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Piloting L3M for child marriage: Experience in monitoring results in equity systems (MoRES) in Bangladesh.
Bethesda, Maryland, Abt Associates Inc., Health Finance & Governance Project, 2014 Sep. 100 p.Monitoring Results for Equity Systems (MoRES) is UNICEF’s global monitoring framework that was recently introduced in Bangladesh and other countries. MoRES proposes a hierarchy of information to facilitate the monitoring and evaluation of UNICEF programs. Level 1 corresponds to a situational analysis, which intends to identify the major bottlenecks and barriers to the achievement of UNICEF goals. Level 2 creates a routine approach for monitoring implementation of UNICEF programs. Level 3-which is the subject of this report-monitors the extent to which UNICEF programs contribute to reductions in the barriers and bottlenecks identified in Level 1. Finally, Level 4 monitoring measures the impact of UNICEF programs on the broader goals. The level 3 monitoring approach (L3M) pilot for child marriage described in this report focuses on examining how two of UNICEF’s Child Protection activities -adolescent stipends and conditional cash transfers - contribute to reductions in three priority bottlenecks: social norms, financial access, and legislation/policy. The pilot contributes the methodology and content required for UNICEF to conduct regular, routine monitoring of its Child Protection Program, as part of an office-wide L3M exercise at UNICEF-Bangladesh. (excerpt)
Program scan matrix on child marriage: A web-based search of interventions addressing child marriage.
[Washington, D.C.], International Center for Research on Women [ICRW], . 25 p.The international community and U.S. government are increasingly concerned about the prevalence of child marriage and its toll on girls in developing countries. One in seven girls in the developing world marries before 15. Nearly half of the 331 million girls in developing countries are expected to marry by their 20th birthday. At this rate, 100 million more girls-or 25,000 more girls every day-will become child brides in the next decade. Current literature on child marriage has primarily examined the prevalence, consequences and reported reasons for early marriage. Much less has been analyzed about the risk and protective factors that may be associated with child marriage. Also, little is known about the range of existing programs addressing child marriage, and what does and does not work in preventing early marriage. The work presented here investigates two key questions: What factors are associated with risk of or protection against child marriage, and ultimately could be the focus of prevention efforts? What are the current programmatic approaches to prevent child marriage in developing countries, and are these programs effective? (excerpt)
Development. 1990; (1):7-12.A study carried out by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) confirmed that teenage pregnancy and childbearing have a substantial adverse effect on young women's health, education, and employment opportunities. In developing countries, most women carry onerous workloads, including food preparation, childcare, domestic agricultural labor, and often employment in the formal or informal sector. These multiple roles have significant implications for the life choices made by young women and their prospects for self-fulfillment outside of the family context. The UNFPA is committed to development activities that enable young girls to avoid too early and too closely spaced pregnancies, keep them in school longer, and provide them with access to adequate reproductive health care. There must be greater awareness of the impact of young women's reproductive and productive choices on their performance as co-architects of future societies--a task that is difficult in developing societies where early marriage and childbearing are promoted and parents are not motivated to invest in the education of daughters. Even family planning programs in Third World countries often ignore teenagers as a target group for services because of the taboo against premarital sexual activity. Many UNFPA-assisted projects now focus on educating the public and national opinion leaders about the health risks involved in very early pregnancy and childbirth as well as their longterm impact on socioeconomic well-being. whether channelled through the formal school system or the community, these projects seek to involve young people themselves in the planning and implementation of services intended to meet their needs. UNFPA has also supported conferences of international women leaders and provided funds for research on adolescent sexuality.
ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL WEEKLY. 1987 Jul 11; 22(28):1099.India's family planning program has been restructured from a massive effort, using multimedia promotion and 2 million volunteers and designed to convey the "small family message" directly to the families concerned, to a smaller scale program emphasizing child survival, delayed marriage, village infrastructure, and birth spacing. The change is due to 2 factors: 1) The terminal approach failed to achieve lower birth rates because people will not accept the small family unless they can rely on the survival of the children; and 2) The terminal approach contained an element of coercion which caused the US to reduce support to the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). The new scaled-down approach should be more effective, since more couples are now practicing family planning and birth spacing, oral contraceptives, IUDs, and longterm hormonal contraceptives are more appropriate than terminal methods to the present demographic picture.
