Your search found 132 Results

  1. 1
    335713

    Adolescent fertility since the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2013. [65] p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/337)

    This report presents new estimates of the levels and trends in adolescent fertility worldwide from 1990-1995 to 2005-2010. It highlights key social and demographic factors underlying adolescent fertility, including early marriage, first sex, contraceptive use and education. This period coincides with assessments of progress in implementing the Programme of Action of the ICPD and the Millennium Development Goals, which include a focus on reducing early childbearing, expanding access to reproductive health and investing in the human capital of youth, especially girls.
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  2. 2
    358773

    Preventing early pregnancy and poor reproductive outcomes among adolescents in developing countries. WHO guidelines.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health, 2011. 195 p.

    The purpose of these guidelines is to improve adolescent morbidity and mortality by reducing the changes of early pregnancy and its resulting poor health outcomes. The publication's two main objectives are to: 1) identify effective interventions to prevent early pregnancy by influencing factors such as early marriage, coerced sex, unsafe abortion, access to contraceptives and acces to maternal health services by adolescents; and 2) provide an analytical framework for policy-makers and programme managers to use when selecting evidence-based interventions that are most appropriate for the needs of their countries and contexts. The document provides a summary of the recommendations for each of the six major outcomes presented in this guideline. Both action and research recommendations are listed.
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  3. 3
    333472

    Preventing early pregnancy: What the evidence says.

    World Health Organization [WHO]; Family Care International

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, [2011]. [8] p.

    The Preventing early pregnancy: What the evidence says? in Developing Countries presents the evidence to design national policies and strategies. It contains recommendations on action and research for preventing: (1) early pregnancy: by preventing marriage before 18 years of age; by increasing knowledge and understanding of the importance of pregnancy prevention; by increasing the use of contraception; and by preventing coerced sex; (2) poor reproductive outcomes: by reducing unsafe abortions; and by increasing the use of skilled antenatal, childbirth and postnatal care. These guidelines are primarily intended for policy-makers, planners and programme managers from governments, nongovernmental organizations and development agencies. They are also likely to be of interest to public health researchers and practitioners, professional associations and civil society groups. They have been developed through a systematic review of existing research and input from experts from countries around the world, in partnership with many key international organizations working to improve adolescents’ health. Similar partnerships have been forged to distribute them widely and to support their use. (Excerpt)
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  4. 4
    327739

    Forced marriage of the girl child. Report of the Secretary-General.

    United Nations. Secretary-General

    [New York, New York], United Nations, Economic and Social Council, 2007 Dec 5. 19 p. (E/CN.6/2008/4)

    This report provides an overview of the consideration of the issue of forced marriage at the international level, and the evolving approach for addressing it. It provides information on the legal and policy measures of States and the activities undertaken by entities of the United Nations system to address forced marriage of the girl child. The report concludes with recommendations for future action. (author's)
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  5. 5
    191694

    On being an adolescent in the 21st century.

    Van Look PF

    In: Towards adulthood: exploring the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents in South Asia, edited by Sarah Bott, Shireen Jejeebhoy, Iqbal Shah, Chander Puri. Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 2003. 31-42.

    The World Health Organization defines “adolescence” as 10–19 years old, “youth” as 15– 24 years old, and “young people” as 10–24 years old. Nevertheless, adolescence should be considered a phase rather than a fixed age group, with physical, psychological, social and cultural dimensions, perceived differently by different cultures. As a group, adolescents include nearly 1.2 billion people, about 85% of whom live in developing countries. Behaviours formed in adolescence have lasting implications for individual and public health and, in many ways, a nation’s fate lies in the strength and aspirations of its youth—important reasons to invest in adolescent health and development. This presentation describes the general situation of adolescent health (exploring adolescent sexual and reproductive health in particular) and highlights some key elements of successful programmes. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    166315

    Health education, an important aspect of population education.

    Gurumurthy G

    In: Population studies (lectures on population education), [compiled by] Sri Venkateswara University. Population Studies Centre. Tirupati, India, Sri Venkateswara University, Population Studies Centre, 1979. 41-50.

