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[Quality of life and its related factors among HIV/AIDS patients from HIV serodiscordant couples in Zhoukou of Henan province].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]. 2016 Apr; 50(4):339-45.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the quality of life and its related factors among HIV/AIDS patients from HIV serodiscordant couples in Zhoukou city of Henan province. METHODS: During January to May in 2015, by the convenience sample, World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire for Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF) (Chinese version) and a self-edited questionnaire were used to investigate 1 251 HIV/AIDS patients who were confirmed with HIV positive by local CDC, registered in"HIV serodiscordant family" and agreed to participate in a face-to-face interview with above 18 year-old based on the local CDC , township hospitals and village clinics of 9 counties and 1 district of Zhoukou city, excluding the HIV/AIDS patients who were in divorce, death by one side, unknowing about his HIV status, with mental illness and disturbance of consciousness, incorrectly understanding the content of the questionnaire, and reluctant to participate in this study. The scores of quality of life of physical, psychological, social relations, and environmental domain were calculated. The related factors of the scores of different domains were analyzed by Multiple Two Classification Unconditioned Logistic Regression. RESULTS: The scores of investigation objects in the physical, psychological, social relations, and environmental domain were 12.00+/- 2.02, 12.07 +/- 2.07, 11.87 +/- 1.99, and 11.09 +/- 1.84, respectively. The multiple Unconditioned Logistic Regression analysis indicated that age <40 years, on ART and no other sickness in last two weeks were beneficial factors associated with physical domain with OR (95%CI): 0.61 (0.35-1.06), 0.52 (0.30-0.90), and 1.66 (1.09-2.52), respectively. The possibility of no poverty and no other sickness in last two weeks increased to 0.15(0.09-0.26) and 1.57(1.06-2.33) times of those who was in poverty and with other sickness in last two weeks in physical domain. The possibility of participants who were below 40 years old and with children increased to 0.58 (0.34-0.98) and 0.37 (0.23-0.57) times of who were above 40 years old and without children in psychological domain. The factors of with AIDS related symptoms, no children and with other sickness in last two week were found to be significantly associated with environmental domain with OR (95%CI): 0.65 (0.48-0.88), 0.66 (0.51-0.85), and 0.65 (0.51-0.84), respectively . CONCLUSION: The scores of every domain of quality of life in HIV serodiscordant couples of Zhoukou city were good. Age, whether having AIDS related symptoms, whether to accept ART , children, status of poverty, and whether suffering from other diseases in last two weeks were the main factors associated with the quality of life.
[New recommendations from the World Health Organization (WHO) for the use of contraceptive methods] Nuevas recomendaciones de la Organizacion Mundial de la Salud (OMS) para el uso de los metodos anticonceptivos.
Gaceta Medica De Mexico. 2016 Sep - Oct; 152(5):601-603.The Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use of the World Health Organization have been updated recently. These criteria constitute a guideline for the selection of family planning methods appropriated for women and men with known medical conditions or personal characteristics of medical relevance. The guidelines last updating incorporates recommendations for the use of a new emergency contraceptive pill and three long-acting hormonal methods, and revises some previously established recommendations. This article provides information on the last edition of such document and aims to contribute to its dissemination.
Criminal prosecution of a male partner for sexual transmission of infectious diseases: the views of educated people living in Togo.
Sexually Transmitted Infections. 2013 Jun; 89(4):290-4.OBJECTIVE: To examine the views of educated people in Togo on the acceptability of criminal prosecution of a male partner for sexual transmission of infectious diseases (STIDs) to his female partner. METHODS: 199 adults living in Kara, Togo judged acceptability of criminal prosecution for STID in 45 scenarios composed of combinations of five factors: (a) severity of disease; (b) awareness and communication of one's serological status; (c) partners' marital status; (d) number of sexual partners the female partner has and (e) male partner's subsequent attitude (supportive or not). RESULTS: Acceptability was lower (a) when the male partner decided to take care of his female partner he had infected than when he decided to leave, (b) when both partners were informed but decided not to take precautions than when none of them was informed or when only the male partner was informed and (c) when the female partner has had several male sexual partners than when she has had only one. Two qualitatively different views were identified. For 66% of participants, when the male partner accepts to take care of his partner, he should not be sued, except when he did not disclose his serological status. For 34%, when both partners were informed, the male partner should not be sued, irrespective of other circumstances. CONCLUSIONS: Regarding criminal prosecution for STID, most people in the sample endorsed the position of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS that urges governments not to apply criminal law to cases where sexual partners disclosed their status or were not informed of it.
