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HYGIE. 1991; 10(2):3-4.A strategic plan for objectives and operations of the International Union for Health Education (IUHE) in the 1990s is presented. The IUHE's principal aims are to strengthen the position of education as a major means of protecting and promoting health, to support members of the IUHE, and to advise other agencies. Core functions will include advocacy/information services/networking, conferences/seminars, liaison/consultancy/technical services, training, and research. The objectives of the IUHE are to promote and strengthen the scientific and technical development of health education, to enhance the skills and knowledge of people engaged in health education, to create a greater awareness of the global leadership role of the IUHE in protecting and promoting health, and to secure a stronger organizational and resource base. These objectives will be achieved by developing an disseminating annual policy papers on key global issues, developing new procedural guidelines for the IUHE's world and regional conferences, clarifying the roles of the headquarters and regional offices, and developing recruitment incentives to boost membership. The corporate identify of the IUHE will be revised, formal U.N. accreditation will be sought, and mutually beneficial relationships will be fostered with selected U.N. and non-governmental organizations. Additionally, the scientific and technical strengths of the IUHE will be boosted, a resources referral service developed, a fund raising office created, worker achievements recognized, and a bursary fund established.
[Unpublished] 1991.  p.Jose G. Rimon, II, Project Director for the Johns Hopkins University Population Communication Services (JHU/PCS) Center for Communication Programs, visited Finland to attend a NORPLANT planning meeting. Meeting discussion focused upon issues involved in expanding NORPLANT programs from pre-introductory trials to broader national programs. Financing and maintaining quality of care were issues of central importance for the meeting. Participants included representative from NORPLANT development organizations, the U.S. Agency for International Development, the World Bank, and other donor agencies. Mr. Rimon was specifically invited to make a presentation on the role of information, education, and communication (IEC) on NORPLANT with a focus upon future IEC activities. The presentation included discussion of the need to develop a strategic position for NORPLANT among potential customers and within the service provide community, the feasibility of global strategies positioning in the context of country-specific variations, the need to identify market niches, the need for managing the image of NORPLANT, and the need to study IEC implications in terms of supply-side IEC, content/style harmonization, materials volume, and language and quality control. Participants collectively agreed to develop an informal group to address these issues, concentrating upon universal issues potentially addressed on a global scale. A meeting on strategic positioning is scheduled for August 19-20, 1991.
Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health, Technologies for Primary Health Care [PRITECH], 1989. , 19,  p. (USAID Contract No. AID/DPE-5969-Z-00-7064-00)A social marketing consultant sponsored by the US Agency for International Development visited the Philippines to assist in boosting oral rehydration solution ORS commercialization. The task includes following up on current ORS commercialization efforts in analyzing proposals from companies for strategies on rural distribution, promotion, pricing, and introduction scheduling as requested by the Department of Health (DOH) and to develop a plan of action that will lead to a final selection of companies and to develop the terms of reference for working relationship between the DOH and the selected companies. The 6 companies contacted were divided into 2 groups, 1 that insisted on using ORESOL exclusively, and those willing to use ORESOL as a generic name. All the advantages for the selected companies as well as the disadvantages for each, was weighted. Other factors considered were the political environment within the pharmaceutical market and the timing of the ORESOL launch. To provide DOH with the best objective decision, the Keptner-Tregoe decision making technique was used. This process showed an advantage to use the open market companies. An action plan outlining specific tasks to be done, responsibilities of various parties, and the dates of completion is described.
