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Maternal and Child Health. 2018 Sep 8;  p.Promoting exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is a highly feasible and cost-effective means of improving child health. Regulating the marketing of breastmilk substitutes is critical to protecting EBF. In 1981, the World Health Assembly adopted the World Health Organization International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes (the Code), prohibiting the unethical advertising and promotion of breastmilk substitutes. This comparative study aimed to (a) explore the relationships among Code enforcement and legislation, infant formula sales, and EBF in India, Vietnam, and China; (b) identify best practices for Code operationalization; and (c) identify pathways by which Code implementation may influence EBF. We conducted secondary descriptive analysis of available national-level data and seven high level key informant interviews. Findings indicate that the implementation of the Code is a necessary but insufficient step alone to improve breastfeeding outcomes. Other enabling factors, such as adequate maternity leave, training on breastfeeding for health professionals, health systems strengthening through the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative, and breastfeeding counselling for mothers, are needed. Several infant formula industry strategies with strong conflict of interest were identified as harmful to EBF. Transitioning breastfeeding programmes from donor-led to government-owned is essential for long-term sustainability of Code implementation and enforcement. We conclude that the relationships among the Code, infant formula sales, and EBF in India, Vietnam, and China are dependent on countries' engagement with implementation strategies and the presence of other enabling factors.
New York, New York, UNICEF, 1999 Aug.  p.If every baby were exclusively breastfed from birth, an estimated 1.5 million lives would be saved each year. And not just saved, but enhanced, because breastmilk is the perfect food for a baby's first six months of life - no manufactured product can equal it. Virtually all children benefit from breastfeeding, regardless of where they live. Breastmilk has all the nutrients babies need to stay healthy and grow. It protects them from diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections - two leading causes of infant death. It stimulates their immune systems and response to vaccinations. It contains hundreds of health-enhancing antibodies and enzymes. It requires no mixing, sterilization or equipment. And it is always the right temperature. Children who are breastfed have lower rates of childhood cancers, including leukaemia and lymphoma. They are less susceptible to pneumonia, asthma, allergies, childhood diabetes, gastrointestinal illnesses and infections that can damage their hearing. Studies suggest that breastfeeding is good for neurological development. And breastfeeding offers a benefit that cannot be measured: a natural opportunity to communicate love at the very beginning of a child's life. Breastfeeding provides hours of closeness and nurturing every day, laying the foundation for a caring and trusting relationship between mother and child. (excerpt)
Health aspects of maternity leave and maternity protection. Statement to the International Labour Conference, 2 June 2000.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2000.  p.Pregnancy and childbirth are at the core of human development and adequate attention to the health and well-being of the pregnant woman and her infant is a concern for the society as a whole. WHO affirms the human right of women to go safely through pregnancy and childbirth. Most deaths of mothers associated with pregnancy and childbirth are avoidable and high rates of maternal mortality can be considered as a violation of women’s right to life. Breastfeeding promotes child health and development and is an essential part of assuring children’s right to health. This statement provides information on women’s and infant health as it relates to the revision of ILO Maternity Protection Convention No 103 and Maternity Protection Recommendation No 95. It complements previous information provided by WHO to ILO on the issue in 1951 and in 1997. WHO recently reviewed the scientific evidence on the health implications of maternity leave and maternity protection. (excerpt)
In: Multilateral treaties, index and current status, Ninth Cumulative Supplement, compiled by M.J. Bowman and D.J. Harris. Nottingham, England, University of Nottingham Treaty Centre, 1992. 181.The following countries became parties to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights in 1989-1991: a) Albania, 4 October 1991; b) Algeria, 12 September 1989 c) Burundi, 9 May 1990; d) Estonia, 21 October 1991; e) Grenada, 6 September 1991; f) Haiti, 6 February 1991; g) Ireland, 8 December 1989, h) Israel, 3 October 1991; i) Lithuania, 20 November 1991; j) Malta, 13 September 1990; k) Nepal, 14 May 1991; l) Republic of Korea, 10 April 1990; m) Somalia, 24 January 1990; and n) Zimbabwe, 13 May 1991. The Covenant contains human rights provisions relating to equality of the sexes, freedom of movement, freedom from arbitrary and unlawful interference with the home and family, protection of children and the family, the right to marry and found a family, and equality of spouses within marriages. In addition, the following of the above countries also became parties to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights on the same dates: Albania, Estonia, Grenada, Haiti, Israel, Lithuania, Malta, Nepal, and Zimbabwe. This Covenant contains human rights provisions relating to equality of the sexes, equal pay for equal work, maternity benefits, housing, education, health care, and protection of the family, children, and mothers. See Multilateral Treaties, Index and Current Status, p. 181.