    This paper highlights the importance of health education in population education. Definition of health, as well as, the objectives of health education in the prospects of the WHO is presented in this paper. Furthermore, it focuses on the different aspects of health education, namely: personal hygiene and environmental sanitation; maternal and child health; nutrition education; applied nutrition program; school health education; transmission of diseases and cultural practices; national health programs; age at marriage of women and health; and population explosion and health hazards.
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  7. 7
    129919

    International legal instruments relevant to women.

    United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa. African Centre for Women

    [Addis Ababa, Ethiopia], Economic Commission for Africa, 1995. [3], 69 p. (E/ECA/ACW/ILI/4(a)/94)

    In order to increase awareness of the legal rights of women and existing legal instruments protecting women, this document reprints the major international human rights conventions on women and a list of the International Labor Organization (ILO) Conventions concerning women workers. This document was created in the belief that women must be aware of their rights in order to understand and/or claim them and that the enhancement of legal literacy will promote women's rights as well as an understanding of how the law can be used as a tool for social change. The reprinted documents are 1) the UN Convention on the Political Rights of Women (with annexes listing the countries party to the convention, reservations, and countries where women could vote equally as of 1955); 2) the 1957 UN Convention on the Nationality of Married Women; 3) the 1964 UN Convention on Consent to Marriage, Minimum Age for Marriage, and Registration of Marriages; 4) Chapter 24 of Agenda 21 (Global Action for Women Towards Sustainable and Equitable Development Programme Area); 5) the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women; 6) the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child; 7) a list of nine ILO Conventions covering Women Workers; and 8) the Charter of Ratification of Conventions, which is a chart illustrating the ratification status of each convention by country.
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  8. 8
    080184

    Integration of population education in APPEAL. Volume Three. Population education in literacy and continuing education.

    UNESCO. Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific [PROAP]

    Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO, PROAP, 1992. [3], 115 p. (Population Education Programme Service)

    Workshops were conducted in 1989 and 1991 in Indonesia and Pakistan to discuss the integration of population education into primary school curricula and into continuing education and literacy programs. This document provides a summary of prototype materials for integration of population messages in nonformal education. On-site visits were conducted in the rural villages of Sinar Bakti and Sari Harapan in the eastern district of Lembang, and 24 semi-literate persons were interviewed on demographic information, knowledge, attitudes, practices in family planning, problems and solutions, and aspirations. Workshop participants drafted materials with the help of resource persons, and 1 flip chart, 1 chart, and 2 booklets were field-tested. The core messages were that mother and child health care promotes family welfare; there is a right age for marriage; children can be spaced; women should be allowed to obtain a higher education; educated mothers add to family quality of life; women's groups can be effective; and rapid population growth leads to water shortages. Each of these messages for semi-literates is further differentiated by format, specific objectives, materials, messages and submessages. For example, a flip chart with 11 pictures is developed for stimulating discussion on the benefits of improving women's educational status. The instructions for facilitators are to direct learners to study the pictures and read the text and then direct questions about the messages in the pictures. Learners are expected to explain the pictures and text and draw conclusions. The learning materials from Pakistan were developed based on a needs assessment approach. Interviewers visited houses and asked for knowledge and attitudes on messages about small family size and social welfare, the right marriage age, responsible parenthood, population and development, reorientation of population-related beliefs and values, and enhancement of the status of women. The results of the inquiries are given. An example of these issues is represented in teaching materials for reorienting beliefs on the right marriage age. The target would be out-of-school youths and adults. The focus would be on how 1) early marriage affects the health of the mother and child, and 2) young mothers are not mentally prepared for the consequences of frequent pregnancies. A puppet show is provided as well as a guide for facilitators of discussion.
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  9. 9
    080183

    Integration of population education in APPEAL. Volume Two. Population education in universal primary education.