IPPF MEDICAL BULLETIN. 1988 Apr; 22(2):2-3.The home-based maternal record offers an opportunity for family involvement in health care. Home-based records of maternal health have been used in several developing countries, and have led to increased detection and monitoring of women at high risk for complications during pregnancy. Home-based cards that include menstrual information remind health workers to educate and motivate women for family planning, and serve as a source of health statistics. Records that use pictures and symbols have been used by illiterate traditional birth attendants, and had an accurate completion rate of over 90%. The WHO has prepared a prototype record and guidelines for local adaptation. The objectives were to provide continuity of care throughout pregnancy, ensure recognition of at-risk women, encourage family participation in health care, an provide data on maternal health, breastfeeding, and family planning. The guidelines have been evaluated and results show that the records have improved the coverage, acceptability, and quality of MCH/FP care. The records have also led to an increase in diagnosis and referral of at-risk women and newborns, and the use of family planning and tetanus toxoid immunization has increased in the 13 centers where the reports are being used. Focus group discussions have shown that mothers, community members, primary health workers, and doctors and nurses liked the records. It is important to adapt criteria for high-risk conditions to the local areas where the records will be used to ensure the relevance of risk diagnosis. The evidence shows that home-based maternal and child records can be an important tool in the promotion of self-reliance and family participation in health care. In addition, home-based records can be used for the implementation of primary health care at the local level, and serve as a resource for data collection.
IPPF MEDICAL BULLETIN. 1988 Apr; 22(2):3-4.A workshop funded by the USA Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) was an effort by Zambia toward prevention and control of AIDS. The lack of educational materials about AIDS for a low-literate audience was the major problem addressed by the workshop. Other problems include the lack of collaborative effort in the development of materials on AIDS, and the lack of skills needed in the development of such materials in Zambia. 1 of the objectives of the workshop was to launch the Planned Parenthood Association of Zambia's (PPAZ) materials development project. The scope of this project includes the production of educational materials on AIDS for low-literate audiences and a counseling handbook for family planning workers. Print materials should be simply written, using words, idioms, and graphics that are familiar to the target audience. Other workshop objectives included the establishment of collaborative relationships between organizations involved in existing AIDS educational activities in Zambia, and the development of practical skills needed to produce print materials. Education was identified as the most important strategy for the prevention and control of AIDS, and PPAZ should be the executing agency of the print materials project. Audience research, using focus group techniques, focus group discussions, behavioral messages, and pretesting of messages, should be the most effective means of reaching targeted audiences. PPAZ is contracted by PATH to begin development of educational materials, and 2 committees have formed to implement the project and to establish interagency collaboration. Audience research was begun between January and March of 1988, focusing on people's beliefs, practices, and ideas about AIDS. The final phase of the project will be the printing, distribution, and use of the AIDS materials and the training of family planning field workers in the proper use of these materials.
[Unpublished] 1987. 55,  p.Marketing is a branch of economics which includes the analysis, planning, implementation, and control of promotional programs designed to encourage a target population to accept an organization's product or service. Social marketing (SM) is the application of marketing technics to alter the behavior of a target population toward the acceptance of a social project. Early efforts in social marketing involved public service or "social" advertising via mass media; and early projects were directed toward family planning, health and nutrition in developing countries. Several lessons were learned from these early projects: 1) Persuasive technics must be geared to the specific project; 2) Pilot projects should be limited in scope; 3) Target populations are variable and must be precisely defined; 4) Constant feedback is essential; 5) In developing countries mass media campaigns must be directed, not only at the end-user population, but also at the intermediary government officials, health workers, teachers, and food distributors; 6) Maximum use must be made of the small amount of media time available; 7) In poor, underdeveloped countries persuasion technics must take account of cultural and psychological barriers to behavior modification; 8) Social marketing is not competitive in the commercial sense; 9) Careful market research must be done in order to avoid mistakes due to failure to understand cultural barriers; 10) Health education efforts must address the whole health environment, not merely one aspect of it because the different aspects are interrelated, e.g., the relation of food hygiene to the cleanliness of the water supply; 11) Social marketing cannot overcome basic economic and political barriers to the reception of a new project. Some recent examples of social marketing include the experience of SOMARC (Social Marketing for Change), a private voluntary organization which worked with the Indonesian government to distribute condoms; HEALTHCOM, which worked with oral rehydration therapy in 8 countries; the Johns Hopkins Population Communication Services, which used popular music to "sell" chastity to young people in Latin America; and China's "one child" program. The present project involves a cooperative effort among the General Foods Corporation, the International Chamber of Commerce, the International Advertising Association, the Industry Council for Development, and the World Health Organization Consultation of Health Education in Food Safety. This project will test the adaptability of commercial food marketing technics for use with a target population which buys different foods, largely unpackaged and unlabelled. The effort must be coordinated with local health workers and will involve training of local food handlers and technicians and the use of some give-away item such as a calendar to serve as a reminder and hold the attention of the target population. Similar cooperative ventures, involving pharmaceutical firms, local organizations, local governments, and the World Health organization have shown the effectiveness of social marketing in reaching target populations in developing countries.
