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  1. 1

    AIDS: palliative care. UNAIDS technical update.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2000 Oct. 16 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS Technical Update)

    Palliative care aims to achieve the best quality of life for patients (and their families) suffering from life-threatening and incurable illness, including HIV/AIDS. Crucial elements are the relief of all pain- physical, psychological, spiritual and social and enabling and supporting caregivers to work through their own emotions and grief. Palliative care has relieved the intense, broad suffering of people living with HIV/AIDS but the latter brings a number of challenges to its philosophy and practice including: The complex disease process with its unpredictable course and wide range of complications, which means that palliative care has to balance acute treatment with the control of chronic symptoms; Complex treatments which can overstretch health services; The stigmatization and discrimination faced by most people living with HIV/AIDS; Complex family issues, such as infection of both partners; Role reversal in families, such as young children looking after their parents; Burdens on health care workers. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Guide to the strategic planning process for a national response to HIV / AIDS. 4. Resource mobilization.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2000 Aug. 19 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection. Key Material; UNAIDS/00.21E)

    The major focus of this module is on 'mobilization of resources' and it should primarily be read or used in conjunction with each of the first three modules. Those who will use it are the situation analysis and/or the response analysis team, and the team responsible for the formulation of the strategic plan. However there will also from time to time be a need to secure resources after the formulation of the strategic plan, for instance to support the expansion of emerging successful strategies, or to supplement shortfall in funding for a priority strategy or a catalytic project. This module will therefore also deal with relevant approaches, techniques and methods for that purpose. Following an overview and definition of resources and resource partners, the module: highlights the ways in which resources are effectively mobilized through a strategic planning process; describes specific approaches to mobilization of 'additional' resources in the course of the implementation of the strategic plan. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Putting knowledge to work: technical networks for effective responses to HIV / AIDS.

    Adeyi O; Bridger D; Deany P; Delate R; Hecht R

    Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2000 Dec. 22 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection Key Material; UNAIDS/00.47E)

    This document provides guidance to practitioners who seek to improve their networking skills for effectiveness in HIV/AIDS programmes and to groups of practitioners who are trying to establish an AIDS technical network in some specific geographical or thematic area of specialization. The complexity and scale of the HIV/AIDS epidemic have spawned a number of programmes aimed at influencing the course of the epidemic. There are wide variations in the scope, technical quality and effectiveness of these programmes. Although relatively successful efforts have been documented in various forms (including collections of ‘best practices’) the adaptation of these success stories has been slow and patchy. Technical Resource Networks (TRNs) constitute a means of accelerating, in a professional and systematic fashion, the spread of effective responses to HIV/AIDS. They are groups of individuals, communities, institutions or governments that work together towards a shared objective in the fight against AIDS. Networks assist in building local technical capacity, expanding national and regional advocacy, sharing of information, building peer support and facilitating collective action. By improving knowledge, providing support, developing capacity and sharing approaches proven elsewhere, these networks can both strengthen HIV prevention efforts on the ground and influence policy development at the regional and national levels. UNAIDS supports these efforts though funding and technical collaboration to improve institutional capacity in cooperating countries and subregions. In the near term, UNAIDS will continue to support networking using the following mutually reinforcing strategies: development of resource materials, expansion of the knowledge base, initiation of new networks on priority themes, as well as improved communications for networking. (author's)
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  4. 4

    Priorities in child health. Easily digestible information for health workers on managing the young child. Booklet 1: Introduction.

    Kibel M; Hendricks M; Hussey G; Swingler G; Zar H

    Pretoria, South Africa, Management Sciences for Health [MSH], EQUITY Project, [2000]. [35] p. (USAID Contract No. 674-0320-C-00-7010-00)

    This series of booklets is a course of self-based learning on the comprehensive management of the sick infant and young child. It is intended for use by first level health workers who, in South Africa, are generally nurses. The principles used are based on the World Health Organisation strategy “Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI)”. For those who have not yet benefitted from full IMCI training, the booklets provide specific information on important elements of child health care that each nurse should know and use. As her knowledge and experience expands, she will increasingly approach each child in the comprehensive manner promoted in this series. The booklets are not intended as a substitute for existing training programmes, but rather as an adjunct to such learning. Short case studies are employed to illustrate problems to be discussed in each section. (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    Turning the tide of malnutrition. Responding to the challenge of the 21st century.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Nutrition for Health and Development

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Nutrition for Health and Development, 2000. [24] p. (WHO/NHD/00.7)