    UNESCO. Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific [PROAP]

    Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO, PROAP, 1992. [3], 100 p. (Population Education Programme Service)

    As part of the goal to integrate population education into primary school curriculum and literacy programs, workshops were held in 1989 and 1991. The noteworthy teaching materials for primary education included in this document were generated from the experiences in Indonesia and Pakistan. Workshop participants completed questionnaires on various aspects of population education and then visits were made to 3 primary schools in SD Jayagiri, SD Negeri Lembang V, and SD Negeri Cibodas, Indonesia; observations were made and teachers and principals identified their needs. A similar process led to the production of materials for Pakistan after visits to a Muslim community about 4 km from Islamabad and to Saidpur, Pakistan. The materials from Indonesia focused on core messages and submessages on small family size for family welfare, delayed marriage, responsible parenthood, population planning for environmental and resource conservation and development, reorientation of beliefs, and improved status for women. Each core unit had a submessage, objective, content, method or format, target audience, and learning activity. For example, the core message on small family size for family welfare contains the message that a family needs a budget. The objective is to develop an awareness of the relationship between family needs and family income. The content is to stress the limits to expenditures within family resources and a comparison of sharing available resources in a large family. The method or format is a script for radio directed to out-of-school children and class VI. Dialogue is presented in a scene about purchasing food at a local market. The noteworthy curriculum materials from Pakistan focuses on their problems, their population, family, teachings of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, implications of population growth, living things and their environment, and Shimim's story. Each issue has a class time, subject, core message, and instructional objective. In Shimim's story, the social studies class is devoted for 45 minutes to the core message about elders as an asset to the family and society. Reading material is provided and the teacher directs questions about the material and tests students with true/false questions.
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  10. 10
    049402

    Plan of action for the eradication of harmful traditional practices affecting the health of women and children in Africa.

    Inter-African Committee [IAC]

    [Unpublished] 1987. 14 p.

    The traditional and harmful practices such as early marriage and pregnancy, female circumcision, nutritional taboos, inadequate child spacing, and unprotected delivery continue to be the reality for women in many African nations. These harmful traditional practices frequently result in permanent physical, psychological, and emotional changes for women, at times even death, yet little progress has been realized in abolishing these practices. At the Regional Seminar of the Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children in Africa, held in Ethiopia during April 1987, guidelines were drawn by which national governments and local bodies along with international and regional organizations might take action to protect women from these unnecessary hazardous traditional practices. These guidelines constitute this "Plan of Action for the Eradication of Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children in Africa." The plan should be implemented within a decade. These guidelines include both shortterm and longterm strategies. Actions to be taken in terms of the organizational machinery are outlined, covering both the national and regional levels and including special support and the use of the mass media. Guidelines are included for action to be taken in regard to childhood marriage and early pregnancy. These cover the areas of education -- both formal and nonformal -- measures to improve socioeconomic status and health, and enacting laws against childhood marriage and rape. In the area of female circumcision, the short term goal is to create awareness of the adverse medical, psychological, social and economic implications of female circumcision. The time frame for this goal is 24 months. The longterm goal is to eradicate female circumcision by 2000 and to restore dignity and respect to women and to raise their status in society. Also outlined are actions to be taken in terms of food prohibitions which affect mostly women and children, child spacing and delivery practices, and legislative and administrative measures. Women in the African region have a critical role to play both in the development of their countries and in the solution of problems arising from the practice of harmful traditions.
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  11. 11
    005155

    World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace, Copenhagen, Denmark, 14-30 July 1980. Review and evaluation of progress achieved in the implementation of the World Plan of Action: national machinery and legislation.

    United Nations Decade for Women

    [New York], UN, 1980. 27 p. (A/CONF.94/11)

    This report is part of an overall review and appraisal of progress achieved and obstacles encountered at the national level (1975-1979) in implementing the World Plan of Action for the Implementation of the Objectives of the International Women's Year. Focus in the 1st chapter is on national machinery and women's organizations. Legislation is the subject of the 2nd chapter with attention directed to the following: constitutional and legislative guarantees of the principle of non-discrimination on the basis of sex; sanctions and/or remedies to deal with violations; measures to inform women of their rights; effects upon the status of women of variances between civil and customary religious law; nationality; and civil law in the fields of property rights, legal capacity, right to movement, consent to marriage, rights during marriage and at its dissolution, minimum age of marriage, registration of marriages, parental rights and duties, right to retain the family name, provision of penal codes and measures to combat prostitution. The integration of women into national life has been formally accepted by the governments of most countries as a desirable planning objective. To ensure that the commitment to integrate women into national life is actually translated into action, it is essential to have institutional and organizational structures and arrangements to identify problems, formulate requisite policies, monitor the implementation of such policies and coordinate national efforts and initiatives in the area. Governments reported the establishment of different kinds of administrative and institutional machinery to integrate women into national life. The nature of the machinery varies according to the specific socioeconomic and political system of each State along with the degree of support it received from the government.
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  12. 12
    170200

    Early marriage.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, England, IPPF, 2001 Nov. 51 p.