WHO prequalification of male circumcision devices. Public report. Product: PrePex. Number: PQMC 0001-001-00. Version 1.0.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2013 May.  p. (PQMC 0001-001-00)PrePex with product codes DW0201, DW0202, DW0203, DW0204 and DW0205, manufactured by Circ MedTech Limited, CE-marked regulatory version, was accepted for the WHO list of prequalified male circumcision devices and was listed on 31 May 2013. PrePex is a single use, disposable device; indicated for circumcision of adult men, defined as circumferential excision of the foreskin or prepuce at or near the level of coronal sulcus, with minimal amount of preputial skin remaining. The device should not be used if the package has been compromised. Use by trained personnel only. All device components should not be reused at the risk of cross contamination. The device is intended for adults only and is not applicable for males under the age of 18. The device should be used only in settings where suitable surgical facilities and skills are available within a short time frame (6-12 hours) in order to manage potentially serious complications resulting from device displacements. Device displacement when wearing the device, may lead to the risk of adverse events. Informing the patient of safe behavior when wearing the device is critical. PrePex includes the following items: 1. Placement Ring 2. Elastic Ring 3. Inner Ring 4. Verification Thread Accessories: The PrePex Sizing Plate (PSP) is intended for single use for selecting an appropriate device size. The use of PrePex requires additional tools and materials which are not supplied with PrePex. For Placement: examination gloves, antiseptic solution, skin marker, gauze, 5% anesthetic cream and nurse utility scissors. For Removal: examination gloves, antiseptic solution, sterile harvey wire scissors, sterile forceps, sterile spatula, sterile scalpel, 2 wound dressings, nurse utility scissors and a cutter. Storage: The test kit should be stored at -10 to 55 °C. Shelf-life: 3 years.
South African Medical Journal. 2009 Jan; 99(1):12.Add to my documents.
Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2008 Feb; 8(2):98-100.Kevin De Cock is director of WHO's HIV/AIDS department. Formerly director of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Kenya, he is an infectious disease specialist, with expertise in HIV/ AIDS, tuberculosis, liver disease, and tropical diseases such as yellow fever and viral haemorrhagic fevers. TLID: How has your time as WHO's HIV/AIDS director been? KDC: It has been extremely interesting. AIDS policy is always challenging and changing. WHO's HIV efforts up to 2005 were very much oriented around the 3 by 5 initiative. The G8 in 2005 made an announcement about working towards universal access, which became an AIDS rallying cry. So we've had to reorganise ourselves around that as a theme. Some internal reorganisation was necessary to focus not only on treatment, but also on broader issues. We now have five key strategic directions: increasing access to HIV testing and counselling, maximising prevention, accelerating treatment scale-up, strengthening health systems, and investing in strategic information. We have also been working on some important technical areas. One is the issuing of guidance on both provider-initiated testing and male circumcision. In April, 2007, we also issued a report, in response to a request from the World Health Assembly, on the health sector's progress towards universal access. (excerpt)
Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs, Information and Knowledge for Optimal Health [INFO], 2007 Oct 11.  p. (Global Health Technical Briefs; USAID Grant No. GPH-A-00-02-00003-00)Male circumcision reduces HIV transmission from women to men by approximately 60%. Men who have been recently circumcised must abstain from sex until the wound has completely healed. Male circumcision should be performed by trained personnel under hygienic conditions. Male circumcision is only partially protective. MC services must be accompanied by appropriate counseling and communication messages, including ABC (Abstain, Be Faithful/Reduce Number of Sexual Partners, Condom Use). (author's)
Development and Change. 2007 Sep; 38(5):843-864.This article examines the initial response by national and international agencies to gender issues during the aftermath of the Maldives tsunami, arguing that it was, in general, inadequate. Some agencies took a gender blind approach, ignoring different impacts on men and women, as well as the effects of complex gender relations on relief and recovery efforts. Other agencies paid greater attention to gender relations in their response but tended to focus exclusively on the universal category of the 'vulnerable woman' requiring special assistance, whilst at the same time ignoring men's vulnerabilities. This article argues that such language entrenched women as victims, excluding them from leadership and decision-making roles and as such served to reinforce and re-inscribe women's trauma. It is suggested that it is partly because of the nature of international bureaucracies and the fact that this disaster drew foreign 'experts' from around the world that the response neglected or over-simplified gender issues. (author's)
The role of men and boys in the fight against HIV / AIDS in the world of work. Preliminary issues paper.
