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Caring for newborns and children in the community. Planning handbook for programme managers and planners.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, Department of Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health, 2015. 168 p.Prevention and treatment services need to be brought closer to children who are not adequately reached by the health system. To help meet this need, WHO and UNICEF have developed state-of-the-art packages to enable community health workers to care for pregnant women, newborns and children. Caring for Newborns and Children in the Community comprises three packages of materials for training and support of CHWs. Countries will assess their current community-based services and choose to what extent they are able to implement these packages for improving child and maternal health and survival: (1) Caring for the newborn at home, (2) caring for the child's healthy growth and development, (3) caring for the sick child in the community.
WASH’Nutrition: A practical guidebook on increasing nutritional impact through integration of WASH and nutrition programmes for practitioners in humanitarian and developent contexts.
Paris, France, Action Contre la Faim [ACF], 2017. 156 p.Undernutrition is a multi-sectoral problem with multi-sectoral solutions. By applying integrated approaches, the impact, coherence and efficiency of the action can be improved. This operational guidebook demonstrates the importance of both supplementing nutrition programmes with WASH activities and adapting WASH interventions to include nutritional considerations i.e. making them more nutrition-sensitive and impactful on nutrition. It has been developed to provide practitioners with usable information and tools so that they can design and implement effective WASH and nutrition programmes. Apart from encouraging the design of new integrated projects, the guidebook provides support for reinforcing existing integrated interventions. It does not provide a standard approach or strict recommendations, but rather ideas, examples and practical tools on how to achieve nutrition and health gains with improved WASH. Integrating WASH and nutrition interventions will always have to be adapted to specific conditions, opportunities and constrains in each context. The guidebook primarily addresses field practitioners, WASH and Nutrition programme managers working in humanitarian and development contexts, and responds to the need for more practical guidance on WASH and nutrition integration at the field level. It can also be used as a practical tool for donors and institutions (such as ministries of health) to prioritise strategic activities and funding options. (Excerpt)
Training manual to fight trafficking in children for labour, sexual and other forms of exploitation. Textbook 1: Understanding child trafficking.
Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Organization, 2009. 51 p.This training manual is aimed at governments, workers, employer's groups, nongovernmental organizations, and international agencies working for children. It can be used in a training environment and as a stand-alone resource for those who wish to hone their understanding and skills in efforts to end child trafficking.
Training manual to fight trafficking in children for labour, sexual and other forms of exploitation. Textbook 2: Action against child trafficking at policy and outreach levels.
Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Organization, 2009. 48 p.This book focuses on actions that can be taken to prevent trafficking, protect children from being trafficked, pursue traffickers, and support trafficked children to rebuild their lives. These recommendations are categorized under four main headings commonly used to describe anti-trafficking actions: Broad protection: to prevent children and former victims from being (re)trafficked; Prevention: of the crime of child trafficking and the exploitation that is its end result; Law enforcement: in particular within a labor context and relating to labor laws and regulations; Victim assistance: covering the kinds of responses necessary to help trafficked children and to reduce their vulnerability to being re-trafficked.
Coordinated strategy to abandon female genital mutilation / cutting in one generation: a human rights-based approach to programming. Leveraging social dynamics for collective change.
