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In: Bannerman RH, Burton J, Ch'en Wen-Chieh. Traditional medicine and health care coverage: a reader for health administrators and practitioners. Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, 1983. 194-206.There is a genuine interest now being taken in phytotherapy and medicinal plants throughout the world. In industrialized countries there is a trend of going back to nature or wanting to combat the chemical pollution of the body provoked by inopportune chemotherapy or by the misuse of convenience drugs of chemical origin; third world countries are primarily concerned with providing their peoples with adequate coverage of their essential drug needs. A new type phytotherapy is proposed, to produce phytotherapeutic preparations for use in modern medical practice from the resources of traditional medication. In view of difficulties experienced by developing countries in meeting their needs for essential drugs, 4 measures might be taken to encourage utilization for primary health care of their vast local resources: 1) a real health policy option at national and regional level; 2) determination of priorities regarding health problems and definition of possible solutions; 3) goal-oriented applied scientific research on medicinal plants, incorporating properly planned programs; 4) effective implementation of these programs with regard to technical and financial resources and appropriate personnel. Cooperation among developing countries, with the industrialized countries and with organizations of the United Nations system is recommended. A table illustrates integrated overall organization.