An evaluation of Pathfinder's early marriage education program in Indonesia, November-December 1984.
Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, Pathfinder Fund, 1986 Feb. 41 p. (Pathfinder Fund Working Papers No. 4)Indonesian government officials determined in the early 1970's that an increase in marriage age as well as in the use of contraceptives would be needed to reduce the country's growth rate. In 1974, the Marriage Law Reform Act increased the minimun marriageable age, but compliance was rare. In 1981, Pathfinder initiated a campaign to address this. The 1st objective was to educate influentials (e.g. religious leaders). The 2nd objective was to gather information and promote discussion of societal norms that lead to early marriage and childbearing. The underlying assumptions were that non-compliance arose from a lack of knowledge about the marriage law and that norms promoting early marriage and fertility were amenable to change. The program reviewed in this working paper covers 6 projects with 5 prominent Indonesian organizations--3 women's groups, a national public health association, and a branch of the Family Planning Coordinating Board. The activities began with national seminars to discuss objectives. National and local-level activities followed, ranging from the publication of a national bulletin to training marriage counselors. Women's groups incorporated the education program into their ongoing functions. Program effects were widespread. Evaluators' assessment in 1984 found that the controversial topic of adolescent fertility has been intensively discussed at national and local levels. Their recommendations include: focusing work on large-impact organizations, evaluation of certain projects, support for various projects, concentrating on key issues. The training project management should be integrated into Pathfinder's schedule. Studies should be performed to make sure this desin is not too ambitious. Baseline data should be incorporated. The 2-year approach should be extended to 5, since the impact of marriage age legislation will not be felt for several years.
Draper World Population Fund Report. 1977 Summer; 4:23-25.Sri Lanka has undergone a classic demographic transition over the last 30 years. In 1971, the country was 1 of the most densely populated agricultural countries in the world. By 1975, Sri Lanka's birthrate had declined to 27.2, the lowest rate in South Asia. This decline in fertility is attributed to increased contraceptive use, due to a greater awareness of modern family planning methods and easier access to contraceptive facilities. A brief history of the family planning movement in the country is presented. The Sri Lanka family planning program today illustrates a cooperative venture between private organizations and government programming. High levels of celibacy and late marriage in Sri Lanka, caused by demographic, economic, and educational factors, have also resulted in a declining percentage of married women in the under-30 age group.
In: United Nations [UN]. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]. Population of Australia. Vol. 1. New York, New York, UN, 1982. 183-98. (Country Monograph Series No. 9; ST/ESCAP/210)Australian marriage patterns in the late 19th century reflected those found among the English middle class, with a high proportion of males never marrying and late ages at 1st marriage. However, the attainment of the fertility transition in the 1930s stimulated a greater willingness to marry, even under adverse economic circumstances. A dramatic decline in age at marriage accompanied World War II. This decline, which continued throughout the 1950s and 60s, was further stimulated in the late 1960s by widespread use of oral contraceptives. Effective birth control allowed women to marry at a young age but delay childbearing until their careers had become established. The 1970s, however, were marked by the collapse of the early marriage pattern. The economic insecurity of that period led to a more conservative approach to the decision to marry, with postponement until economic security or psychological preparedness had been attained. These patterns have been noted across geographic, ethnic, religious and class groupings. Divorce reached high levels in 1947, as a result of the disruption caused by World War II, but then declined. The Family Law Act of 1975, which liberalized divorce requirements, led to an upsurge in the divorce rate in the 1970s. By 1980, there were 11.7 divorces/1000 married women. The increase in divorce is not just occurring among the younger generation of married women, but equally affects marriages that took place during the 1950s and 60s. There are an average of 2 children in divorces taking place among parents. 10% of ever-married women and 4% of ever-married men are widowed by the age of 50 years. By age 70, 40% of women and 11% of men are widowers. Although there has been little systematic study of remarriage, rates appear to be higher among younger men and women. Rates of remarriage seem to be higher after widowhood for men than women. Research should be directed to the question of whether the more cautious approach to marriage emerging in recent years achieves better quality marriages. Attention should also be given to trends in the proportion of men and women never marrying.