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 1993. vii, 119 p. (WHO/NUT/MCH/93.1)This World Health Organization (WHO) publication was prepared to provide current technical information and recommendations to policymakers and program planners involved in the promotion of breast feeding. This book summarizes the discussions and recommendations that grew out of the 1990 WHO/UNICEF Technical Meeting on breast feeding. The first chapter presents a technical overview of global breast-feeding prevalence and trends for each WHO region (Africa, the Americas, the Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, Southeast Asia, and the Western Pacific). Chapter 2 looks at the practices related to breast feeding in maternity care services and in postnatal services. The implementation of programmatic changes to support breast feeding as well as cost issues are also considered. The third chapter provides a technical overview of lactation management training as well as a comment on program implementation. Chapter 4 considers the role of breast-feeding support groups from a technical and implementation viewpoint. Chapter 5 is devoted to issues of information, education, and communication in support of breast feeding as well as examples of program implementation in Brazil, Iran, Guatemala, Australia, and Kenya. Specific problems in implementation are also covered. The final chapter discusses breast feeding in working situations and covers such issues as maternity and child care entitlements on the international, national, community, and individual levels as well as cost issues. Each chapter contains specific recommendations, referrals for further reading, and references (if applicable). The Innocenti Declaration on the Protection, Promotion, and Support of Breastfeeding is annexed to the volume.
In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 325-30.Population growth in Sweden has been unregulated. The total fertility rate of 2.1 is at replacement level and satisfactory. The aging of the population is expected to occur around 2010. Immigration in 1991 was 44,000 persons, with 18% from other Nordic countries, 61% claiming relatives in Sweden, and 35% claiming refugee status. During 1992, 60,000 refugees from the former Yugoslavia requested asylum. The large numbers of asylum-seekers has resulted in a policy shift that restricts entrants to those fulfilling the UN definitions. The immigration policy has been in effect since 1968 and was formulated without any connection to population policy. Sweden has ratified UN conventions on migrant workers and has been part of the free Nordic labor market, which allows freedom of labor migration between Scandinavian countries. 85% of Swedish mothers have worked outside the home. Family policy is supportive of the dual roles of working and child care. There is a parental insurance system which compensates for lost income for both parents while caring for a newborn child at home. Day care facilities meet demand, and there is financial support for families with children, particularly single-parent families. Consensual unions are common. Contraceptives and family planning services are readily available. Life expectancy is 74.8 years for males and 80.4 years for females. Health inequalities linked to socioeconomic groups have been addressed by the 1992 establishment of a National Institute of Public Health. Sweden has played a dominant role in international development since the 1960s. 7.0% ($165-170 million) of Sweden's total foreign aid program was directed to population issues in 1992. Strategies focus on human rights, socioeconomic factors, and unbalanced development. Many countries in Africa have received support. Women are viewed as key to development and population issues for health, ethical, social, and human rights reasons. Sweden is also concerned about the relationship between environmental degradation, natural resource depletion, and population issues.
In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 289-302.The population growth rate in Russia over the past 20 years has been 5-7%/1000 annually, and the proportion of aged has increased to 19.4%. Approximately 47,500 people emigrated in 1989, 103,600 in 1990, and 43,000 in 6 months of 1992. The government is working to conform to international standards and protocols on migration. There is a slight decline in marriages, an increase in single-parent families with children, and a formal divorce rate of 2%. Only those in registered marriages are protected under the law. The birth rate declined from 2.02 in 1989 to 1.73 in 1991. Preschools, paid leave, and preferential work schedules are available as a means of balancing domestic and child care responsibilities with work load. Family policy provides for the implementation of a comprehensive program to encourage family self-reliance, social protection, and family planning within state-funded and privately-funded organizations. Abortion is the most commonly used method of fertility regulation, and there were 3.6 million abortions in 1991 and 1.8 million births. The abortion rate of 100.3/1000 reproductive age women is considered high. Life expectancy is 63.5 years for men and 74.3 years for women. A decree passed in June 1992 placed priority on UN goals of child survival, and services were expanded to include perinatal units in hospitals, allowances for pregnant women receiving prenatal care, and sufficient maternity leave, particularly for those with at risk pregnancies or births. Standards were also established for ensuring survival of those exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident. 33% of deaths are due to accidents, poisonings, and injuries. 30% of disability among the working age population is due to respiratory diseases. Infectious disease morbidity is high. 4.4% of the total population receives out-patient psychiatric help at specialized clinics for disorders such as alcoholism (80% of patients). 15% of the urban population live in an environment meeting international standards of health for air pollution. In the recent past, fund limitations have constrained participation in international events. Russia is interested in receiving bilateral and multilateral technical assistance in drawing up population policies suitable to its new circumstances. In order to institute modern data collection and analysis techniques, a micro census is planned for 1994 and a regular census for 1999.