Pretesting communication materials with special emphasis on child health and nutrition education. A manual for trainers and supervisors.
Rangoon, Burma, UNICEF, Rangoon, 1984 Feb. 62 p.This is a complete manual on how to pretest printed materials on child health and nutrition, prepared by UNICEF primarily for developing countries. It is charmingly illustrated with photographs, cartoons, and samples of visual materials. Pretesting means interviewing the intended audience to see if they understand and like the materials. Often illiterate rural people are unfamiliar with most of the visual conventions we take for granted, are embarrassed or threatened about certain content, or are put off by color selection, unfamiliar details or overly lengthy presentations, for example. The most common objection to pretesting is lack of time and money; yet losses on untested materials may be much higher. Detailed help is provided with techniques for interviewing, such as how to establish rapport, word questions, probe for information rather than yes answers, handle negative attitudes. Sections explain where, when, whom and how to interview many subjects, and how to evaluate results. Final sections deal with discussion questions, feedback from users, types of problems encountered with people of low visual literacy, and how to convince a supervisor of the need for pretesting.
PUBLIC HEALTH REPORTS. 1987 Jul-Aug; 102(4):420-7.A marketing study was conducted for Planned Parenthood of Louisiana to provide information on product needs, placement of health facilities, reasonable prices for family planning services, and promotional needs. It illustrates the role that marketing research can play in the development of family planning program strategies, even for relatively small organizations. Data from telephone interviews among a random sample of 1000 women 15-35 years old in New Orleans before the clinic opened confirmed that the need for services was not entirely satisfied by existing providers. Clinic hours and cost of services were in line with client interests. The most useful findings for developing promotional strategy were the relatively low name recognition of Planned Parenthood (only 51% of respondents had ever heard of the organization) and a higher-than-expected level of interest in using the service expressed by young, low-income black women.
Washington, D.C., SOMARC, .  p.This document contains briefing materials for the participants of an upcoming meeting of the advisory council and working groups of Social Marketing for Change (SOMARC), an organizational network, funded by the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and composed of 5 firms which work together in helping agencies, organizations, and governments develop contraceptive social marketing programs. Social marketing is the use of commercial marketing techniques and management procedures to promote social change. The briefing materials include 3 background and 18 issue papers. The background papers provide brief summaries of USAID's population activities and of the history of social marketing programs, an overview of USAID sponsored contraceptive social marketing programs in 14 countries and of 3 major non-USAID programs, and a listing of the skills and resources needed to develop effective contraceptive social marketing programs. The issue papers provide a focus for the discussion sessions which are scheduled for SOMARC's working groups on marketing communication, management, and research. USAID's objective is to promote the development of family planning programs which are completely voluntary and which increase the reproductive freedom of couples. Contraceptive social marketing programs are consistent with this objective. USAID provides direct funding for family planning programs as well as commodity, technical, and training support. USAID's involvement in social marketing began in 1971, and USAID is currently sponsoring programs in Jamaica, Bangladesh, Nepal, El Salvador, Egypt, Honduras, Ecuador, the Caribbean Region, Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Peru. In the past, USAID provided support for programs in Mexico, Tunisia, and Ghana. The Mexican project is now functioning without USAID support, and the projects in Tunisia and Ghana are no longer operating. Major non-USAID contraceptive social marketing programs operate in India, Sri Lanka, and Colombia. These programs received only limited technical support from USAID. To ensure the success of social marketing programs, social marketers must have access to the knowledge and skills of commercial marketers in the areas of management, analysis and planning, communications, and research. Social marketers must also have expertise in social development and social research. In reference to the issue papers, the working groups and the advisory council were asked to develop suggestions for 1) overcoming social marketing program management problems, 2) motivating health professionals toward greater involvement in social marketing programs, 3) improving the media planning component of the programs, 4) improving management stability and training for management personnel, and 5) improving program evaluation. Areas addressed by the issue papers were 1) whether social marketing programs should be involved in creating a demand for contraceptives or only in meeting the existing demand, 2) the development of a methodology for assessing why some programs fail and others succeed, 3) the feasibility of using anthropological and questionnaire modules for conducting social marketing research, 4) techniques for overcoming the high level of nonsampling error characteristic of survey data collected in developing countries, 5) techniques for identifying contraceptive price elasticity, 6) the feasibility of using content analysis in social marketing communications, 7) the applicability of global marketing strategies for social marketing, and 8) how to select an an appropriate advertising agency to publicize social marketing programs.
