Your search found 6 Results
Traditional health practitioner and the scientist: Bridging the gap in contemporary health research in Tanzania.
Tanzania Health Research Bulletin. 2007 May; 9(2):115-120.Traditional health practitioners (THPs) and their role in traditional medicine health care system are worldwide acknowledged. Trend in the use of Traditional medicine (TRM) and Alternative or Complementary medicine (CAM) is increasing due to epidemics like HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis and other diseases like cancer. Despite the wide use of TRM, genuine concern from the public and scientists/biomedical heath practitioners (BHP) on efficacy, safety and quality of TRM has been raised. While appreciating and promoting the use of TRM, the World Health Organization (WHO), and WHO/Afro, in response to the registered challenges has worked modalities to be adopted by Member States as a way to addressing these concerns. Gradually, through the WHO strategy, TRM policy and legal framework has been adopted in most of the Member States in order to accommodate sustainable collaboration between THPs and the scientist/BHP. Research protocols on how to evaluate traditional medicines for safety and efficacy for priority diseases in Africa have been formulated. Creation of close working relationship between practitioners of both health care systems is strongly recommended so as to revamp trust among each other and help to access information and knowledge from both sides through appropriate modalities. In Tanzania, gaps that exist between THPs and scientists/BHP in health research have been addressed through recognition of THPs among stakeholders in the country's health sector as stipulated in the National Health Policy, the Policy and Act of TRM and CAM. Parallel to that, several research institutions in TRM collaborating with THPs are operating. Various programmed research projects in TRM that has involved THPs and other stakeholders are ongoing, aiming at complementing the two health care systems. This paper discusses global, regional and national perspectives of TRM development and efforts that have so far been directed towards bridging the gap between THPs and scientist/BHP in contemporary health research in Tanzania. (author's)
Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2007 May; 7(5):313.In Zambia, widespread promotion of claims that herbal remedies can cure HIV/AIDS have been making individuals with HIV/AIDS abandon their antiretroviral therapy for ineffective drugs, the Network of Zambian People Living with HIV and AIDS has warned. Miriam Banda of the Network told journalists that both print and electronic media in the country have been persistently carrying advertisements and news stories that bring false hope to people living with HIV/AIDS. It is unclear how many people have been leaving antiretroviral programmes in the country as a result of these claims. At least 1.1 million people of Zambia's 11.6 million population have HIV/AIDS, which has devastated the economy and decreased life expectancy at birth to less than 40 years. (excerpt)
Traditional medicine development for medical and dental primary health care delivery system in Africa.
African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. 2005; 2(1):46-61.Traditional African Medicine (TAM) is our socio-economic and socio-cultural heritage, servicing over 80% of the populations in Africa. Although, it has come a long way from the times of our ancestors, not much significant progress on its development and utilization had taken place due to colonial suppression on one hand, foreign religions in particular, absolute lack of patriotism and political will of our Governments, and then on the other hand, the carefree attitudes of most African medical scientists of all categories. It is incontrovertible that TAM exhibits far more merits than demerits and its values can be exploited provided the Africans themselves can approach it with an open mind and scientific mentality. The degree of sensitization and mobilization by the World Health Organization (WHO) has encouraged some African countries to commence serious development on TAM. The African Regional Director of the WHO has outlined a few guidelines on the responsibilities of all African nations for the realistic development of TAM, in order to sustain our health agenda and perpetuate our culture. The gradual extinction of the forests and the inevitable disappearance of the aged Traditional Medical Practitioner should pose an impending deadline for us to learn, acquire and document our medical cultural endowment for the benefit of all Africans and indeed the entire mankind. (author's)
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2000 Apr; 6(2):127-129.In recognition of the fact that local communities afflicted by malaria typically use local herbal treatments (Bitahwa et al., 1997 Willcox, 1999)-either with or instead of conventional drugs-this type of new research thinking underpins the agenda of the newly formed Research Initiative for Traditional Antimalarial Methods (RITAM) (Bodeker & Willcox, 2000b). WHO is promoting new drug cocktails, many that are derived from single ingredients of plants, as the new way to combat drug-resistant malaria. The absurd situation has arisen in which synthetic synergism is being sought after it has been rejected in its natural state. The cost of antimalarial cocktails is estimated to be up to seven times that of the already-expensive existing antimalarials. Clearly, a local, sustainable, and affordable response to malaria is called for-one that recognizes that this is where the fight against malaria began and where it continues. (excerpt)
MEDICAL ANTHROPOLOGY QUARTERLY. 1992 Jun; 6(2):99-113.In drug development and marketing, multinational companies tend to patronize developing countries and even raise health risks by distributing products of questionable utility. The World Health Organization has pushed for standardization and quality assurance of drugs to compel companies to fully disclose adverse reactions. Clinical trials use small and unrepresentative samples, thus longterm side effects are not taken into consideration such as steroid-induced hypertension in asthma patients. Unintended side effects are true side effects in the view of some (hair loss and lacrimation in anticoagulant therapy). Reactions that encompass primary and secondary effects include allergic reactions, hypersensitivity, and the corollaries of differential drug metabolism (serum albumin polymorphisms, G6PD deficiency, hemoglobinopathies, and hepatic enzyme irregularities). Primary action and side effects are subject to interpretations, as the antihistamine Benadryl causes drowsiness when used for allergies, but as a sedative its ability to induce drowsiness is the primary action. Minoxidil promotes hair growth, but it was originally developed as an oral hypotensive, and it also could treat impotence. RU-486 or mifepristone, the abortion pill, has been used for glaucoma and brain tumor treatment. The Hausa of Nigeria use both indigenous plant medicines and drugs, but their cultural interpretation of drug effects can lead to confusion: bitter plants have been used as abortifacients and the bitter drugs chloroquine, penicillin, and chloramphenicol have also been endowed with such qualities. Stomach aliments are treated with chile pepper, coffee senna, and balsam apple along with erythromycin and salicylates to induce purging. The tooth discoloration caused by tetracycline therapy is imputed to witchcraft. A more relativistic approach concerning the side effects of drugs is needed as their perception in many cultures is conceptually different.
London, England, Earthscan, 1978 Aug. 70 p.This publication is the 1st overall description of the UN drug strategy, involving 5 UN agencies in an undeclared war on the drug companies over "drug colonialism". Tools the agencies are using include a basic drugs list; bulk buying; new patent laws; small-scale manufacturing; and traditional herbs. The ways in which the multinational drug companies work in developing countries is described in detail, in addition to various UN agency policies; results of actions taken by Sri Lanka, India, and other nations against the drug firms; and what industry thinks of the UN plans. Contents of the report include: 1) the Colombo Summit and UN strategy on cooperation among developing nations concerning pharmaceuticals; 2) the structure of the drug industry; high drug prices; drugs for tropical diseases; 3) a basic drugs list: WHO; national lists; industrial and professional resistance; high cost of drugs in Tanzania; industry criticism of essential drug lists; 4) generic versus brand names; 5) bulk purchasing: missions and UNICEF; a UN buying agency; Sri Lanka's experience; regional bulk buying; 6) producing drugs locally through foreign investment: Sri Lanka and India; 7) producing drugs locally through a controlled foreign sector: control of restrictive business practices and patents; 8) producing drugs locally through national self reliance: small-scale plants; barefoot pharmacists; 9) traditional herbs; 10) appropriate drug technologies: fear of the multinationals; quality control; regional drug centers; and 11) primary health care and political will.