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Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2012. 8 p. (FWC/MCA/12.1)The purpose of this Framework is to provide guidance to governments on key priority actions, related to infant and young child feeding, that cover the special circumstances associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The aim of this guidance is to create and sustain an environment that encourages appropriate feeding practices for all infants and young children, while scalingup interventions to reduce HIV transmission. This Framework aims to build on the links and synergies between maternal and child health and investments, economic and human, in HIV prevention and control. This will bring additional benefits for all children, The Framework’s purpose and target audience not just for those who are HIV-exposed. The audience for this Framework includes national policy-makers, programme managers, regional advisory bodies, public health authorities, Country Coordinating Mechanisms, United Nations staff, professional bodies, nongovernmental organizations and other interested stakeholders, including the community. The current document is an update of the previous Framework, published in 2003, and has been developed in response to both evolving knowledge and requests for clarification from these key sectors. It is based on the latest HIV and infant feeding recommendations; the previous Framework no longer applies.
Washington, D.C., Pan American Health Organization [PAHO], Division of Health Promotion and Protection, Food and Nutrition Program, . 37 p.Adequate nutrition during infancy and early childhood is fundamental to the development of each child’s full human potential. It is well recognized that the period from birth to two years of age is a “critical window” for the promotion of optimal growth, health and behavioral development. Longitudinal studies have consistently shown that this is the peak age for growth faltering, deficiencies of certain micronutrients, and common childhood illnesses such as diarrhea. After a child reaches 2 years of age, it is very difficult to reverse stunting that has occurred earlier. The immediate consequences of poor nutrition during these formative years include significant morbidity and mortality and delayed mental and motor development. In the long-term, early nutritional deficits are linked to impairments in intellectual performance, work capacity, reproductive outcomes and overall health during adolescence and adulthood. Thus, the cycle of malnutrition continues, as the malnourished girl child faces greater odds of giving birth to a malnourished, low birth weight infant when she grows up. Poor breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, coupled with high rates of infectious diseases, are the principal proximate causes of malnutrition during the first two years of life. For this reason, it is essential to ensure that caregivers are provided with appropriate guidance regarding optimal feeding of infants and young children. (excerpt)