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2007.  p. (Technical Note)The coordinated strategy presented in this technical note describes a human rights-based approach to female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) programming. The note aims to provide guidance to programmers who are supporting large-scale abandonment of FGM/C in Egypt, Sudan and countries in sub-Saharan Africa. To provide a more comprehensive understanding of FGM/C as a social convention, this coordinated strategy includes an in-depth examination of the research documented by the UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre in 'Changing a Harmful Social Convention: Female genital mutilation/cutting', Innocenti Digest. Its focus is limited to the social dynamics of the practice at the community level, and it applies game theory, the science of interdependent decision-making, to the social dynamics of FGM/C. This strategy does not cover everything that occurs at the community level, but rather, looks at the practice from the perspective of a particular type of social convention described by Thomas C. Schelling in The Strategy of Conflict. It introduces an innovative approach to FGM/C programming that is intended to bring about lasting social change. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2006.  p.Even though children living with HIV/AIDS respond very well to treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART), to date few children living with HIV/AIDS have access to ART mostly due to a lack of cheap feasible diagnostic tests for infants, lack of affordable child-friendly ARV drugs and lack of trained health personnel. This course aims to address the issue of lack of trained personnel. With an ever increasing burden of HIV and a high percentage of children infected, health workers urgently require accurate, up to date training and information on assessment and management of HIV in children. The IMCI complementary course on HIV is designed to assist health workers to assess, classify, treat and follow up HIV exposed infants and children, to identify the role of family and community in caring for the child with HIV/AIDS and also to enhance health workers' skills in counseling of caretakers around HIV/AIDS. (excerpt)
Manila, Philippines, WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific. 2006.  p.The World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Committee for the Western Pacific at its fifty-fourth session adopted resolution WPR/RC54.R9 that strongly urged Member States to place child health higher on their political, economic and health agendas and to allocate and utilize financial resources from all available sources to match the burden of childhood disease. This prompted a new drive to reduce child mortality in Member States, particularly in areas of greatest need. The renewed commitment and emphasis on childhood mortality reduction warrants a regional strategy for child survival that accommodates the most important life-saving interventions and leads to a childhood mortality reduction in the Region in line with the MDG. Action is required through resource mobilization, stronger outcome orientation, advocacy and monitoring that addresses the existing limitations in human and financial resources that currently prevent optimizing the delivery of life-saving interventions to improve child survival. WHO and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) have joined forces to develop this strategy. The document is intended for governments of Member States, policy-makers and partner agencies. This joint WHO/UNICEF Regional Child Survival Strategy was endorsed by the fifty-sixth session of the WHO Regional Committee for the Western Pacific. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2005 Jul.  p.Since its inception, UNICEF has provided life-saving assistance and assured protection for children in emergencies - both natural and man-made. Guiding UNICEF's response in humanitarian situations is the principle that children in the midst of natural disasters and armed conflict have the same needs and rights as children in stable situations. Emergencies have grown increasingly complex and their impact is especially devastating on the most vulnerable. In health and nutrition, water and sanitation, protection, education and HIV/AIDS, UNICEF's Core Commitments for Children in Emergencies are not merely a mission statement - they are a humanitarian imperative. UNICEF will keep these commitments and ensure a reliable, timely response in emergencies. The Core Commitments also provide a framework within which we work with our key national, United Nations and non-governmental partners to provide humanitarian assistance. This handbook has been developed as a practical tool for UNICEF field staff to meet the needs of children and women affected by disasters. It is the result of extensive consultation. We urge you to use it as an essential reference tool and to share it with our key partners. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Division of Child Health and Development, 2002 Sep 3. 34 p.CHECK FOR GENERAL DANGER SIGNS: ASK: Is the child able to drink or breastfeed? Does the child vomit everything? Has the child had convulsions? LOOK: See if the child is lethargic or unconscious. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Division of Diarrhoeal and Acute Respiratory Disease Control, 1994 Aug.  p. (Update No. 14)Health workers can play a key role in the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding. Their presence at the time of delivery and their subsequent contacts with mothers and infants provide them with unique opportunities to help mother and baby to establish and maintain lactation. In the past two decades, there has been a rapid increase in our understanding, not only of the scientific basis of lactation and suckling, but also of effective management and prevention of breast-feeding problems, including the use of basic counselling skills. Research has shown that if health workers' attitudes and practices are supportive, it is more likely that mothers will breastfeed successfully and for a longer period. Unfortunately, breastfeeding has been neglected in the training of most health workers, leaving a serious gap in both their knowledge and skills. Training is urgently needed at all levels in up-to-date and effective breastfeeding management. The CDD Programme in collaboration with UNICEF has developed the package "Breast-feeding counselling: A training course" to help to fill the gap. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2004 May. 36 p.Whether immunizing children house-to-house or providing services at fixed sites, the support of the community is essential in achieving broad coverage. One way of eliciting such support is to gain the trust and confidence of religious leaders, who often wield tremendous authority at the grass roots. Religious leaders not only have the power to shape public opinion, they can also mobilize their constituencies and improve the links between communities and health services. By approaching religious groups with an informed respect for their views, communication and health officers can often gain the trust needed to garner their support. However, even with strong alliances, vocal minorities have sometimes used religious arguments to dissuade parents from immunizing their children. Such resistance may be tied to a political agenda or based on a misunderstanding of the facts. Whatever the case, UNICEF, among other agencies, is often a key player in developing an appropriate response. Allies among religious organizations can be crucial collaborators in reacting in an appropriate and effective way. The guidelines presented in this workbook were created for communication and programme officers and their immunization partners seeking to develop and maintain strong working relationships with religious leaders and groups. They also suggest what actions might be taken when a religious leader or group organizes resistance to immunization. While the guidelines provide an overall framework, they do not offer specific health messages based on religious texts. Such messages should be generated at the local level by religious groups themselves, since interpretation of doctrine can be influenced by culture and social conditions and may vary among religious sects. In fact, the very process of debate and arriving at a common position on immunization is what can ensure long-term involvement on the part of religious groups. (excerpt)
[Programming for safe motherhood. Instructions for maternal and neonatal survival. Development and implementation of a plan of action] Programmer pour une maternite sans risque. Directives pour la survie de la mere et du nouveau-ne. Elaboration et mise en oeuvre d'un plan d'action.