    Globally, early and forced marriage probably represents the most prevalent form of the sexual abuse and exploitation of girls. Hidden behind the socially sanctioned cloak of marriage, under-age girls are deprived of their personal freedom, forced into non-consensual sex, exploitation of their labor and diminution of their educational development and individual life-choices. Furthermore, they are subject to life-threatening damage to their health by having to go through pregnancy and childbirth before their bodies are sufficiently mature to do so. In many cultures, financial transactions are the basis of the marriage agreement and girls are treated as a commodity item by their own families. In this perspective, the Forum on Marriage and the Rights of Women and Girls was established. The Forum is a network of organizations mainly based in the UK but with international affiliates, sharing a vision of marriage as a sphere in which women and girls have inalienable rights. In this article, the Forum on Marriage and Rights of Women and Girls presented their recommendations in the international, national and community levels to address the abuse of children's human rights with regard to early marriage.
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  13. 13
    087730

    Convention on Consent to Marriage [Minimum Age for Marriage and Registration of Marriages]. Status.

    United Nations

    In: Multilateral treaties, index and current status, Tenth Cumulative Supplement, compiled by M.J. Bowman and D.J. Harris. Nottingham, England, University of Nottingham Treaty Centre, 1993. 199.

    On 1 July 1992, Jordan became a party to this Convention. In addition, on 8 October 1991, Croatia succeeded to the Convention. The Convention reaffirms the consensual nature of marriages and requires the parties to establish a minimum age by law and to ensure the registration of marriages. The following countries became parties or succeeded to the Convention on the Nationality of Married Women in 1991-92: a) Croatia, 8 October 1991 (suc.); b) Jordan, 1 July 1992; c) Latvia, 14 April 1992; and d) Slovenia, 25 June 1991 (suc.). The Convention provides for the retention of nationality by women upon marriage or dissolution of marriage or when their husbands change their nationality. It also contains provisions on the naturalization of foreign wives. See Multilateral Treaties, Index and Current Status, 10th Cumulative Suppl., 1993, p. 181.
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  14. 14
    086758

    Convention on Consent to Marriage, [Minimum Age for Marriage and Registration of Marriage Status].

    United Nations

    In: Multilateral treaties, index and current status, Ninth Cumulative Supplement, compiled by M.J. Bowman and D.J. Harris. Nottingham, England, University of Nottingham Treaty Centre, 1992. 170.

    On 6 June 1991 Mongolia became a party to the Convention on Consent to Marriage, Minimum Age for Marriages and Registration of Marriages. The Convention reaffirms the consensual nature of marriages and requires the parties to establish a minimum age by law and to ensure the registration of marriages. On 14 October 1991, Saint Lucia succeeded to the Convention on the Nationality of Married Women. See Multilateral Treaties, Index and Current Status, p. 155. This Convention provides for the retention of nationality by women upon marriage or dissolution of marriage or when their husband changes his nationality. It also contains provisions on the naturalization of foreign wives.
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  15. 15
    127870

    [The European Fertility and Family Planning Survey in Hungary] Europai Temekenysegi es Csaladvizsgalat Magyarorszagon.

    Kamaras F

    DEMOGRAFIA. 1995; 38(4):309-39.

