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Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1978. 41 p. (Technical Report Series No. 622)A WHO meeting to study the promotion and development of traditional medicine was held in late 1977. Traditional medicine concepts and its place in health care are discussed. The fact that traditional medicine consists of a great deal more than the use of medicinal plants is illustrated with discussions of indigenous medical systems from various countries. Much of traditional medicine has been shown to have intrinsic value. It should be evaluated and its efficacy, safety, and availability improved. This should be done because the use of traditional medicine is the surest means of achieving total health care coverage of the world population, using safe, acceptable, and economical means, by the year 2000. The meeting discussed methods of integrating traditional medicine and traditional medical practitioners into the national health care systems of developing nations. Examples of such integration from various countries are cited. Manpower in this area can best be developed by utilizing and retraining, if necessary, existing personnel, including TBAs (traditional birth attendants). Research priorities in the field will vary with cultural settings. The various possible research approaches are illustrated with case studies.