thereby limiting their cultural development. The United Nations has established that poverty and excluded people exist in all regions of the world; therefore, there is a diversity of reasons why people cannot satisfy their basic needs. It also concluded that two conditions--social and individual--limit the possibility of access to resources, knowledge and benefits, to fulfill human needs. (excerpt)
Manila, Philippines, WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2003.  p.This educational package is designed for the use of individuals, groups, and organizations involved in promoting adolescent health and development among a variety of audiences. The main target users are primary health care givers - doctors, nurses and midwives - who deal with adolescents in various settings, and who wish to involve their colleagues in advocacy work for and with adolescents. This package can also be useful for programme managers and policy-makers advocating adolescent health and development programmes and policies. In whole or in part, this package can be used to structure workshops and discussions on adolescent health and development issues. Ideally, adolescents should be invited to participate in these activities in order to achieve heightened understanding of their needs and concerns. The image of a butterfly emerging from its cocoon is depicted many times in this package. This symbolizes the metamorphosis that takes place as adolescents go through development. This image serves to remind us of the need to nurture adolescents as they go through this challenging phase. The image also foretells what adolescents can be, as they transform into the future of their countries. (excerpt)
SCN News. 2002 Dec; (25):4-30.This paper addresses the most common nutrition and health problems in turn, assessing the extent of the problem; the impact of the condition on overall development, and what programmatic responses can be taken to remedy the problem through the school sys- tern. The paper also acknowledges that an estimated 113m children of school-age are not in school, the majority of these children living in Sub-Saharan Africa and South-East Asia. Poor health and nutrition that differentially affects this population is also discussed. (excerpt)
Variation in incidence of serious adverse events after onchocerciasis treatment with ivermectin in areas of Cameroon co-endemic for loiasis.
Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2003 Sep; 8(9):820-831.Objective: To determine the incidence of serious adverse events (SAEs) after mass treatment with ivermectin in areas co-endemic for loiasis and onchocerciasis, and to identify potential risk factors associated with the development of these SAEs, in particular encephalopathic SAEs. Methods: We retrospectively analysed SAEs reported to have occurred between 1 December 1998 and 30 November 1999 in central-southern Cameroon by chart review, interview and examination of a subset of patients. Results: The overall incidence of SAEs for the three provinces studied was 6 per 100,000. However, for Central Province alone the incidence of SAEs was 2.7 per 10,000 overall, and 1.9 per 10,000 for encephalopathic SAEs associated with Loa loa microfilaremia (PLERM). The corresponding rates for the most severely affected district within Central Province (Okola) were 10.5 per 10,000 and 9.2 per 10,000 respectively. Symptoms began within the first 24–48 h of ivermectin administration but there was a delay of approximately 48–84 h in seeking help after the onset of symptoms. First-time exposure to ivermectin was associated with development of PLERM. Conclusion: In Cameroon, the incidence of SAEs following ivermectin administration in general, and PLERM cases in particular, varies substantially by district within the areas co-endemic for loiasis and onchocerciasis. More intense surveillance and monitoring in the first 2 days after mass distribution in ivermectin-naïve populations would assist in early recognition, referral and management of these cases. The increased reporting of SAEs from Okola is unexpected and warrants further investigation. Research is urgently needed to find a reliable screening tool to exclude individuals (rather than communities) at risk of PLERM from the mass treatment program. (author's)
Psychoanalytic Review. 1998 Aug; 85(4):639-658.This article will explore some of the issues of resilience in the child population of Bosnia during the recent war there. It will also look at similar issues in the humanitarian aid workers who came from outside the country as representatives of relief agencies. I, myself, worked for UNICEF, and it was my job to train members of the local population to work with Bosnian children in an attempt to increase their resilience under intense wartime stress and to reduce the traumatic impact to those children already harmed. (author's)
Lancet. 2002 Oct 12; 360(9340):1108-1110.This paper reports on the organization and administration of WHO under the management of Director-General Gro Harlem Brundtland. It describes the three broad categories of the work of WHO and the several areas that are considered to be organization-wide priorities for WHO.
Health and health services in Judaea, Samaria and Gaza 1983-1984: a report by the Ministry of Health of Israel to the Thirty-Seventh world Health Assembly, Geneva, May 1984.