    During December 1992 and November 1993 data were collected in Hungary in accordance with a questionnaire developed by the Population Unit of the European Economic Committee of the UN consisting of 10 chapters. A total of 3554 women aged 18-41 and 1919 men aged 20-44 completed the questionnaires which were processed by using the Integrated System of Survey Analysis package. 14% of the women and 10% of the men had been raised without one or both parents up to age 15. In the cohorts under age 25, twice as many children experienced the divorce of their parents than in the cohorts over age 40. 57% of the women left the family home by age 24 versus 27% of the men. Only 21% of women aged 20-24 were married by the age of 20, while 41% of women had been married by that age. 17% of women aged 20-24 lived in consensual union as opposed to 4% of women aged 40. Notwithstanding these findings, marriages that were not preceded by cohabitation were more stable. One-third of women aged over 25 gave birth to the first child by age 20 and two-thirds by age 24; only one-fourth of women aged 20-24 had their first child by age 20 and two-fifths by age 24. The average number of children is 1.9. Women's use of oral contraceptives is most popular up to age 40, while over that age the use of IUDs is increasing. The number of women under 25 using condoms makes up only one-fifth of the number of women relying on OCs. 25% of women over age 40 versus 7-8% of adolescents had undergone at least one abortion. The average number of children wanted by women was 2.1; only 1-2% of young people wanted no children during their lifetime; and 80% of both men and women disagreed that the institution of marriage was an outdated concept.
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  16. 16
    122295

    Family planning: a health and development issue.

    Watanabe E

    JOURNAL OF FAMILY WELFARE. 1992 Sep; 38(3):74-7.

    The impact of family planning (FP) on the health and lives of women and children is being increasingly recognized in developing countries including India. The acceptance of FP grows when child survival rates improve, and the practice of FP can help avoid deaths of infants and mothers which occur when mothers are too young or too old or when births are spaced too closely. FP could reduce about 25% of the 125,000 maternal deaths which occur each year in India and could help women avoid dangerous illegal abortions. FP used for birth spacing improves infant survival as well as the quality of the mothers' lives. Education is one of the most crucial determinants of a woman's socioeconomic status and, therefore, of their children's health and survival. It is, thus, important for girls to have access to universal primary education. UNICEF supports FP within the context of child survival and development activities such as the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood programs which include promotion of accessible contraception. UNICEF also promotes increasing the marriage age to 18 years, a two-child family norm, and communication activities to create a demand for FP. UNICEF is working with the Indian government to provide uneducated adolescent girls with nonformal education and vocational training so they can seek employment rather than early marriage. Through such activities, UNICEF is demonstrating its belief in the far-reaching benefits of FP.
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  17. 17
    105680
    Peer Reviewed

    Preventing teenage pregnancy.

    McGregor A

    Lancet. 1995 May 27; 345(8961):1358.

    Paul Livingstone Armstrong, 82, has sought to convince the medical profession and the general public of the known hazards of adolescent pregnancy since 1973. According to the "World Health Report" of the World Health Organization (WHO), maternal mortality rates at ages 15-19 are double those at 20-24; those at 10-14 are 5 times higher in some countries. In 14 African countries at least 50% of the women marry before age 18; in Niger, where nearly 50% marry before age 15, 2 out of 5 have one child by age 17. In China, due to family control, the maternal age range is 23-26; the paternal age range is 26-29. In Japan, 16% of women under 25 bear children; in the US, 43% do (1993 data). Livingstone Armstrong has produced demonstration kits with life-size plastic pelvises for ages 16, 19, and 23 for the Charing Cross and Westminster Medical School, London, UK. In 1985, the World Health Assembly (WHA), whose meetings Livingstone Armstrong has attended steadily, approved a resolution urging governments to promote a delay in child bearing until both parents, but especially the mother, are adults--fully grown, adequately nourished, and disease-free. However, some governments viewed the resolution as useless because of the social, economic, and religious circumstances of their populations. Livingstone Armstrong continued his efforts and donated his kits in a limited, judicious manner to places such as one of the refugee camps along the Thai-Cambodian border. The result was genuine interest by delegations to the most recent WHA meeting and orders from Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya, Zimbabwe, and Zambia for the kits, which are now being used in Gambia to train traditional birth attendants and village elders (all men).
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  18. 18
    094553

    WHO policy on FGM / HTPs; an interview with Mark A. Belsey.

