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Seattle, Washington, Program for Appropriate Technology in Health [PATH], Bill and Melinda Gates Children’s Vaccine Program, 2001 Jan.  p. (Bill and Melinda Gates Children's Vaccine Program Occasional Paper No. 4)Hepatitis B is a killer, taking the lives of 900,000 people each year. This disease is especially dangerous for infants, since those who are infected when young may carry the infection for the rest of their lives, often without knowing it. Chronic carriers can infect others and are themselves at risk of serious liver disease later in life, including cirrhosis and liver cancer. Fortunately hepatitis B vaccine, if provided to infants, helps protect them against these problems. In effect, it is the world's first anticancer vaccine. Due to the seriousness of hepatitis B disease, and because of the high effectiveness and safety of the vaccine, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that it be given to all children worldwide. A recent WHO "aide-memoire" on hepatitis B is included at the end of this paper. The hepatitis B vaccine has been available for decades, but introduction into the developing world only began in the late 1980s. Currently more than 100 countries routinely provide the vaccine, but many still cannot afford to do so. The partner agencies of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) and the Global Fund for Children's Vaccines are working to change this situation. (excerpt)
Promoting condoms in clinics for sexually transmitted infections: a practical guide for programme planners and managers.
Manila, Philippines, WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, STI, HIV and AIDS Focus, 2001.  p.The promotion of condom use among patients with sexually transmitted infections (STI) is important in the prevention and control of STI, including HIV. This guide aims to help STI programme planners and managers to improve condom promotion among STI patients. It reviews the major areas in condom promotion for STI services, including: creating a favourable environment; training service providers; counselling clients on condom use; managing condom supplies; and monitoring condom use. Some additional resources and sample exercises are also outlined. Further information and technical support in promoting condoms for STI prevention may be obtained from the World Health Organization, Regional Office for the Western Pacific. (excerpt)
Giving adolescents a voice: conducting a rapid assessment of adolescent health needs. A manual for health planners and researchers.
Manila, Philippines, WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2001.  p.As the name suggests, rapid assessments are intended to be undertaken rapidly, and so we emphasize practicality. This manual provides a staged approach to develop and conduct a national-level adolescent health needs rapid assessment. In this manual we: Provide a brief overview of adolescent health; Offer a variety of methods and tools as options for data gathering; Provide illustrations of planning tools; Describe specific strategies to assist field implementation; and Provide cases from field experience. This manual is designed as a flexible guide, not a rigid blueprint. It offers the research team a wide range of tools. It does not prescribe which ones should be adopted, because issues, cultures, populations, research expertise, budgets and available time vary from country to country. Choosing methods, and deciding sampling can be done only by the team within the local context. (excerpt)
Transforming health systems: gender and rights in reproductive health. A training manual for health managers.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, . 12 p.Reproductive health exemplifies the complex interaction between biologic differences between the sexes, and gender power differentials. Many of women’s reproductive health problems are not simply the result of their having a womb or bearing children. They are a consequence of discrimination and lack of power to decide about how and with whom they will have sexual relations, and whether and when to bear children. For women, sexual and reproductive health are not just dependent on their own behaviour but, more fundamentally, they are dependent on the behaviour of their sexual partners, other family members and service providers. Therefore, in order to achieve improvements in reproductive health, programmes and policies must promote gender equality and the realisation of sexual and reproductive rights for women. This course focuses on improving participants understanding of gender and rights so that they can plan more effective programmes and services. It offers both conceptual and technical skills and tools for pactitioners to integrate the promotion of rights and gender equality into their policies, planning and programmes. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2001. 