Jerusalem, Israel, Ministry of Health, 1984 Mar. 195 p.Health conditions and health services in Judea, Samaria, and Gaza during the 1967-83 period are discussed. Health-related activities and changes in the social and economic environment are assessed and their impact on health is evaluated. Specific activities performed during the current year are outlined. The following are specific facets of the health care system that are the focus of many current projects in these districts; the development of a comprehensive network of primary care programs and centers for preventive and curative services has been given high priority and is continuing; renovation and expansion of hospital facilities, along with improved staffing, equipment, and supplies for basic and specialty health services increase local capabilities for increasingly sophisticated health care, and consequently there is a decreasing need to send patients requiring specialized care to supraregional referral hospitals, except for highly specialized services; inadequacies in the preexisting reporting system have necessitated a continuting process of development for the gathering and publication of general and specific statistical and demographic data; stress has been placed on provision of safe drinking water, development of sewage and solid waste collection and disposal systems, as well as food control and other environmental sanitation activities; major progress has been made in the establishment of a funding system that elicits the participation and financial support of the health care consumer through volunary health insurance, covering large proportions of the population in the few years since its inception; the continuing building room in residential housing along with the continuous development of essential community sanitation infrastructure services are important factors in improved living and health conditions for the people; and the health system's growth must continue to be accompanied by planning, evaluation, and research atall levels. Specific topics covered include: demography and vital statistics; socioeconomic conditions; morbidity and mortality; hospital services; maternal and child health; nutrition; health education; expanded program immunization; environmental health; mental health; problems of special groups; health insurance; community and voluntary agency participation; international agencies; manpower and training; and planning and evaluation. Over the past 17 years, Judea, Samaria, and Gaza have been areas of rapid population growth and atthe same time of rapid socioeconomic development. In addition there have been basic changes in the social and health environment. As measured by socioeconomic indicators, much progress has been achieved for and by the people. As measured by health status evaluation indicators, the people benefit from an incresing quantity and quality of primary care and specialty services. The expansion of the public health infrastructure, combined with growing access to and utilization of personal preventive services, has been a key contributor to this process.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2001; 79(12):1174.This news article reports that the WHO has spearheaded efforts to restore Afghanistan's shattered health system. WHO's priorities include improving women's health, fighting infectious diseases, and getting hospitals and health centers back on their feet.
Tokyo, Japan, WHO, 1994 Mar. 13 p.During Cambodia's transition to a parliamentary democracy, the World Health Organization (WHO) assisted various administrative authorities as they determined immediate health policies and strategies and established mechanisms for national and international coordination of health activities. WHO identified national requirements that formed the foundation for a national health development process and of de facto policies and strategies. The generation of war and suffering had the most impact on women and children (e.g., maternal mortality 900/100,000 live births and child mortality >200/1000). Significant conditions in Cambodia include malaria, dengue hemorrhagic fever, tuberculosis, diarrhea, HIV/AIDS, and loss of limbs and other physical injuries. The Ministry of Health (MOH) is responsible for health care for almost the entire population. The priority health development strategy is improving district health systems in support of community health services. The currently managed vertical programs will eventually be integrated and managed as one comprehensive health service system from the provincial level. The human resource development strategy includes workforce planning and management, continuing education, and formal training. Cambodia's system of procurement and distribution of essential drugs, supplies, and equipment of public sector health facilities needs to be improved. WHO is supporting Cambodia's expanded program on immunization. MOH considers reduction of maternal and young child mortality a top priority and is promoting birth spacing. Mental health problems have not been traditionally addressed in Cambodia. The government plans on establishing a central program of planning and management to support and develop mental health services. Other areas WHO and MOH are addressing include nutrition, health and environment, and health sector resources (e.g., health personnel, capital investment).
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1990. 59 p.Despite the interplay of physical symptoms and psychosocial distress, both the training of health personnel and the delivery of health care have failed to attend to mental health problems. The introduction of a mental health component into primary health care can reduce patient dissatisfaction, chronicity, and wastage of resources. With appropriate supervision, health personnel can detect and treat drug and alcohol abuse, chronic mental illness, acute emotional stress arising from life crises, and developmental disorders of childhood and adolescence, for example. To ensure coordinated action by governmental bodies and nongovernmental organizations, a statement of national mental health policy should be issued and a coordinating group established. Also essential is community involvement in the identification of local mental health and psychosocial problems. Training programs should emphasize practical skills such as counseling techniques, empathic listening, simple methods of assessment, and referral. Although not all priority mental health conditions require drugs, antiepileptic, antiparkinson, and psychotherapeutic agents should be available at health centers. In the short-term, additional expenditures will be required for staff training, essential drugs, and establishment of a national coordinating unit; however, these costs will be balanced by savings incurred through the rapid detection of mental disorders that underlie physical complaints and the transfer of mental patients from specialty hospitals back to the community.
The work of WHO 1990-1991. Biennial report of the Director-General to the World Health Assembly and to the United Nations.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1992. xi, 184 p.WHO reports that people are healthier and live longer than in the past, but considerable disability remains. The WHO Director-General lists several 1990-1991 WHO-hosted international forums to develop strategies to address proper food and nutrition, integrated disease control, human health and the changing environment, information dissemination, and intensified health development activities. The biennial report's first chapter covers governing bodies. Chapter 2 discusses WHO's general program development and management. Chapters 3-8 examine WHO's strategy for health for all, health system development, public information and education for health, organization of health systems based on primary health care, development of human resources for health, and research promotion and development. The chapter on general health protection and promotion discusses women, health, and development; food and nutrition; oral health; accident prevention; and tobacco. Chapter 10 focuses on maternal and child health and family planning, adolescent health, human reproduction research, occupational health, and health of the aged. Chapters 11-13 address protection and promotion of mental health, promotion of environmental health, and diagnostic, therapeutic, and rehabilitative technology. The disease prevention and control chapter examines immunization, vector borne diseases control (e.g., malaria), tropical disease research, diarrhea, leprosy, zoonoses, acute respiratory infections, tuberculosis, sexually transmitted diseases, AIDS, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Health information support and support services comprise chapters 15-16. The last 6 chapters are dedicated to the regional offices in Africa, the Americas, South-east Asia, Europe, Eastern Mediterranean, and the Western pacific. There are 5 annexes.