[Unpublished] 2003. Prepared for the United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW) in collaboration with International Labour Organization (ILO), Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS (UNAIDS), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Expert Group Meeting on “The Role of Men and Boys in Achieving Gender Equality”, Brasilia, Brazil, October 21-24, 2003. 23 p. (EGM/Men-Boys-GE/2003/WP.3)HIV/AIDS is a cross-cutting issue for the ILO, and it is being mainstreamed into all major ILO activities. As HIV/AIDS is a major cause of poverty and discrimination, it is aggravating existing problems of inadequate social protection and gender inequality. The fight against HIV/AIDS requires significant attention to gender issues to guarantee progress. The labour force is being particularly affected by the impact of the pandemic. The majority of those who die of AIDS are adults in their prime - workers in their most productive years. In 1999, for example, 80 per cent of newly infected people in Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia were aged between 20 and 49. Projections made by the ILO indicate that the labour force in 15 African countries will be 10 to 32 per cent smaller by 2020 than it would have been without HIV/AIDS. Many of those infected with HIV are experienced and skilled workers in blue-collar and white-collar jobs, from managers to car mechanics, from producers of food to teachers and doctors. The loss of huge numbers of skilled personnel is having serious effects on the ability of nations to remain productive and deliver basic services. (excerpt)
Appropriate Technology. 2007 Jun; 34(2):31.There is now strong evidence from three randomized controlled trials undertaken in Kisumu, Kenya, Rakai District, Uganda (funded by the US National Institutes of Health) and Orange Farm, South Africa (funded by the French National Agency for Research on AIDS) that male circumcision reduces the risk of heterosexually acquired HIV infection in men by approximately 60 per cent. This evidence supports the findings of numerous observational studies that have also suggested that the areas with lower HIV prevalence occur where there are high rates of male circumcision in some countries in Africa. Currently, an estimated 665 million men, or 30 per cent of men worldwide, are estimated to be circumcised. (excerpt)
Reproductive Health Matters. 2007 May; 15(29):49-52.INTEREST in male circumcision as an HIV prevention intervention is focused on the promise it holds to reduce the risk of HIV infection for men engaged in heterosexual, vaginal intercourse. Following an international consultation on 6-8 March 2007, WHO and UNAIDS released "Conclusions and Recommendations" on the policy and programmatic implications of the existing data on male circumcision and HIV prevention. This is a welcome step in what will inevitably be a long process to ensure male circumcision is appropriately implemented as part of the response to HIV. Beyond simply the offer of the service, if male circumcision is to be an effective strategy over the long term, these conclusions and recommendations will need to be translated into guidelines and adapted and adopted at national and local level. Policies and programmes will need to be developed, and appropriate monitoring and evaluation systems created. In doing so, the devil, as they say, will be in the details. Some issues to be considered as this process moves forward are outlined below. (excerpt)
Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2007 May; 7(5):313.Male circumcision should now be recognised as an important intervention to reduce the risk of heterosexually acquired HIV infection in men in high-prevalence countries, said WHO and UNAIDS in a position statement published in March. In a keynote speech at the European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases in Munich (April 2), George Schmid (WHO, Geneva, Switzerland) said "combined data from three randomised controlled trials undertaken in Kenya, Uganda, and South Africa show that male circumcision reduces the risk of heterosexually acquired HIV infection in men by approximately 60%. This makes male circumcision the biggest news for tackling HIV prevention that we have had in years". Circumcision is one of the oldest surgical procedures in the world and about 30% of the global adult male population is circumcised. Research shows that countries or regions in Africa with low rates of male circumcision correlate with a higher incidence of HIV infection. According to Schmid, "Modelling data show that widespread implementation of male circumcision in southern sub-Saharan Africa, a high prevalence area, could prevent 2 million infections over a 10-year period. We therefore need to target adolescent men in these areas to see an immediate public-health benefit". He added, "this is not an appropriate public-health intervention strategy for Europe". Unpublished data from Uganda, said Schmid, shows that with half of all males circumcised, there would be a 25-30% reduction in new HIV cases in Uganda. (excerpt)