ANNUAL REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW. 1988; 15:94.The following countries ratified the Workers with Family Responsibilities Convention in 1988; 1) Argentina, 17 March 1988; 2) Greece, 10 June 1988; 3) Netherlands, 24 March 1988; and 4) San Marino, 19 April 1988. (full text)
In: Multilateral treaties, index and current status, 8th cumulative suppl., compiled by M.J. Bowman and D.J. Harris. Nottingham, England, University of Nottingham Treaty Centre, 1991. 158.Since 1983, the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights has been ratified by the following countries: Algeria, 12 September 1989; Argentina, 8 August 1986; Burundi, 9 May 1990; Cameroon, 27 June 1984; the Congo, 5 October 1983; Equatorial Guinea, 25 September 1987; Ireland, 8 December 1989; the Republic of Korea, 10 April 1990; Luxembourg, 18 August 1983; Niger, 7 March 1986; the Philippines, 23 October 1986; San Marino, 18 October 1985; Somalia, 24 January 1990; Sudan, 18 March 1986; Togo, 24 May 1984; Democratic Yemen, 9 February 1987; and Zambia, 10 April 1984. Provisions of the covenant guarantee equal rights for men and women, pay equity, maternity benefits, social protection for children and the family, and the rights to housing, education, and health care, among other things.
ANNUAL REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW. 1989; 16:84.The government of Guatemala ratified this Un International Labor Organization Convention on maternity protection on June 13, 1989.
Washington, D.C., American Public Health Association, Clearinghouse on Infant Feeding and Maternal Nutrition, 1989 Jun. , xvi, 98,  p. (Report No. 6)This report is divided into 4 sections, each presented in table form to present information about maternal and child nutrition for 159 countries. The 1st section is a brief description of legislation concerning maternity leave policies, statutory provisions for creches/nurseries, statutory provisions for nursing breaks at work to what extent the WHO/UNICEF code has been adopted and government and nongovernment programs to promote breastfeeding. The 2nd section describes provisions to support mothers in the workforce. It contains information about the types of leave programs, the salary paid during the leave, the provisions for nurseries, breaks for nursing, and other considerations. The 3rd section discusses policies designed to promote breastfeeding and support the maternal and child nutrition. This section gives a comprehensive description of all the programs in each country. The 4th section discusses the action taken by national governments to legislate a marketing code for breastmilk substitutes. This section lists the current status of legislation. The report also contains additional information including an announcement that the Nestle boycott has resumed because of violations of the WHO/UNICEF code. Included are the addresses of 3 organizations that can provide information about the boycott and the violations. A large bibliography is also included.
ACTA PAEDIATRICA SCANDINAVICA. 1988 Mar; 77(2):183-90.The acceptance of the World Health Organization (WHO) International Code for Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes has stimulated governments to design programs for the more energetic promotion of breastfeeding, but promotional efforts in developing nations may not be getting through to the mothers or may not be designed to meet their specific needs. In a prospective study in Istanbul, it was observed that all infants, whether delivered in a hospital or at home, received not only mixtures of sugar and water and other mixtures soon after birth and for about 1 week thereafter, but also complementary foods now and then until this became a regular practice. This pattern can be defined as regular complementary feeding or partial breastfeeding. Yet, the mothers described it as exclusive breastfeeding. The early and haphazard introduction of water and food in those environments where contamination is common exposes the infants to concentrated amounts of microorganisms which may overwhelm the immunological protection provided by breastmilk and also reduces the milk supply through insufficient stimulation of the breast. Exclusive breastfeeding should be encouraged, and irregular complementary feedings during the early weeks of life should be strongly discouraged, unless there is a medical indication. When exclusive breastfeeding is no longer sufficient, i.e., at the age of about 5 months, complementary feeding should be promoted. Programs for the promotion of breastfeeding have been criticized for devoting too much attention to the infant and little or no attention to the needs of the mother. In a given society, it may be difficult to promote breastfeeding if women regard it as a means of preventing them from improving their socioeconomic situation. Women who want to breastfeed their children should not be prevented from doing so by their working conditions.