    INTER-AFRICAN COMMITTEE TRADITIONAL PRACTICES AFFECTING THE HEALTH OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN. NEWSLETTER. 1993 Dec; (15):5-7.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) became interested in female genital mutilation in the 1960s at the request of the Sudanese government. During the 1970s and 1980s, 2 regional offices collaborated with WHO to hold seminars on harmful traditional practices. The WHO has been limited in its ability to work in this field by the nature of its organization. Thus, it is very happy to be able to work with the Inter-African Committee (IAC) on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children because the IAC can work with national NGOs which in turn can work with national governments. The IAC, in fact, laid the groundwork for the World Health Assembly resolution (WHA 46.18) which allows the WHO regions to approach all governments in a proactive sense with a plan of action (currently being developed) to contribute to the elimination of all harmful traditional practices. This may allow humanity to reach a stage in 20 years where female genital mutilation, while not totally eradicated, will not be increasing. Then, the next generation will be free of this procedure which, especially in combination with child marriage, is a danger to the physical health of girls and young women. The WHO believes that child marriage may even be more dangerous than female genital mutilation because of the disharmony between reproductive maturity and physical maturity which allows a girl to become pregnant before her pelvis has matured. The growth of this immature pelvis may be stopped permanently by an early pregnancy and, therefore, make all subsequent child-bearing difficult. Among the traditional practices harmful to women, these 2 are the ones which require the most immediate action.
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  19. 19
    079151

    Population and the family. Report of the Secretary-General.

    United Nations. Secretary-General

    In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume I. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 124-54. (Population Studies, No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)

    The UN Secretary-General's state of the population and family message is an expansive discussion of many issues. There are some historical perspectives and definitions of family type, socioeconomic change, and demographic changes affecting the family. Population trends are given for family size, more and less developed regions, the family life cycle, and family structures. Policies in industrialized countries are examined with a focus on the nuclear family, new marriage patterns and the sociological implications, and political responses to population growth. Family policy is also viewed from within transitional societies: demographic characteristics; specific populations such as those in Latin America, India and Indonesia; economic and social change; nuclear and extended families; international migration and urban-rural differences; marriage age changes; educational impacts from population growth; health programs; and family planning. Some basic principles for population policies are outlined. Parents must have the right to determine freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children. Children have a right to education, and parents to literacy. Women have an equal right to employment. Women have a right to choose their own marriage partners. Social policy in order to ensure the welfare of the family relies on social and economic services, including care for the aged. Market expansion and economic policy also impacts on the family through increasing participation of marginal workers especially women and should be sensitive to the well-being of the family. Population pressure will affect housing shortages and inefficiencies in social welfare, for example. Traditional societies are defined as those not affected yet by modernization. Regional illustrations are given for tropical Africa, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. The threshold hypothesis is advanced that even in traditional societies substantial mortality decline has occurred; the stages of demographic transition for specific countries has been shortened and inadequacy of data prevents a detailed estimation. Raising national and income/capita is seen as a goal of notional government. National governments have a responsibility to develop family and population policies. Human rights must be protected. The implications of growth patterns, the objectives of national policies, priorities, and universal criteria for a family policy are all discussed.
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  20. 20
    071962

    Norway.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 222-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Norway's 1985 population of 4,142,000 is projected to grow to 4,261,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 20.1% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 21.1% were over the age of 60. 16.9% and 27.1% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 1.8 to -0.8 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 76.0 to 78.1 years, the crude death rate will increase from 10.7 to 12.2, while,e infant mortality will decline from 8.0 to 5.0. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.7 to 2.0, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 12.5 to 11.4. The 1977 contraceptive prevalence rate was 71.0, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 24.0 years. Urban population will increase from 72.8% in 1985 to 79.9% overall by the year 2025. All of these levels and trends are considered acceptable by the government. Norway does not have an explicit population policy. A population committee was, however, created in 1981 to consider population and development, especially in the face of ongoing demographic aging. The government works to provide health for the population, maintain the level of immigration, and improve women's status. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  21. 21
    071961

