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Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2009 Nov. 25 p.Based on the latest scientific evidence, the World Health Organization (WHO) has released new recommendations on HIV treatment and prevention and infant feeding in the context of HIV. WHO now recommends earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy for adults and adolescents, the delivery of more patient-friendly antiretroviral drugs (ARVs), and prolonged use of ARVs to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. For the first time, WHO recommends that HIV-positive mothers or their infants take ARVs while breastfeeding to prevent HIV transmission.
Evidence behind the WHO guidelines: Hospital Care for Children: what is the aetiology and treatment of chronic diarrhoea in children with HIV?
Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. 2009 Dec; 55(6):349-55.This clinical review aims to address the issue of appropriate treatment for chronic diarrhea in children with HIV and evaluates the scientific evidence behind WHO's recommendations for this matter. It finds that highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) substantially reduces diarrhea, increases the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents, and improves weight gain.
Training manual to fight trafficking in children for labour, sexual and other forms of exploitation. Textbook 1: Understanding child trafficking.
Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Organization, 2009. 51 p.This training manual is aimed at governments, workers, employer's groups, nongovernmental organizations, and international agencies working for children. It can be used in a training environment and as a stand-alone resource for those who wish to hone their understanding and skills in efforts to end child trafficking.
Training manual to fight trafficking in children for labour, sexual and other forms of exploitation. Textbook 2: Action against child trafficking at policy and outreach levels.
Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Organization, 2009. 48 p.This book focuses on actions that can be taken to prevent trafficking, protect children from being trafficked, pursue traffickers, and support trafficked children to rebuild their lives. These recommendations are categorized under four main headings commonly used to describe anti-trafficking actions: Broad protection: to prevent children and former victims from being (re)trafficked; Prevention: of the crime of child trafficking and the exploitation that is its end result; Law enforcement: in particular within a labor context and relating to labor laws and regulations; Victim assistance: covering the kinds of responses necessary to help trafficked children and to reduce their vulnerability to being re-trafficked.
Supporting community responses to malaria: A training manual to strengthen capacities of community based organizations in application processes of the Global Fund to Fight HIV / AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.
Cologne, Germany, STOP MALARIA NOW!, 2009 Nov. 53 p.This training manual is a product of the STOP MALARIA NOW! advocacy campaign and aims to support community responses to malaria. In particular, this manual aims to improve knowledge and skills of Community Based Organizations (CBOs) in application processes of the Global Fund to Fight HIV / AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. The contents are based on results of the needs assessment 'Capacity Needs of CBOs in Kenya in Terms of Application Processes of the Global Fund to Fight HIV /AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM)', conducted in June and July 2009.
[Research Triangle Park, North Carolina], FHI, 2009.  p.Clients should be scheduled for NET-EN reinjections every 8 weeks. According to the 2008 WHO guidelines, a client can receive a reinjection if she is up to 2 weeks early or 2 weeks past her scheduled reinjection date, without ruling out pregnancy. Clients arriving after the reinjection window may also be eligible if pregnancy can be ruled out. The steps in this aid should be followed for clients who are returning for reinjection. For clients who want an injection for the first time, "Checklist for Screening Clients Who Want to Initiate NET-EN" should be used.
[Research Triangle Park, North Carolina], FHI, 2009.  p.Clients should be scheduled for DMPA reinjections every 13 weeks. According to the 2008 WHO guidelines, a client can receive a reinjection if she is up to 2 weeks early or 4 weeks past her scheduled reinjection date, without ruling out pregnancy. Clients arriving after the reinjection window may also be eligible if pregnancy can be ruled out. The steps in this aid should be followed for clients who are returning for reinjection. For clients who want an injection for the first time, "Checklist for Screening Clients Who Want to Initiate DMPA".should be used.
A practical guide to integrating reproductive health and HIV / AIDS into grant proposals to the Global Fund.
[Washington, D.C.], Population Action International, 2009 Sep. 61 p.Starting in recent proposal rounds, The Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) has stated more explicitly that countries can include reproductive health as part of their proposals on AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, as long as a justification is provided on the impact of reproductive health (RH) on reducing one of the three diseases. This document is for countries and organizations, including CCMs, government and nongovernmental organizations and civil society organizations, to help in integrating reproductive health, including family planning (RH) and HIV / AIDS in proposals submitted to the Global Fund. The document takes a country approach to integration since the Global Fund seeks to support proposals that build on and strengthen national programs. (Excerpt)
Antiretroviral resistance patterns and HIV-1 subtype in mother-infant pairs after the administration of combination short-course zidovudine plus single-dose nevirapine for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.
Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2009 Jul 15; 49(2):299-305.BACKGROUND: World Health Organization guidelines for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) recommend administration of zidovudine and single-dose nevirapine (NVP) for HIV-1-infected women who are not receiving treatment for their own health or if complex regimens are not available. This study assessed antiretroviral resistance patterns among HIV-infected women and infants receiving single-dose NVP in Thailand, where the predominant circulating HIV-1 strains are CRF01_AE recombinants and where the minority are subtype B. METHODS: Venous blood samples were obtained from (1) HIV-infected women who received zidovudine from 34 weeks' gestation and single-dose NVP plus oral zidovudine during labor and (2) HIV-infected infants who received single-dose NVP after birth plus zidovudine for 4 weeks after delivery. HIV-1 drug resistance testing was performed using the TruGene assay (Bayer HealthCare). RESULTS: Most mothers and infants were infected with CRF01_AE. NVP resistance was detected in 34 (18%) of 190 women and 2 (20%) of 10 infants. There was a significantly higher proportion of NVP mutations in women with delivery viral loads of >50,000 copies/mL (adjusted odds ratio, 8.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-32.8, [Formula: see text] for linear trend) and in those with subtype B rather than CRF01_AE infections (38% vs. 16%; adjusted odds ratio, 3.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-11.8; P = .038). CONCLUSIONS: The lower frequency of NVP mutations among mothers infected with subtype CRF01_AE, compared with mothers infected with subtype B, suggests that individuals infected with subtype CRF01_AE may be less susceptible to the induction of NVP resistance than are individuals infected with subtype B.