Piact Papers. (6):1-31.Commercial retail sales (CRS) of contraceptives were first begun in developing countries in the early '60's. A conference on the programs was convened in the Philippines in November, 1979. 65 participants from 23 countries attended. The primary objective of a commercial retail sales program is to achieve a social benefit; the secondary objective is to recover a portion of the costs of the program in order to minimize government or donor cost. The 5 components of a CRS program are: preprogram market research, marketing, operations, administration, and evaluation research. Preprogram marketing should examine products, consumer needs, retailer, distribution channels, legalities, prices, and other competing programs. Supply, warehousing, inventory control, distribution, sales management, and personnel training must be available for a successful program. The administrative components of a CRS program are accounting, personnel, statistic, and financing. Overall, commercial retail sales programs are more relevant now than they were 7 or 8 years ago. It is imperative for a program claiming funds for socioeconomic development to demonstrate that the resources needed to support it are in proportion to the relative impact it has on reducing population growth rates.
Washington, D.C. American Public Health Association, 1975. 16 p. (APHA Assgn. No. 1100-020)A commercial contraceptive distribution program in Bangladesh, funded by USAID and contracted by Population Services International (PSI) was evaluated upon completion of the market testing phase of the operation. The evaluation team reported that the program was generally in compliance with the contract, made a number of recommendations for modifying both the program and the contractual agreement, and offered suggestions for USAID drafting of similar contracts in the future. The evaluation team recommended that the prices should not be so high as to reduce sales but high enough to permit future price setting flexibility, to inhibit smuggling, to enhance the identification of the product as a quality item, to discourage the use of the product for other purposes, and to insure the self-reliance of the program in the future. All pills should be packaged as soon as possible to insure sanitary handling. A timetable for covering the distribution network should be submitted promptly so that distribution and promotional efforts can be coordinated. Expanding the program by adding new administrative units each month was considered an inappropriate approach in a small country. Instead efforts should be made to promote national coverage within 1 year. No decision should be made at this time on whether or not a non-profit organization should be established for carrying on the program after PSI phases out. Additional funds should be allocated for market research and for promotional activities and allocations for consumer attitudinal surveys should be reduced. A foreign advisor shoud be hired to help coordinate the distribution phase since it is difficult to hire a qualified local person given governmental salary restrictions. In reference to the establishment of contract guidelines for future distribution projects in developing countries, the team recommended against the development of a uniform contract. A flexible contract tailored to the needs of the specific country was viewed as more appropriate. The development of a technical marketing plan should not be a contract requirement. USAID should determine the most appropriate form of packaging for the contraceptives and then use this form of packaging in all future distribution programs.
Meeting of agencies conducting or directly supporting research on the biomedical aspects of family planning. September 11-12, 1978.
Geneva, . 16 p.Population Council has made major changes in their policies, priorities and approaches to family planning research. There has been increased emphasis on the consumer's perspective regarding family planning technology. Consequently, at WHO's request population Council has included in a report 1977 expenditures and 1978 budget. Areas funded directly by Population Council include research on: 1) current methods of fertility regulation like lowdose estrogen combinations in Columbia, long term sequalae in the United States and immediate postpartum insertion of IUD devices in Finland; 2) new and improved methods including copper-releasing IUD models in the United States and hormone releasing IUD devices in Finland; 3) acceptability, product and market research; and 4) research training.