32 p. (Preventing HIV / Promoting Reproductive Health)UNFPA has worked in the field of population and development for more than three decades and has addressed the issue of HIV/AIDS for the last decade. However, no organization by itself has the capacity or the resources needed to address and halt the pandemic. An effective response requires careful collaboration and coordination among organizations, with each bringing to the partnership a distinct set of capabilities, strengths and comparative advantages. As one of the eight cosponsors of UNAIDS (the other cosponsors being UNICEF, UNDP, UNDCP, UNESCO, ILO, WHO and World Bank), UNFPA chairs Theme Groups in many countries and supports HIV-prevention interventions in almost all of its country programmes. To maximize its response and to strengthen coordinated activities with other partners, it is critical for staff at every level to have a common understanding of the Fund’s policies and strategic priorities. The aim of this document is to provide such guidance to staff, delineating the niche in which UNFPA as an organization has a definite comparative advantage in addressing the HIV/AIDS epidemic, especially at the country level. (excerpt)
Paris, France, UNESCO, 2001 Oct.  p. (Literacy, Gender and HIV / AIDS Series)This booklet is one of an ever-growing series of easy-to-read materials produced at a succession of UNESCO workshops partially funded by the Danish Development Agency (DANIDA). The workshops are based on the appreciation that gender-sensitive literacy materials are powerful tools for communicating messages on HIV/AIDS to poor rural people, particularly illiterate women and out-of-school girls. Based on the belief that HIV/AIDS is simultaneously a health and a social cultural and economic issue, the workshops train a wide range of stakeholders in HIV/AIDS prevention including literacy, health and other development workers, HIV/AIDS specialists, law enforcement officers, material developers and media professionals. Before a workshop begins, the participants select their target communities and carry out needs assessments of their potential readers. At the workshops, participants go through exercises helping them to fine tune their sensitivity to gender issues and how these affect people's risks of HIV/AIDS. The analysis of these assessments at the workshops serves as the basis for identifying the priority issues to be addressed in the booklets. They are also exposed to principles of writing for people with limited reading skills. Each writer then works on his or her booklet with support from the group. The booklets address a wide-range of issues normally not included in materials for HIV/AIDS such as the secondary status of girls and women in the family, the "sugar daddy" phenomenon, wife inheritance, the hyena practice, traditional medicinal practices superstitions, home-based care and living positively with AIDS. They have one thing in common- they influence greatly a person's safety from contracting HIV/AIDS. We hope that these booklets will inspire readers to reflect on some of life's common situations, problems and issues that ordinary women and men face in their day-to-day relationships. In so doing, they might reach a conclusion that the responsibility is theirs to save their own lives and those of their loved ones from HIV/AIDS. (excerpt)
Female genital mutilation: the prevention and the management of the health complications. Policy guidelines for nurses and midwives.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Gender and Women's Health, 2001. 16 p. (WHO/FCH/GWH/01.5; WHO/RHR/01.18)These guidelines are intended for use primarily by those responsible for developing policies and directing the working practices of nurses, midwives and other frontline health care providers. They are also intended to complement the training materials for nurses and midwives in the management of girls and women with FGM. The purpose of the policy guidelines is: to promote and strengthen the case against the medicalization of FGM; to support and protect nurses, midwives and other health personnel in adhering to WHO guidelines not to close an opened up infibulation; to empower nurses and midwives to carry out functions in relation to FGM which are outside their current legal scope of practice; and to encourage appropriate documentation of FGM in clinical records and health information system. (excerpt)
Guidelines for using HIV testing technologies in surveillance: selection, evaluation, and implementation.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2001. iv, 38 p. (WHO/CDS/CSR/EDC/2001.16; UNAIDS/01.22E)As the HIV/AIDS epidemic imposes an ever-larger burden globally, surveillance for HIV becomes more critical in order to understand the trends of the epidemic and to make sound decisions on how best to respond to it. This is especially true in developing countries, which account for a disproportionate share of new and long-standing infections. To help countries focus their surveillance activities in the context of their epidemic state (low-level, concentrated, or generalized), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/ AIDS (UNAIDS) have developed a conceptual framework to improve HIV surveillance—second generation HIV surveillance. Guidelines for second generation HIV surveillance suggest approaches to make better use of data to increase and improve the response to the HIV epidemic. As biological surveillance (serosurveillance) is an important component of most HIV surveillance activities, an understanding of current HIV testing technologies is important. In the context of second generation HIV surveillance, these laboratory guidelines suggest methods for selecting, evaluating, and implementing HIV testing technologies and strategies based on a country’s laboratory infrastructure and surveillance needs. The guidelines provide recommendations for specimen selection, collection, storage, and testing and for the selection and evaluation of appropriate HIV testing strategies and technologies to meet surveillance objectives. Quality assurance issues are also addressed. These technical guidelines are written for HIV surveillance coordinators and other health professionals involved in HIV testing for surveillance purposes in developing countries. They are part of a series of operational guidelines for second generation HIV surveillance systems. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Department of Vaccines and Biologicals, 2001. vi, 95 p. (WHO/V&B/01.44)Concerns have been raised over the effects of health reforms upon immunization. This document has been prepared to provide some insights into how quality immunization services can be sustained in a reformed and decentralized health system, especially if integration involves disbanding the vertical EPI programme. There is no single model that encapsulates “health reform”, which sometimes involves radical constitutional and structural changes not only to health services but also in other sectors. This document presents two case studies of countries, which have approached reforms in very different ways, and highlights the lessons learned presented in Chapter 6. For organizations supporting countries undergoing health reform, the following are prerequisites: Gain an understanding of the background leading to reform in a particular country, and of the ambitions and guiding principles behind the reforms. Identify which sectors are involved, what is the leading sector or institution, and who are the key players. Find out how far ownership extends beyond the core group, and the extent of consensus. Identify the changes in structures and functions. The organigrams developed for this document illustrate how radical the changes may be. It is likely that the old systems used for vertical programmes must be changed to fit the reformed structures and processes; appropriate solutions will be specific to a particular setting. The following general principles were identified: Use the set of essential functions in Chapter 3 to assess whether immunization seems to be adequately covered. It is important to distinguish between temporary problems arising from the transition to the new system, and structural flaws or weaknesses in the design of the new system. If necessary, propose further adjustments to ensure that essential functions can be covered. Reforms are likely to involve operational changes in the way that immunization services are to be managed. Integration of services is often perceived to provide a more cost-effective approach than the vertical programmes. Take the opportunity offered by reforms to extend the standards developed for immunization to other aspects of primary health care, thus reinforcing good management practices and building up capacity. Consider new approaches to funding arrangements for supporting immunization, especially for procurement of specialized equipment. Monitoring and reviews provide ways of assessing the execution of essential functions at national level and the management of immunization services through all levels of the system. Suggestions for indicators are given in Annex 2. Be aware of the time frame and agenda for reforms and the annual planning cycle, allow more time for reaching consensus with all key players, and be patient. (excerpt)
The Manager: Management Strategies for Improving Health Services. 2001; 10(4): p..This issue of The Manager offers policymakers and managers of TB programs at all levels a practical, systematic approach to strengthening drug management so that TB drugs reach and are appropriately used by patients. It introduces the drug management cycle and describes how effective drug policies and laws can support this cycle. The issue also explains how specific improvements in drug selection, procurement, distribution, and use, as well as in management support, can help to maintain an adequate flow of TB drugs. (author's)
Management of suspected cases of HIV disease in developing countries: the need for clinical guidelines for primary healthcare workers [letter]
Tropical Doctor. 2001 Oct; 31(4):250-251.There is, therefore, an urgent need for guidelines that can be used by primary care staff in developing countries. This may involve putting greater emphasis on symptoms such as weight loss, fever, diarrhoea, cough and skin diseases. A syndromic approach allows primary care level staff to correctly manage patients in the absence of specialist medical laboratory support. There is a crucial need for research and development to provide such guidelines. (excerpt)
London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], 2001 Jul. 61 p.This document offers a framework for achieving an effective advocacy campaign in the field of SRH by family planning associations, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and other nongovernmental organizations.