Human Reproduction. 2007 Jan; 22(1):311-312.We thank Professor Evers for his interest in our preliminary work. We agree that a positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of 1.67 will change the likelihood of disease in a clinically not very relevant way. Indeed, we have moderated our purpose saying that an LR+ of 1.67 indicated a small impact on the post-test probability of successful IVF. However, this change was statistically significant as our study showed. Thus, we believe that in the lack of other predictive tests that could be performed routinely, this new combined test is helpful to decrease the risk of fertilization failure during IVF therapy in the case of unexplained infertility. Concerning male factor, we have found an LR+ of 6.0, which indicated a better, though moderate, post-test impact, as we have said in our study and accordingly to Professor Evers' letter. However, we effectively did not include the 95% confidence interval (CI) of this LR in our study, and we agree that this could lead to misinterpretation. We thought that this CI is calculated using an approximate formula, which could not be considered as valid on such a small sample. (excerpt)
Human Reproduction. 2007 Jan; 22(1):311.I have read with great interest the article by Sifer et al. (2005) on the combination of a newly developed sperm-zona pellucida-binding assay and WHO grade 'a' sperm motility to predict sperm fertilizing ability in IVF. The authors have to be commended for developing a--theoretically very appealing--new sperm function test, and it is easy to understand how they could get carried away by their enthusiasm about the clinical applicability of this new test. In fact, the authors are so positive about the results of their combination test that they consider it 'an excellent predictor of sperm fertilizing potential in cases of mild male-factor infertility', and they recommend that it 'should be incorporated as a functional test to direct patients to IVF or ICSI at their first attempt'. They continue by stating that 'the positive LR of 1.67 (95% CI 1.07-2.59) allowed us to use this test in these cases' (i.e. in patients with unexplained infertility). (excerpt)
Statement by Regional Director Carmen Barroso at the 36th Session of the Commission on Population and Development, United Nations, New York, 2 April 2003.
New York, New York, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], Western Hemisphere Region [WHR], 2003 Apr 2.  p.In a speech before the 36th Session of the U.N. Commission on Population and Development in New York on 2 April 2003, Carmen Barroso, Regional Director of IPPF/WHR, emphasized the paramount importance of comprehensive sexuality education for young people, and urged the United Nations to give it much greater attention in its future program of work in the area of population. (excerpt)
Feminist Review. 2004; 78:3-21.The international gender equality agenda evolved into one of mainstreaming a gender perspective into all policies and programmes. Within this process, the role of men gained increasing attention in the debates on gender equality. This resulted in the inclusion of 'men's role' as one of the themes of the agenda of the Commission on the Status of Women for the year 2004. While this is another step forward in the global efforts for achieving equality between women and men, its potential risks should not be overlooked. Therefore, it is necessary to revisit the concept of gender and carefully assess and monitor how the role of men is included in the agenda. This article starts with the premise that gender inequalities are the product of historically determined gender order in which the differentially assigned male female attributes are unequally structured in layers of privileged and subordinate positions of masculinities and femininities. The concept of patriarchy is brought back into the analysis to capture the interlinkages between the various status hierarchies that lead to shifts in hegemonic forms of masculinity that reproduces itself under diverse and changing conditions. Thus, while the article attempts to account for the generic and universal characteristics of gender inequality, at the same time, it draws attention to its specific socio-cultural manifestations. Finally, policy guidelines are offered for the consideration of the role of men in gender agenda setting. Accordingly, it is suggested that men's initiatives for alternative masculinities are acknowledged and that the questions regarding which men, in what kinds of alliances and for which end are reflected upon in formulating policies. (author's)
Paris, France, UNESCO, 2005. 48 p.HIV/AIDS has reached crisis proportions in many parts of the world, particularly in Southern Africa. To curb its spread, political leaders as well as health care and development specialists and practitioners have made concerted efforts to generate awareness and introduce education relating to this disease. Nevertheless, despite the abundance and availability of educational programmes aimed at the general public on HIV/AIDS, people in poor countries are dying faster than ever before, especially in Southern Africa. This puzzle leaves observers asking questions, such as "Why is this happening?", "Why has the infection rate increased?", "Are the educational materials reaching the right people?", "Are they affecting people who are at greatest risk?", "What is missing or wrong with them?", and "Where are the information gaps?". (excerpt)
In Africa, hope and difficulties; training nurses in Angola and teaching young men responsible parenthood in Seychelles.