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B. 1976 Dec 10; 195(1118):187-198.In the past 15-20 years there have been advances in fertility regulation. These advances are modest gains that frequently involve a bioengineering input, include collaboration between public agencies and industry, and are closely related to the needs of developing nations. They are the result of the existence of specialized programs whose major goal is the development of new technology. However, a similar specialized public mechanism to undertake the wide range of activities related to product development and introduction of the new technology into family planning does not exist. The 3 major phases of the contraceptive development process are biomedical development, product development, and product introduction-market development. There are 4 areas that require more attention. The 1st of these is a product development laboratory that would accept responsibility for dosage form development, stability testing, quality control procedures, product and packaging modifications, and the production of supplies for biomedical research. Such a laboratory would increase the acceptability of existing methods and promote new developments. Also needed is a contraceptive information service, offering ''full disclosure'' product-related information to managers of family planning programs. A 3rd need is for a patent and licensing administration for the public sector; this would assure that new contraceptives developed with public funds would be made widely available to family planning programs at a reasonable cost. Finally, there is a need to establish a contraceptive introduction planning unit that would consider the program implications of new methods of fertility control and aid countries in planning for their introduction. The availabiltiy of a specialized capacity to take responsibility for public leadership in these 4 areas would contribute greatly to the development of new contraceptive methods that are appropriate to the needs of developing countries and to the success of present international contraceptive research and development efforts.(Authors', modified)
New York, New York, UN. April 14, 1975. 39 pAny shortage in the supply of oral contraceptives (OCs) or condoms in the next 5-10 years will be a result of the planning and procurement system rather than shortages of raw materials or production capacity. Production of OCs could be doubled with existing facilities and trebled (if manufacturers were assured of demand) within 2 years; production of condoms is at capacity but could be increased quickly if industry were assured of demand. Because of the rapid growth of the public sector contraceptive market, which will probably overtake commercial sales within 5 years, an organized system that uses longer term planning for future needs and single-point negotiations with suppliers is needed to hold down costs and ensure continuity of supply. As part of this planning, manufacturers, family planning program directors, and international agencies support the institution of a data system to report contraceptive distribution on a regular basis by country, method, and sector, with the capacity to forecast demand by method and country over a 5-year period.
San Francisco, San Francisco Press, 1974. 292 p.Despite its high effectiveness, lack of side effects, ease of use, and low cost, condom utilization has declined in the U.S. from 30% of contracepting couples in 1955 to 15% in 1970. The present status of the condom, actions needed to facilitate its increased availability and acceptance, and research required to improve understanding of factors affecting its use are reviewed in the proceedings of a conference on the condom sponsored by the Battelle Population Study Center in 1973. It is concluded that condom use in the U.S. is not meeting its potential. Factors affecting its underutilization include negative attitudes among the medical and family planning professions; state laws restricting sales outlets, display, and advertising; inapplicable testing standards; the National Association of Broadcasters' ban on contraceptive advertising; media's reluctance to carry condom ads; manufacturer's hesitancy to widen the range of products and use aggressive marketing techniques; and physical properties of the condom itself. Further, the condom has an image problem, tending to be associated with venereal disease and prostitution and regarded as a hassle to use and an impediment to sexual sensation. Innovative, broad-based marketing and sales through a variety of outlets have been key to effective widespread condom usage in England, Japan, and Sweden. Such campaigns could be directed toward couples who cannot or will not use other methods and teenagers whose unplanned, sporadic sexual activity lends itself to condom use. Other means of increasing U.S. condom utilization include repealing state and local laws restricting condom sales to pharmacies and limiting open display; removing the ban on contraceptive advertising and changing the attitude of the media; using educational programs to correct erroneous images; and developing support for condom distribution in family planning programs. Also possible is modifying the extreme stringency of condom standards. Thinner condoms could increase usage without significantly affecting failure rates. More research is needed on condom use-effectiveness in potential user populations and in preventing venereal disease transmission; the effects of condom shape, thickness, and lubrication on consumer acceptance; reactions to condom advertising; and the point at which an acceptable level of utilization has been achieved.