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  1. 1

    Coordinated strategy to abandon female genital mutilation / cutting in one generation: a human rights-based approach to programming. Leveraging social dynamics for collective change.

    Gillespie G; De Vita MG

    New York, New York, UNICEF, 2007. [53] p. (Technical Note)

    The coordinated strategy presented in this technical note describes a human rights-based approach to female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) programming. The note aims to provide guidance to programmers who are supporting large-scale abandonment of FGM/C in Egypt, Sudan and countries in sub-Saharan Africa. To provide a more comprehensive understanding of FGM/C as a social convention, this coordinated strategy includes an in-depth examination of the research documented by the UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre in 'Changing a Harmful Social Convention: Female genital mutilation/cutting', Innocenti Digest. Its focus is limited to the social dynamics of the practice at the community level, and it applies game theory, the science of interdependent decision-making, to the social dynamics of FGM/C. This strategy does not cover everything that occurs at the community level, but rather, looks at the practice from the perspective of a particular type of social convention described by Thomas C. Schelling in The Strategy of Conflict. It introduces an innovative approach to FGM/C programming that is intended to bring about lasting social change. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Advising mothers: management of diarrhoea in the home.

    WORLD HEALTH FORUM. 1993; 14(2):209-10.

    The WHO and the UN Children's Fund have set joint targets for global and national programs for the control of diarrhoeal diseases. One target stipulates that by 1995, 50% of the children with diarrhoea should receive an increased volume of fluids with continued feeding. The principal approach to achieving this is the implementation of skills-oriented training for health workers. The joint targets also state that by 1995, 80% of mothers of children <5 years of age should be aware of the rules of home case management: give increased fluids, continue feeding, and seek medical care when needed. For the year 2000, this target is 100%. Despite well-implemented clinical management training in many countries, advising mothers on how to care for diarrhoea at home is the weakest element of case management. Health facility surveys show that 1-10% of mothers are correctly advised. Health workers often give advice at the end of a consultation, facilities are often crowded, and health workers may not feel that advising is productive. Therefore, the Program for the Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases (CDD) has developed a training guide called "Advising Mothers" which outlines a process and the skills which will help health workers to advise mothers effectively. "Advising Mothers" is a training tool which should be used during clinical management training courses or as a refresher course for health workers previously trained in clinical management. On average, the exercises in the program require about 8 hours. If "Advising Mothers" is incorporated into clinical management training, practice may be done during regular clinical practice sessions; if training is carried out separately, an extra half-day will be needed for clinical practice. National CDD programs would incorporate "Advising Mothers" into clinical management training courses for health personnel.
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