In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume II, compiled by United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 105-9. (Population Studies No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)In 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest, romania, WHO discusses degradation of the environment and population. In developing countries, poor sanitary conditions and communicable diseases are responsible for most illnesses and deaths. Physical, chemical, and psychosocial factors, as well as pathogenic organisms, cause disease and death in developing countries. Variations in individuals and between individuals present problems in determining universally valid norms relating to environment and health. Researchers must use epidemiological and toxicological methods to identify sensitive indicators of environmental deterioration among vulnerable groups, e.g., children and the aged. Changes in demographics and psychosocial, climatic, geographical, geological, and hydrologic factors may influence the health and welfare of entire populations. Air pollution appears to adversely affect the respiratory tract. In fact, 3 striking events (Meuse valley in France , Donora valley in Pennsylvania [US], and London  show that air pollution can directly cause morbidity, especially bronchitis and heart disease, and mortality. Exposure to lead causes irreparable brain damage. Water pollution has risen with industrialization. Use of agricultural chemicals also contribute to water pollution. Repeated exposure to high noise levels can result in deafness. Occupational diseases occur among people exposed to physical, chemical, or biological pollutants at work which tend to be at higher levels than in the environment. Migrant workers from developing countries in Europe live in unsafe and unhygienic conditions. Further, they do not have access to adequate health services. Nevertheless, life expectancy has increased greatly along with urbanization and industrialization. A longer life span and environmental changes are linked with increased chronic diseases and diseases of the aged.
Copenhagen, Denmark, World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, 1986. 62 p.A Consultation on Sexuality was convened by the Regional Office for Europe of the World Health Organization (WHO) in Copenhagen in November 1983 to examine the sexual dimensions of health problems. Sexuality influences thoughts, feelings, actions, and interactions and thus physical and mental health. Since health is a fundamental human right, so must sexual health also be a basic human right. 3 basic elements of sexual health were identified: 1) a capacity to enjoy and control sexual and reproductive behavior in accordance with social and personal ethics; 2) freedom from fear, shame, guilt, false beliefs, and other psychological factors inhibiting sexual response and impairing sexual relationships; and 3) freedom from organic disorders, diseases, and deficiencies that interfere with sexual and reproductive functions. The purpose of sexual health care should be the enhancement of life and personal relationships, not only counseling or care related to procreation and sexually transmitted diseases. Barriers to sexual health include myths and taboos, sexual stereotypes, and changing social conditions. In addition, sexuality is repressed among groups such as the mentally handicapped, the physically disabled, the elderly, and those in institutions whose sexual needs are not acknowledged. Homosexuals are often stigmatized because their sexual expression is at variance with dominant cultural values. Sex education programs and health workers must broaden their traditional approach to sexual health so they can help people to plan and achieve their own goals. Family planning programs must expand from their traditional goal of avoiding unwanted births and help people balance the need for rational planning on the one hand and the satisfaction of irrational sexual desires on the other hand. Promoting sexual health is an integral part of the promotion of health for all.
Apartheid and health. Part I. Report of an international conference held at Brazzaville, People's Republic of the Congo, 16-20 November 1981. Part II. The health implications of racial discrimination and social inequality: an analytical report to the conference.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1983. 258 p.This mongraph is organized into 2 parts. Part I includes an introduction consisting od election of officers, method of work, and participants. Opening statements by Comlan A. A. Quenum, Regional Director for Africa, World Health Organization (WHO); Alfred Nzo, Secretary-General of the African National Congress; John Nyati Pokela, Chairman of the Pan Africanist Congress of Azania; Iyambo Indongo, Secretary of Health, South West Africa People's Organization; and Halfdan Mahler, Director-General, World Health Organization are given. The main themes of discussion were the choice between health or apartheid, an analysis of the system of health care delivery in South Africa, and the interrealtionships between apartheid and maternal and child health, workers' health, and mental health. In the course of its discussions the Conference reached a consensus on the following: 1) direction, coordination, and management; 2) health systems infrastructure; and 3) health science and technology. The strategy for health for all by the year 2000 in the African Region, action against apartheid and its harmful effects on health development is discussed, as is the place of the struggle against apartheid in regional and global strategies. The Brazzaville Declaration is given. In Pari II, the health implications of racial discrimination and social inequality are discussed. An introduction is given and the nature of apartheid is discussed, as is the origin of South African society and its health care system. Living conditions and disease patterns, the extent and effect of malnutrition, the impact of apartheid on psychosocial development, occupational health and disease, and the politics of care are also discussed in Part II. The concluding discussion covers disease and health care in South Africa and the constitution of the World Health Organization.