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Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2015. 40 p.Key populations at higher risk of HIV include people who sell sex, men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender people and people who inject drugs. Young people who belong to one or more of these key populations – or who engage in activities associated with these populations – are made especially vulnerable to HIV by factors including widespread discrimination, stigma and violence, combined with the particular vulnerabilities of youth, power imbalances in relationships and, sometimes, alienation from family and friends. These factors increase the risk that they may engage – willingly or not – in behaviours that put them at risk of HIV, such as frequent unprotected sex and the sharing of needles and syringes to inject drugs. This technical brief is one in a series addressing four young key populations. It is intended for policy-makers, donors, service-planners, service-providers and community-led organizations. This brief aims to inform discussions about how best to provide health services, programmes and support for young MSM. It offers a concise account of current knowledge concerning the HIV risk and vulnerability of young MSM; the barriers and constraints they face to appropriate services; examples of programmes that may work well in addressing their needs and rights; and approaches and considerations for providing services that both draw upon and build to the strengths, competencies and capacities of young MSM.
Bonn, Germany, GTZ, 2016 Apr. 7 p.This factsheet summarises the results of the past collaboration between BACKUP and the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) on the ‘Shadows and Light’ project. BACKUP Health and the International Planned Parenthood Fed-eration (IPPF) have collaborated over many years to foster greater and more rapid action on SRH and HIV linkages within the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). Recent collaborative work has highlighted gaps in addressing the specific needs of key populations within Global Fund pro-grammes. ‘Shadows and Light’, a three-year project funded by BACKUP Health, aims to address the linked SRH and HIV needs of key populations within four IPPF member associations. The project involved the Family Planning Association of India and transgender people, Reproductive Health Uganda and sex work-ers, Family Health Options Kenya and people who inject drugs, and the Cameroon National Association for Family Welfare and MSM. The project recognised that a comprehensive response to HIV must include initiatives that meet the needs of those who are marginalised, vulnerable, socially excluded and under-served. Based on these linkages, addressing SRH within HIV programmes and services funded by the Global Fund is a key opportunity to ensure sustainability in service provision to key populations.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2014 Jul.  p.In this new consolidated guidelines document on HIV prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care for key populations, the World Health Organization brings together all existing guidance relevant to five key populations -- men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, people in prisons and other closed settings, sex workers and transgender people --and updates selected guidance and recommendations. These guidelines aim to: provide a comprehensive package of evidence-based HIV-related recommendations for all key populations; increase awareness of the needs of and issues important to key populations; improve access, coverage and uptake of effective and acceptable services; and catalyze greater national and global commitment to adequate funding and services.
Supporting civil society organisations to reach key populations in the Latin American and Caribbean region. A look at HIV / AIDS projects financed by the World Bank.
[Brighton, United Kingdom], International HIV / AIDS Alliance, 2006. 52 p.The purpose of this study is to assess the extent to which World Bank financed projects are supporting civil society organisations (CSOs) to reach four key populations (men who have sex with men (MSM), sex workers (SW), intravenous drug users (IDUs) and persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region. The study refers to the first three key populations (KPs) as 'at-risk KPs' when discussing KPs who may or may not be HIV infected. The study has two main outputs: an initial mapping of World Bank financed AIDS prevention and control projects in LAC and the role of CSOs and KPs in those projects; identification of factors that impede or facilitate CSO access to World Bank resources that target KPs. The International HIV/AIDS Alliance has commissioned this study to improve understanding of the dynamics at the country level with World Bank financed projects concerning CSOs and KPs. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2007 Mar 3; 369(9563):720-721.In December, 2006, the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) submitted to its governing board a paper on HIV/AIDS and security--a culmination of wide ranging UN discussions on this subject that began with the historic consideration of AIDS in the Security Council in 2000. The paper reprises frequently raised concerns--ie, that high AIDS-related mortality in the military will compromise security in highly affected countries, or that high costs of AIDS will sap public resources needed to ensure security. UNAIDS notes that such destabilisation has not yet occurred, but that "does not mean that… such a threat will not emerge". In such analyses, the effect of AIDS on military strength and public security overshadows what may be a substantially more important link between AIDS and security--ie, the effect of the unfettered pursuit of a public security agenda, including counterterrorism measures, on the lives of people who are most affected by, or vulnerable to, HIV/AIDS. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2006 Sep. 68 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS/06.25E)Sex between men occurs in all societies. For a variety of reasons, it is often stigmatized by society. Awareness of male-male sex varies considerably from one country to another and may be lower when stigmatization is common. The term 'men who have sex with men' (MSM) describes a behavioural phenomenon rather than a specific group of people. It is generally the preferred term because, in the context of HIV, the important issue is risk behaviour rather than sexual identity. It includes not only self-identified gay and bisexual men, but also men who engage in male-male sex and self-identify as heterosexual, or those whose sexual identity is but a part of their cultural self identification. In some contexts, 'males who have sex with males' is more accurate, since programmes may target males who are not yet adults (the United Nations defines children as those under 18). The term includes those who desire male-male sexual relations and who have such relations forced upon them. Sex between men frequently involves anal intercourse which, if unprotected, carries a high risk of HIV transmission for the receptive partner, and a significant risk for the insertive partner. At least 5-10% of all HIV infections worldwide are due to sexual transmission between men, though this figure varies within countries and between regions considerably. In Central and Eastern Europe, HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men is much higher than that of the general population. In Asia, men who have sex with men are disproportionately affected by HIV. It is estimated that HIV prevalence is as high as 14% in Phnom Penh, Cambodia; 16% in Andrha Pradesh, India; and 28% in Bangkok, Thailand. Less information is available in sub-Saharan Africa and other parts of the world where men who have sex with men typically do not identify as gay, homosexual or bisexual. Circumstances such as incarceration or military service may also encourage male-male sex among men who would not do so in other contexts. (excerpt)