New York New York, UNICEF, Health Section, Programme Division, 1999 Oct. 134 p.Based upon respect for human rights, safe motherhood programs help build the intersectoral actions needed to improve maternal health and effect behavioral changes favoring safe motherhood among women, adolescents, men, health personnel, and political leaders. Men, as well as their spouses, partners, neighbors, and leaders, need to actively support women in their choices and actions aimed to improve women's health and well-being. Each chapter of this publication is an independent guide outlining interventions, considering cost-effectiveness, which address the direct and indirect causes of maternal mortality and including malnutrition, the lack of education, violence, and the mistreatment of women. Community participation in conceiving, developing, and implementing programs; improving communication and transportation systems; training midwives; delivering care in welcoming settings; and improving healthcare facilities are concrete, decisive measures. Such measures comprise a spring- board for new action made possible by growing knowledge and experience, and aim to overcome those maternal health challenges faced in poor countries and low income communities. This guide was conceived to help UNICEF personnel working at the country level to implement elements of the safe motherhood initiative.
WORLD HEALTH FORUM. 1993; 14(2):209-10.The WHO and the UN Children's Fund have set joint targets for global and national programs for the control of diarrhoeal diseases. One target stipulates that by 1995, 50% of the children with diarrhoea should receive an increased volume of fluids with continued feeding. The principal approach to achieving this is the implementation of skills-oriented training for health workers. The joint targets also state that by 1995, 80% of mothers of children <5 years of age should be aware of the rules of home case management: give increased fluids, continue feeding, and seek medical care when needed. For the year 2000, this target is 100%. Despite well-implemented clinical management training in many countries, advising mothers on how to care for diarrhoea at home is the weakest element of case management. Health facility surveys show that 1-10% of mothers are correctly advised. Health workers often give advice at the end of a consultation, facilities are often crowded, and health workers may not feel that advising is productive. Therefore, the Program for the Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases (CDD) has developed a training guide called "Advising Mothers" which outlines a process and the skills which will help health workers to advise mothers effectively. "Advising Mothers" is a training tool which should be used during clinical management training courses or as a refresher course for health workers previously trained in clinical management. On average, the exercises in the program require about 8 hours. If "Advising Mothers" is incorporated into clinical management training, practice may be done during regular clinical practice sessions; if training is carried out separately, an extra half-day will be needed for clinical practice. National CDD programs would incorporate "Advising Mothers" into clinical management training courses for health personnel.
[Unpublished] 1990 May. , 12 p. (PRITECH Field Implementation Aid)Control of Diarrheal Disease (CDD) programs need to move more and more toward self-sufficiency. Thus they want a reliable supply of low cost, locally produced oral rehydration salts (ORS). 2 obstacles hinder the process: low demand and an inadequately developed pharmaceutical industry. It takes about US$200,000 to begin ORS production. In 1987, pharmaceutical plants in developing countries made 75% of all ORS produced. In Indonesia, for example, 12 private and parastatal manufacturers can produce ORS, but low demand is forcing some to decrease production. In Bangladesh, however, only 1 parastatal and 1 private company produces all ORS used in the country, but they cannot keep up with demand. Other developing countries producing their own ORS include Costa Rica, Tunisia, Zambia, Mali, Egypt, and Ghana. Any group that considers local ORS production must first examine various factors including an assessment of potential demand, the extent that diarrhea is treated with oral rehydration therapy (ORT), and the government's position on ORS production and distribution. The group should contact the local UNICEF office to gain its support and guidance. It should also work with WHO and Ministry of Health officials and speak with the chief pharmacist or head of the pharmacy board. This group also needs to consider economic factors such as pricing and costs of importing raw materials. It should also see to a detailed cost analysis and market research. The group also needs to determine production capability in the country which includes the ability of companies to adhere to the international Good Manufacturing Practices code. In the beginning of project development, the group must consider ORS promotion with ORS production, e.g., it should scrutinize the potential producer's record for marketing and organize field research. The group can obtain technical assistance from UNICEF, UNIDO, and USAID funded projects such as PRITECH, PATH, HEALTHCOM, and SOMARC.
