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  1. 1

    Female employment and fertility in developing countries

    Brazzell JF

    In: Quantitative approaches to analyzing socioeconomic determinants of Third World fertility trends: reviews of the literature. Project final report: overview, by Indiana University Fertility Determinants Group, George J. Stolnitz, director. [Unpublished] 1984. 79-91.

    Simple no-work/work distinctions are an unreliable basis for estimating causal linkages connecting female employment/work-status patterns to fertility. World Fertility Survey (WFS) data show about 3/4, 1/2, and 1/4 child differentials for over 20, 10-19, and under 10 years marital duration grouss respectively, for women employed since marriage. Effects on marriage seem strongest in Latin America and weakest in Asia. Controlling for age, marital duration, urban-rural residence, education, and husband's work status. But from the results of a number of WFS and other studies, it seems relationships of work status and fertility are difficult to confirm beyond directional indications, even in Latin America. A UN study using proximate determinants such as contraception and work status including a housework category indicated differentials in contraceptive practice were not significant net of control for education. Philippine data indicates low-income employment might increase fertility by decreasing breastfeeding, while WFS data from 5 Asian countries indicated pre-marital work encourages increased marriage age, without being specific about effects. Also, female employment must affect a large population to have a real impact on aggregate fertility, since female labor force activity is likely to change slowly if at all. Data presently available do not cover micro-level factors that may be important, such as effects of work on breastfeeding, nor do they lend themselves to examination by multi-equation analysis. More work is needed to isolate effects of work-status attributes like male employment, and to analyze intra-cohort mid-course fertility objective changes, as well as new theoretical process models such as competing time use and maternal role incompatibility.
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  2. 2

    Screening procedures for detecting errors in maternity history data.

    Brass W

    In: United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, World Fertility Survey, and International Institute for Population Studies. Regional Workshop on Techniques of Analysis of World Fertility Survey data: report and selected papers. New York, UN, 1979. 15-36. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 44)

    The World Fertility Survey provides data from national maternity history inquiries. Detecting trends and differentials is only as accurate as the data collected. Where evidence suggests error, the analysis may be restricted to obtaining only a measure of fertility level. The basic data is the date and order of birth of each live born child for a sample of women in the reproductive period, according to the current age of the women and their duration of marriage. The cohort marker is usually separated into 7 5-year classes determined by age at interview; sample of women is representative of the female population of childbearing age. Total births for each cohort are allocated to different periods preceding the survey date. Reading down the columns gives the births to different cohorts over different ranges in the same time interval preceding the survey. To detect omissions, check the overall sex ratio and the sex ratios by periods; examine the trends of infant mortality by cohorts and periods; an excess of male mortality over female indicates poor reporting of dead female children and/or of sex (a common omission). From data on age of mother and number of surviving children at the survey and estimates of mortality level, the numbers of births at preceding periods may be calculated.
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  3. 3

    The population census as source for family life cycle data.

    Herberger L

    In: Health and the family life cycle: selected studies on the interaction between mortality, the family and its life cycle. Wiesbaden, Federal Republic of Germany, Federal Institute for Population Research, 1982. 37-63.

    The population census is a unique opportunity to gather data about families and fertility. For studying the life cycle of the family not only statistics about the family structure are necessary but also about fertility. Family statistics relate to the socio-biological institution of the family. Fertility statistics are calculated on the basis of a question asked to all women about the number of children born to them. The typology of families gives a 1st indication as to the process of family formation or dissolution in relation to marital status. The life cycle of the family usually starts with marriage and ends with the death of the surviving spouse. A review of the UN recommendations for the 1980 round of censuses show that data for the basic model can be derived from census data, if the information about the children born alive is collected. The UN Recommendations for the 1980 population censuses contain topics for which data should be collected and recommendations for the respective tabulations. Besides sex and age, the recommended topics for studying the family life cycle are: 1) marital status, 2) age at marriage, 3) duration of marriage, 4) children born alive (fertility data), 5) children living, 6) relationship to head of family, and 7) family composition. Information on marital status should be collected at least for persons aged 15 and over. The census report should explain clearly the definitions of each tabulated marital status category.
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