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  1. 1

    Guide to the strategic planning process for a national response to HIV / AIDS. Introduction.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 1998. 7 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection. Key Material; UNAIDS/98.18)

    Strategic planning, as developed in the present guide, defines not only the strategic framework of the national response, i.e. its fundamental principles, broad strategies, and institutional framework, but also the intermediate steps that need to be achieved in order to change the current situation into one that represents the objectives to be reached. In normative--as opposed to strategic--planning, activities are planned according to universal norms that apply to all beneficiaries, irrespective of their conditions or situations. Strategic planning takes an issue's underlying determinants into account, which vary according to the persons concerned (e.g. their social class, religion, culture, gender specificities, etc.) and according to situations that may alter rapidly over time. Strategic planning means adapting norms to a given or changing situation. A strategic plan, therefore, includes a normative as well as a strategic dimension. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Guide to the strategic planning process for a national response to HIV / AIDS. Module 2. Response analysis.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 1998. 28 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection Key Material; UNAIDS/98.20)

    The response to HIV is inextricably linked with the social, economic, cultural, and political situation in which the disease is spreading. Analysing this situation is an important step in planning an appropriate strategy to counter HIV. Such an analysis is described in some detail in the first part of this guide: Module 1: Situation Analysis. This second module concentrates on the response, which together with the background context, makes up the whole HIV/AIDS picture in a country. It looks at the overall response but focuses on the response as it relates to areas that are important in determining the spread or impact of HIV in a particular country or region--the priority areas defined in a situation analysis. It asks: Does the response tackle the roots of the HIV-related situation in the priority area? Does the response take into account the obstacles to achieving its goals? Does the response take advantage of the opportunities that might help drive the country towards the target of less transmission of HIV with a less drastic impact? In analysing the response, countries look at all the relevant initiatives in a priority area, not just those that are part of the official national programme. Community-organized activities and those organized by private companies, academic organizations, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) all contribute to the national response. Strategic planners recognize the contributions of all these groups. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    District guidelines for yellow fever surveillance.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Emerging and Other Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Control; World Health Organization [WHO]. Expanded Programme on Immunization [EPI]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Division of Emerging and Other Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Control, 1998. 59 p. (WHO/EPI/GEN/98.09)

    Yellow fever is a viral haemorrhagic fever transmitted by mosquitos infected with the yellow fever virus. The disease is untreatable, and case fatality rates in severe cases can exceed 50%. Yellow fever can be prevented through immunization with the 17D yellow fever vaccine. The vaccine is safe, inexpensive and reliable. A single dose provides protection against the disease for at least 10 years and possibly life-long. There is high risk for an explosive outbreak in an unimmunized population—and children are especially vulnerable—if even one laboratory-confirmed case of yellow fever occurs in the population. Effective activities for disease surveillance remain the best tool for prompt detection and response to an outbreak of yellow fever especially in populations where coverage rates for yellow fever vaccine are not high enough to provide protection against yellow fever. The guidelines in this manual describe how to detect and confirm suspected cases of yellow fever. They also describe how to respond to an outbreak of yellow fever and prevent additional cases from occurring. The guidelines are intended for use at the district level. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    Infection control for viral haemorrhagic fevers in the African health care setting.

    Lloyd E; Perry H

    Atlanta, Georgia, United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], National Center for Infectious Diseases, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Special Pathogens Branch, 1998 Dec. [10], 198 p.

    This manual describes a system for using VHF Isolation Precautions to reduce the risk of transmission of VHF in the health care setting. The VHF Isolation Precautions described in the manual make use of common low-cost supplies, such as household bleach, water, cotton cloth, and plastic sheeting. Although the information and recommendations are intended for health facilities in rural areas in the developing world, they are appropriate for any health facility with limited resources. The information in this manual will help health facility staff to: 1. Understand what VHF Isolation Precautions are and how to use them to prevent secondary transmission of VHF in the health facility. 2. Know when to begin using VHF Isolation Precautions in the health care setting. 3. Apply VHF Isolation Precautions in a large-scale outbreak. (When a VHF occurs, initially as many as 10 cases may appear at the same time in the health facility.) 4. Make advance preparations for implementing VHF Isolation Precautions. 5. Identify practical, low-cost solutions when recommended supplies for VHF Isolation Precautions are not available or are in limited supply. 6. Stimulate creative thinking about implementing VHF Isolation Precautions in an emergency situation. 7. Know how to mobilize community resources and conduct community education. (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    [A guide to providing reproductive health services] Guia para prestacao de services em saude reprodutiva.

    Brazil. Ceara. Secretaria da Saude. Programma Viva Mulher; Brazil. Ceara. Secretaria da Saude. Programa de Saude do Adolescente

    Fortaleza, Brazil, Secretaria da Saude, 1998. xxvi, 432 p.

    The Viva Mulher [Healthy Woman] Program developed by the Secretariat of Health of the State of Ceará (SESA-CE), in partnership with several local, national and international institutions, was conceived after recognition of the unfavorable health situation of women throughout the State. Sensitized by the size of the problem and encouraged by other successful initiatives, such as the Community Health Agent program and the Healthy Child program, the results of which were translated into a reduction in infant mortality and an increase in the coverage of Basic Health Actions, the State Government resolved to promote a broad mobilization of institutions interested in the problems so as to develop intensive joint efforts involving society as a whole in an attempt to make a significant change in the health profile of women in Ceará. The first concrete act was the holding of the "Woman, Health, Life" seminar in Fortaleza in August 1992, which had more than 1,000 participants, to launch the Healthy Woman program on the basis of directives from the Ministry of Health (PAISM). The Healthy Woman program was associated from the beginning with the United Nations Population Fund (FNUAP), which proposed to offer technical assistance and financial resources through a four-year cooperation project with the State Government. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), collaborating agencies of the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID) and other international entities later joined in the process and have been cooperating in various complementary manners. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    Guidelines for the control of tuberculosis in prisons.