Amman, Jordan, UNICEF, Middle East and North Africa Region, 1986 Feb 28. xi, 98 p.This handbook is intended help improve the effectiveness of development programs through the appropriate use of communication and social marketing strategies and techniques. UNICEF developed the handbook in order to better utilize communication and social marketing in the achievement of Child Survival and Development goals. The handbook has 3 functional uses: it can serve as a guide for planning and implementing development programs; it can be used as an evaluation and monitoring tool by both program administrators or outside evaluators; and it can serve as a textbook in training workshops designed to improve communication skills -- particularly with respect to public health issues. The handbook begins with an conceptual discussion of communication and social marketing. The handbook then provides 10 interdependent modules involved in the development of a communication or social marketing program: problem identification, audience analysis, examining social factors, identifying obstacles, setting objectives, developing a strategy, material production, pretest and piloting, launching and monitoring, and evaluation. Additionally, the handbook contains the following appendices that can be useful in fulfilling one the handbook's 3 functions: exercises, a sample of a survey questionnaire, a sample of a pretest questionnaire, a sample of a moderator's guide for a focus-only group, request for proposals, a sample request for proposals, a sample of a proposal evaluation sheet, audit of evaluation research, an assessment checklist for research and evaluation reports or proposals, a checklist of contract provisions, media selection and mix matrix, and other additional aids.
Amman, Jordan, United Nations Children's Fund, Regional Office of the Middle East and North America, 1990. 172 p.This handbook is intended to aid the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) handle surveys of childhood mortality added to vaccination coverage surveys (expanded program of immunization- -EPI) surveys or to diarrheal mortality and morbidity surveys (MMT). By including all women of reproductive ages in each household as part of EPI coverage surveys, the survey window has widened. The core modality module (CMM) locks neatly into this flow. It is not intended to be a substitute for other ways to measure child mortality. Infant and under- age-5 mortality are indicators of social welfare. The reasons why these surveys are called "simple" or "rapid" are listed. Measurement of mortality is covered in Chapter 1. The Brass method, the birth history, the preceding births technique, and the design and execution of a simple mortality survey are discussed here. Formulating the questionnaire is covered in the next chapter. Discussed here are the mortality module; translation, layout and pretesting of the questionnaire; the screening questionnaire, and the mortality questionnaire (Modules A and B). Chapter 3 discusses the design of a sample survey to measure childhood mortality. Discussed here are cluster and stratified sampling, modifying EPI surveys for purposes of mortality estimation, selecting the sample and the clusters, determining sample size, and the requirements of a good sample. Collecting the data is discussed in chapter 4. Topics discussed include field work, preparation of the interview instructions, field supervisor and interviewers, selection and training of field staff, training course outline, selecting households in the sample, quality control; supervisor's responsibilities, how to handle an interview, and how to fill in the questionnaire. The 5th chapter discusses data analysis. Under data analysis, data tabulation of the mortality data, the Brass estimates of childhood mortality and trends, preceding birth technique estimates, estimates from the short birth history, technical note: calculating sampling error for proportions and points to remember are described. How to write the report is discussed in chapter 6.
Pretesting communication materials with special emphasis on child health and nutrition education. A manual for trainers and supervisors.
Rangoon, Burma, UNICEF, Rangoon, 1984 Feb. 62 p.This is a complete manual on how to pretest printed materials on child health and nutrition, prepared by UNICEF primarily for developing countries. It is charmingly illustrated with photographs, cartoons, and samples of visual materials. Pretesting means interviewing the intended audience to see if they understand and like the materials. Often illiterate rural people are unfamiliar with most of the visual conventions we take for granted, are embarrassed or threatened about certain content, or are put off by color selection, unfamiliar details or overly lengthy presentations, for example. The most common objection to pretesting is lack of time and money; yet losses on untested materials may be much higher. Detailed help is provided with techniques for interviewing, such as how to establish rapport, word questions, probe for information rather than yes answers, handle negative attitudes. Sections explain where, when, whom and how to interview many subjects, and how to evaluate results. Final sections deal with discussion questions, feedback from users, types of problems encountered with people of low visual literacy, and how to convince a supervisor of the need for pretesting.