UN Chronicle. 1987 Nov; 24(4): p..Angola trained nurses to provide family planning services. Seychelles started a drive to educate young working people, particularly men, in responsible parenthood. Zimbabwe received a great quantity of contraceptives. All of this was accomplished in 1986 in sub-Saharan Africa with UNFPA help. Computer breakdowns slow work, but not all programmes worked equally well. Repeated computer breakdowns slowed down the Guinea census and the maternal and child health care project in Gabon was delayed by lack of equipment, staff and funds, according to UNFPA's latest annual report. Special projects for women in the region did not advance as rapidly as hoped. (excerpt)
UNFPA state of world population 2005. The promise of equality: gender equity, reproductive health and the Millennium Development Goals.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2005.  p.The world has an unprecedented opportunity to realize the promise of equality and freedom from want. During the next decade, hundreds of millions of people can be released from the stronghold of poverty. The lives of 30 million children and 2 million mothers can be spared. The spread of AIDS can be reversed. Millions of young people can play a larger role in their countries' development and, in turn, create a better world for themselves and generations to come. Gender equality and reproductive health are indispensable to the realization of this promise. In the year 2000, leaders from 189 countries met at the United Nations Millennium Summit and forged a unique global compact to reduce poverty. From the Summit's declaration, eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were derived, with 2015 set as the date for their achievement. In 2002, the UN Millennium Project brought together more than 250 leading experts to advise the UN Secretary-General on how to implement the MDGs. Their conclusions are reflected throughout this year's State of World Population report. Gender equality is a human right, one of the Millennium Development Goals and key to achieving the other seven. The UN Millennium Project concluded that reproductive health is essential to achieving the MDGs, including the goal of gender equality. Investments in gender equality and reproductive health offer multiple rewards that can accelerate social and economic progress, with lasting impact on future generations. (excerpt)
Asian Journal of Andrology. 1999 Jun; 1:7-12.The aim was to present a personal account of the involvement of the World Health Organization (WHO) in the collaborative development in Asia of those areas of andrology concerned with male contraception and reproductive health. The andrology training through workshops and institution support undertaken by the WHO Human Reproduction Programme (HRP) and how they contributed to the strengthening of andrology research in Asia are summarised. The author's experience and the Asian scientific contributions to the global research in the following areas are reviewed: the safety of vasectomy and the development of new methods of vas occlusion; gossypol and its failure to become a safe, reversible male antifertility drug; Tripterygium and whether its pure extracts will pass through the appropriate toxicology and phased clinical studies to become acceptable contraceptive drugs; hormonal methods of contraception for men. The WHO policy of research capacity building through training and institution strengthening, together with the collaboration of Asian andrologists, has created strong National institutions now able to direct their own programmes of research in clinical and scientific andrology. (author's)
Countdown 2015: Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights for All. 2004; (Spec No):100-102.For a long time, the sexual and reproductive health needs of men— beyond their roles as women’s partners— received little attention from the global reproductive health community. In fact, some people feared that involving men in women’s reproductive health would undermine attempts to empower women. This changed only with the onset of the AIDS epidemic in the 1980s. Early attempts to understand and contain the disease made it clear that public health experts required better knowledge of men’s (and women’s) sexual behaviour. But men’s health care needs and the significance of men’s roles go far beyond HIV/AIDS. Men play a key role in the occurrence and prevention of unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) other than HIV/AIDS, as well as in healthy marital relationships and child rearing. In 1994, the ICPD recognised the importance of “male responsibilities and participation” in sexual and reproductive health. The conference’s 20- year Programme of Action called for leaders to “promote the full involvement of men in family life and the full integration of women in community life”, ensuring that men and women are equal partners in both spheres. In particular, it said, “efforts should be made to emphasise men’s shared responsibility and promote their active involvement in responsible parenthood, sexual and reproductive behaviour, including family planning; prenatal, maternal and child health; prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV; [and] prevention of unwanted and high-risk pregnancies”. (excerpt)