    Maher D; Grzemska M; Coninx R; Reyes H

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 1998. 87 p. (WHO/TB/98.250)

    Tuberculosis (TB) is common in many prisons worldwide and treatment is often ill-informed and inadequate. In this perspective, the WHO and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) have joined forces to produce guidelines for the control of TB in prisons. This document presents the results of the collaborative effort of WHO and ICRC. The guidelines, based on recent experience, outline the many obstacles to effective diagnosis and treatment and it gives useful guidance as to how to overcome these obstacles. Outlined into three parts, these guidelines are primarily for prison authorities, policy- makers and decision-makers in relevant ministries, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and donor agencies, and National TB Program staff. Part I provides background information on TB and prisons, of particular relevance to prison authorities and decision-makers in relevant ministries. Part II provides guidelines for the control of TB in prisons, of particular relevance to prison health staff. Finally, Part III gives guidance to national prison authorities and NGOs on how to establish a prison TB control program.
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  7. 7

    Rights of women: a guide to the most important United Nations treaties on women's human rights. 2nd ed.

    International Women's Tribune Centre [IWTC]

    New York, New York, International Women's Tribune Centre, 1998. [4], 148 p.

    This Rights of Women manual presents a guide to the most important UN treaties on women's human rights to encourage and inform the continuing struggle for women's human rights around the world. Organized into five sections, this book focuses on those human rights that are guaranteed by human rights conventions, and how these conventions might be better realized. Section one provides an explanation of human rights conventions, how they work and why they are important to women. Section two outlines the many human rights to which women are entitled. It also draws particular attention to some specific human rights that are of special importance to women, including education, employment, equality in marriage, refugee rights, and protection from sexual exploitation, trafficking and torture. Section three, on the other hand, highlights some areas that women's human rights groups are fighting to have recognized as women's human rights. A focus on action around women's human rights issues is being presented in section four. Finally, chapter five describes the resources kit which includes convention ratification charts, lists of UN human rights conventions, the Convention of the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, an illustrated outline and summary of the Beijing Platform for Action, and information on International Women's Tribune Centre and Women, Ink. with a list and order form for Women, Ink. books.
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  8. 8

    [Contraceptive fact sheets. A tool for advisors in logistics] Fiches factuelles sur les contraceptifs. Un outil pour les conseillers en logistique.

    John Snow [JSI]. Family Planning Logistics Management Project

    Arlington, Virginia, JSI, Family Planning Logistics Management Project, 1998. [15] p. (USAID Contract No. CCP-C-00-95-00028-04)

    This guide lists the visual indicators of eventual quality problems, special considerations, donors, manufacturers, brands, shelf life, primary and secondary conditioning, units per shipping crate, and the dimensions and weights of boxes of the following contraceptive methods: condoms, oral contraceptive pills, IUDs, injectables, contraceptive implants, spermicides, and other vaginal barrier methods. These methods are presented in different categories according to donor: USAID, IPPF, or FNUAP. These data are provided as a tool to consultants in logistics. References are given for additional information on each method discussed.
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  9. 9

    Emergency contraception: a guide for service delivery.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Reproductive Health (Technical Support). Family Planning and Population

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Division of Reproductive Health (Technical Support), Family Planning and Population, 1998. 60 p. (WHO/FRH/FPP/98.19)

    The introduction of emergency contraception into family planning programs and its distribution through both clinical and nonclinical channels have been urged to prevent the serious health and socioeconomic consequences of unwanted pregnancies. The need for emergency contraception is especially high among adolescents, who may become sexually active before they are informed about contraception or have access to appropriate services. The provision of emergency contraceptive methods through official family planning programs should be regarded as key to the long-term international strategy of upgrading reproductive health care. Moreover, when service outlets offer emergency contraception information and care, they can serve as a first contact point where sexually active men, women, and teens can receive other reproductive health services or referrals. This booklet, prepared by the World Health Organization for service delivery personnel, presents information on emergency contraceptive pills, the use of copper-releasing IUDs as emergency contraception, service delivery aspects, the introduction of emergency contraception in reproductive health programs, and information dissemination. An appendix sets forth medical eligibility criteria.
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  10. 10

    World Health Day - April 7, 1998. Invest in the Future: Support Safe Motherhood. Resource booklet.

    American Association for World Health

    Washington, D.C., American Association for World Health, 1998. 47 p.

    World Health Day, established by the World Health Organization (WHO), is celebrated on April 7 in the 191 WHO member countries. WHO has designated Safe Motherhood as the common theme for 1998 World Health Day activities. Safe Motherhood is an international initiative aimed at ensuring women have safe pregnancies and deliveries and healthy infants. This manual was prepared as a resource for those involved in the planning of World Health Day 1998 in the US, where the slogan is: "Invest in the Future: Support Safe Motherhood." After providing background information on the global importance of the prevention of maternal mortality and morbidity, the manual sets forth detailed guidelines on forming an organizing committee, selecting events and activities, choosing a location, creating a planning schedule, identifying community resources, defining target audiences, using the mass media to publicize events, hospitality arrangements, and program evaluation. World Health Day activities appropriate for individuals, communities, workplaces, schools, religious organizations, government agencies, and health care settings are suggested. Also included, for possible reproduction, is a series of fact sheets on topics such as pregnancy-related mortality in the US, maternal nutrition, sexually transmitted diseases, family planning, prenatal care, warning signs during pregnancy, and breast feeding. Finally, lists of state contacts and hotlines are appended.
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