    Nigeria.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 218-21. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Nigeria's 1985 population of 95,198,000 is projected to grow to 338,105,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 48.3% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 4.0% were over the age of 60. 38.8% and 4.6% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 33.3 to 22.7 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 48.5 to 64.5 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 17.1 to 6.8, while infant mortality will decline from 114.2 to 48.5. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 7.1 to 3.6, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 50.4 to 29.5. The 1981/2 contraceptive prevalence rate was 5.0, while the 1981/2 female mean age at 1st marriage was 18.7 years. Urban population will increase from 23.0% in 1985 to 53.0% overall by the year 2025. Immigration and emigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, morbidity, mortality, fertility, and spatial distribution are not. Nigeria has an explicit population policy. It aims to reduce population growth, fertility, morbidity, mortality, and the rate of urbanization. Specific efforts to effect these changes include providing for family planning and maternal-child health, education, rural and urban development, enhanced women's status, and greater male responsibility. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  22. 22
    071960

    Niger.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 214-7. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Niger's 1985 population of 6,115,000 is projected to grow to 18,940,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 46.7% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 4.9% were over the age of 60. 38.0% and 4.8% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 28.1 to 20.3 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 42.5 to 58.5 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 22.9 to 9.4, while infant mortality will decline from 145.7 to 70.9. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 7.1 to 3.6, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 51.0 to 29.7. The 1959 female mean age at 1st marriage was 15.8 years. Urban population will increase from 16.2% in 1985 to 46.6% overall by the year 2025. Immigration and emigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, morbidity, mortality, fertility, and spatial distribution are not. Niger does not have an explicit population policy. Efforts have, however, been taken to improve health care, education, food supply, overall living conditions, and spatial distribution. Rural areas receive particular attention. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  23. 23
    071959

    Nicaragua.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 210-3. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Nicaragua's 1985 population of 3,272,000 is projected to grow to 9,219,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 46.7% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 4.1% were over the age of 60. 31.1% and 7.8% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 34.5 to 17.8 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 59.8 to 72.6 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 9.7 to 5.1, while infant mortality will decline from 76.4 to 26.9. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 5.9 to 2.7, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 44.2 to 22.9. The 1981 contraceptive prevalence rate was 27.0, while the 1971 female mean age at 1st marriage was 20.2 years. Urban population will increase from 56.6% in 1985 to 77.9% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, fertility, and immigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while morbidity, mortality, high emigration, and spatial distribution are not. Nicaragua does not have a explicit population policy. The government finds the country to be underpopulated, and therefore concentrates upon reducing morbidity, mortality, and urban migration, and adjusting spatial distribution. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  24. 24
    071958

    New Zealand.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 206-9. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    New Zealand's 1985 population of 3,318,000 is projected to grow to 4,202,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 24.1% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 14.6% were over the age of 60. 17.9% and 23.1% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 7.4 to 1.8 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 73.8 to 77.5 years, the crude death rate will increase from 8.4 to 10.2, while infant mortality will decline from 12.1 to 6.1. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 1.9 to 1.8, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 15.7 to 11.9. The 1976 contraceptive prevalence rate was 41.0, while the 1981 female mean age at 1st marriage was 22.7 years. Urban population will increase from 83.7% in 1985 to 87.8% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, morbidity, mortality, fertility, immigration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while high emigration is not. New Zealand does not have an explicit population policy. Demographic variables have, however, been influenced by policies toward the family, health care, and immigration. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  25. 25
    071957

    Netherlands.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 202-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Netherlands' 1985 population of 14,500,000 is projected to grow to 14,691,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 19.6% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 16.5% were over the age of 60. 15.1% and 30.1% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 3.8 to -2.7 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 76.0 to 78.2 years, the crude death rate will increase from 8.7 to 13.0, while infant mortality will decline from 8.3 to 5.2. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.6 to 1.9, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 12.5 to 10.4. The 1985 contraceptive prevalence rate was 72.0, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 23.2 years. Urban population will increase from 88.4% in 1985 to 89.6% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, morbidity, mortality, fertility, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while high immigration and low emigration are not. The Netherlands has an explicit population policy. Fertility should be 15-30% below replacement level over several years in order to stop population growth, the level of immigration should be restricted, and a stationary population should ultimately be smaller than that presently realized. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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