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 1998. 5(1)  p. (WHO/RHT/FPP/98.15; UNAIDS/98.12)One of the most practical and effective means of preventing unwanted pregnancies and the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is the familiar male natural rubber latex condom. The evidence suggests that, if used consistently and correctly, the latex male condom is: an effective contraceptive which does not have systemic side-effects; an effective means of protection against STDs, including the human immune-deficiency virus (HIV), that causes AIDS. Therefore, natural rubber latex condoms are of prime importance in the fight to stop the spread of AIDS. The dissemination of evidence regarding the efficacy of condoms can be used to promote the use of condoms both as a contraceptive method and as a barrier against the transmission of STDs, including HIV. WHO and UNAIDS have developed this series of fact sheets to summarize the latest scientific evidence, basic concepts and best practices in key areas of condom programming. (excerpt)
Programming for male involvement in reproductive health. Report of the meeting of WHO Regional Advisors in Reproductive Health, WHO / PAHO, Washington DC, USA, 5-7 September 2001.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2002.  p. (WHO/FCH/RHR/02.3)Research has shed some light on the gaps in our knowledge of reproductive health issues as they relate to men, but we have little information about programmatic issues and how such research could improve programme operation and service delivery. WHO Country Offices are often consulted by programme managers and policy-makers for advice on strategies for including men in the delivery of reproductive health services. It was proposed that the meeting of WHO Regional Advisers and Directors of Reproductive Health for 2001 focus on the design, success stories, lessons learned and research recommendations for programmes that aim to include men in reproductive health. Regional experiences, case studies, systematic reviews, research highlights and model projects representing a variety of regions were presented at the meeting by a select group of experts working in the field, Regional Offices, collaborating agencies, programme managers, and researcher institutions. Among these were several experts and individuals who had participated in RHR-funded studies at the global or the regional level. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2001 Oct.  p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection - Key Material; UNAIDS/01.64 E)Engaging men as partners is a critical component in AIDS prevention and care as, in many contexts, men are the decision-makers in matters related to reproductive and sexual health. As reflected in the theme of the World AIDS Campaign of 2000-Men Make a Difference-men's roles and responsibilities in relation to the health of their female partners have a significant bearing on the course of the epidemic. The work of UNAIDS in this field has three broad objectives: motivating men and women to talk more openly about sex, sexuality, drug used and HIV/AIDS; encouraging men to take greater care of themselves, their partners and families; and promoting programmes that respond to the needs of both men and women. It is important that work with men and boys should not seek to replace work with women and girls, but rather complement it. Parallel programmes for men and boys are crucial in ensuring that men protect not only their own health but also the health of their families. By working in partnership with men, rather than apportioning blame, it is hoped that men can finally begin to be seen as part of the solution rather than part of a problem. Twelve projects were selected because they demonstrated such a perspective and represented a diverse range of interventions with men. It was believed that an analysis of their strategies and lessons learned would generate common ground on men's needs, associated with HIV/AIDS and their general health, and would provide insights into effective approaches for working with men. (excerpt)
The road to global reproductive health. Reproductive health and rights on the international agenda, 1968-2003.
[London, England], EuroNGOs, Better Communication Project, 2003. 19 p.The right to access family planning and safe motherhood and protection against sexually transmitted infections such as HIV/AIDS, should be available to all women, men and adolescents worldwide. Unfortunately these reproductive health rights do not come about automatically. Nor do they occur naturally with social or economic development. Governments do not spontaneously include these vital health rights and measures in their spending plans, even though there is a wealth of evidence to support the economic, social, health and human rights rationale in doing so. The most powerful tool to cut across opposition and to create a global mainstream movement for action is to have it enshrined within a United Nations (UN) declaration or programme of action. The UN is the one global body that represents the voice of nations and commands the respect of governments worldwide. Many of the economic and social transformations that have taken place globally in the last five decades have been significantly affected in their direction and shape by the work of the UN. (excerpt)