    Let us begin with an unequivocal assertion: proper nutrition and health are fundamental human rights. What does this mean? What are the primary links between nutrition and health seen from a human-rights perspective? Firstly, nutrition is a cornerstone that affects and defines the health of all people, rich and poor. It paves the way for us to grow, develop, work, play, resist infection and aspire to realization of our fullest potential as individuals and societies. Conversely, malnutrition makes us all more vulnerable to disease and premature death. Secondly, poverty is a major cause and consequence of ill-health worldwide. Poverty, hunger and malnutrition stalk one another in a vicious circle, compromising health and wreaking havoc on the socioeconomic development of whole countries, entire continents. Nearly 30% of humanity, especially those in developing countries – infants, children, adolescents, adults, and older persons – bear this triple burden. This is a travesty of justice, an abrogation of the most basic human rights. Thirdly, a strong human rights approach is needed to bring on board the millions of people left behind in the 20th century’s health revolution. We must ensure that our values and our vision are anchored in human rights law – only then can they become reality for all people. Ultimately, health and sustainable human development are equity issues. In our globalized 21st century, equity must begin at the bottom, hand in hand with healthy nutrition. Putting first things first, we must also realize that resources allocated to preventing and eliminating disease will be effective only if the underlying causes of malnutrition – and their consequences – are successfully addressed. This is the “gold standard”: nutrition, health and human rights. It makes for both good science and good sense, economically and ethically. Joined in partnership, we have the means to achieve it. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    Me, you and AIDS. Kenya. A product of a UNESCO-DANIDA workshop for preparation of post-literacy materials and radio programmes for women and girls in Africa.

    Nyingi P

    Paris, France, UNESCO, 2000 Jan. [24] p.

    Though the booklets are intended for use with neo-literate women and out-of-school girls, the messages in the stories and the radio programme scripts that accompany them are also relevant for use as supplementary reading materials in formal schools for readers of both sexes. The subjects of the booklets, based on the needs assessments, reflect a wide range of needs and conditions of African women - from Senegal to Kenya, from Mali to South Africa, from Niger to Malawi. A list of common concerns has emerged. These include: HIV-AIDS, domestic violence, the exploitation of girls employed as domestic servants, the lack of positive role models for women and girls, the economic potential of women through small business development, the negative consequences of child marriage, and the need for a more equal division of labour between men and women in the home. Each booklet describes one way of treating a subject of high priority to African women. In the process, the authors have attempted to render the material gender-sensitive. They have tried to present African women and girls and their families in the African context and view the issues and problems from their perspective. We hope these booklets will inspire readers, as they did their authors, to reflect on some of life's common situations, problems and issues that ordinary women and men face every day. The questions accompanying each booklet will help readers ask questions and find answers to some of the issues which also touch their own lives. How the characters in these booklets cope with specific situations, their trials and tribulations, can serve as lessons for women and men living together in 21st Century Africa. (excerpt)
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  7. 7

    The World Health Organization guidelines for air quality. Part 2: Air-quality management and the role of the guidelines. [Recomendaciones sobre calidad del aire de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Parte 2: Manejo de la calidad de aire y papel de las recomendaciones]

    Schwela D

    EM. The Urban Environment. 2000 Aug; 23-27.

    In Part 1 of this article (July 2000, pp 29-34), the revised and updated guidelines for air pollutants were presented. It was emphasized that the guideline values and exposure-response relationships should be considered in the framework of air-quality management. Air-quality management is important for several reasons, which become particularly clear if one is looking at the estimated global burden of disease caused by air pollution. Recent estimates of mortality and morbidity caused by indoor and ambient air pollutions are reproduced in Figures 1 and 2. Figure 1 illustrates the daily mortality for urban ambient air exposure, urban indoor air exposure, and rural indoor air exposure as potentially caused by particulate matter in eight regions: Established Market Economies (EME); Eastern Europe (EE); China; India; SoutheastAsia/Western Pacific (SEAWP); Eastern Mediterranean (EM); Latin America (LA); and SubSaharan Africa (SSA). On a global scale, air-pollution-related mortality accounts for 4% to 8% of the total death rate of 52.2 million annually. Figure 2 estimates the number of people with respiratory diseases potentially caused, or exacerbated by, exposure to suspended particulate matter (SPM). Accordingly, between 20% and 30% of 760 million cases of respiratory diseases recorded annually may be affected by suspended particulate matter. These estimates, when viewed along with the existing information on the health effects of air pollution, lead to the conclusion that controlling sources of ambient and indoor air pollution is necessary to avoid a significant increase in the burden of disease it can cause. This issue is addressed in the World Health Organization 19996 Guidelines for Air Quality (hereafter referred to as Guidelines). In Part 2 of this article, we describe the main statements in the Guidelines with respect to ambient and indoor air management. (excerpt)
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  8. 8

    Awareness, mobilization, and action for safe motherhood: a field guide.

    Newton N; Russell N; Kureshy N

    Washington, D.C., NGO Networks for Health, White Ribbon Alliance for Safe Motherhood, 2000. x, 50 p.

    The White Ribbon Alliance for Safe Motherhood is an international coalition of organizations formed to promote increased public awareness of the need to make pregnancy and childbirth safe for all women, in developing as well as developed countries. This field guide is intended to provide organizations in developing countries with guidance on how they can be active and involved in the Safe Motherhood Initiative and participate in the White Ribbon Alliance. It does not include technical information on how to design, implement, and evaluate safe motherhood program intervention. However, it does offer suggestions for bringing a wide range of people and organizations together to promote safe motherhood. Following an overview of safe motherhood and its key issues, this guide suggests specific ways in which organizations can carry out White Ribbon Alliance activities in their countries. Information on how to adapt the Safe Motherhood Fact Sheets to specific country contexts is also provided.
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