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Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2016.  p.Since the publication of the WHO Guidelines for the management of sexually transmitted infections in 2003, changes in the epidemiology of STIs and advancements in prevention, diagnosis and treatment necessitate changes in STI management. These guidelines provide updated treatment recommendations for common infections caused by C. trachomatis based on the most recent evidence; they form one of several modules of guidelines for specific STIs. It is strongly recommended that countries take updated global guidance into account as they establish standardized national protocols, adapting this guidance to the local epidemiological situation and antimicrobial susceptibility data. The objectives of these guidelines are: to provide evidence-based guidance on treatment of infection with C. trachomatis; and to support countries to update their national guidelines for treatment of chlamydial infection.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2016.  p.Since the publication of the WHO Guidelines for the management of sexually transmitted infections in 2003, changes in the epidemiology of STIs and advancements in prevention, diagnosis and treatment necessitate changes in STI management. These guidelines provide updated treatment recommendations for treatment of Treponema pallidum (syphilis) based on the most recent evidence. They form one of several modules of guidelines for specific STIs. It is strongly recommended that countries take updated global guidance into account as they establish standardized national protocols and adapt it to the local epidemiological situation and antimicrobial susceptibility data. The objectives of these guidelines are: to provide evidence-based guidance on treatment of infection with Treponema pallidum; and to support countries to update their national guidelines for treatment of Treponema pallidum.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2016.  p.Since the publication of the WHO Guidelines for the management of sexually transmitted infections in 2003, changes in the epidemiology of STIs and advancements in prevention, diagnosis and treatment necessitate changes in STI management. There is an urgent need to update treatment recommendations for gonococcal infections to respond to changing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns of N. gonorrhoeae. High-level resistance to previously recommended quinolones is widespread and decreased susceptibility to the extended-spectrum (third-generation) cephalosporins, another recommended first-line treatment in the 2003 guidelines, is increasing and several countries have reported treatment failures. These guidelines for the treatment of common infections caused by N. gonorrhoeae form one of several modules of guidelines for specific STIs. It is strongly recommended that countries take updated global guidance into account as they establish standardized national protocols, adapting this guidance to the local epidemiological situation and antimicrobial susceptibility data. The objectives of these guidelines are: to provide evidence-based guidance on treatment of infection with N. gonorrhoeae; and to support countries to update their national guidelines for treatment of gonococcal infection.
Monitoring national cervical cancer prevention and control programmes: quality control and quality assurance for visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA)-based programmes.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2013.  p.This guide outlines quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA) considerations to support introduction or scale-up of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) as a screening test for cervical cancer, within the context of national comprehensive cervical cancer prevention and control programmes. The guide proposes a framework for QC and QA including a core set of indicators, and provides examples for how the indicators can be set, measured and used to strengthen programme implementation. The guide is intended primarily for programme managers, supervisors and other stakeholders working in public health programmes for cervical cancer prevention and control.
Antiretroviral resistance patterns and HIV-1 subtype in mother-infant pairs after the administration of combination short-course zidovudine plus single-dose nevirapine for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.
Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2009 Jul 15; 49(2):299-305.BACKGROUND: World Health Organization guidelines for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) recommend administration of zidovudine and single-dose nevirapine (NVP) for HIV-1-infected women who are not receiving treatment for their own health or if complex regimens are not available. This study assessed antiretroviral resistance patterns among HIV-infected women and infants receiving single-dose NVP in Thailand, where the predominant circulating HIV-1 strains are CRF01_AE recombinants and where the minority are subtype B. METHODS: Venous blood samples were obtained from (1) HIV-infected women who received zidovudine from 34 weeks' gestation and single-dose NVP plus oral zidovudine during labor and (2) HIV-infected infants who received single-dose NVP after birth plus zidovudine for 4 weeks after delivery. HIV-1 drug resistance testing was performed using the TruGene assay (Bayer HealthCare). RESULTS: Most mothers and infants were infected with CRF01_AE. NVP resistance was detected in 34 (18%) of 190 women and 2 (20%) of 10 infants. There was a significantly higher proportion of NVP mutations in women with delivery viral loads of >50,000 copies/mL (adjusted odds ratio, 8.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-32.8, [Formula: see text] for linear trend) and in those with subtype B rather than CRF01_AE infections (38% vs. 16%; adjusted odds ratio, 3.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-11.8; P = .038). CONCLUSIONS: The lower frequency of NVP mutations among mothers infected with subtype CRF01_AE, compared with mothers infected with subtype B, suggests that individuals infected with subtype CRF01_AE may be less susceptible to the induction of NVP resistance than are individuals infected with subtype B.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2007.  p. (UNAIDS/07.07E; JC1274E)These Practical Guidelines for Intensifying HIV Prevention: Towards Universal Access are designed to provide policy makers and planners with practical guidance to tailor their national HIV prevention response so that they respond to the epidemic dynamics and social context of the country and populations who remain most vulnerable to and at risk of HIV infection. They have been developed in consultation with the UNAIDS cosponsors, international collaborating partners, government, civil society leaders and other experts. They build on Intensifying HIV Prevention: UNAIDS Policy Position Paper and the UNAIDS Action Plan on Intensifying HIV Prevention. In 2006, governments committed themselves to scaling up HIV prevention and treatment responses to ensure universal access by 2010. While in the past five years treatment access has expanded rapidly, the number of new HIV infections has not decreased - estimated at 4.3 (3.6-6.6) million in 2006 - with many people unable to access prevention services to prevent HIV infection. These Guidelines recognize that to sustain the advances in antiretroviral treatment and to ensure true universal access requires that prevention services be scaled up simultaneously with treatment. (excerpt)
IAP Guidelines 2006 on hospital based management of severely malnourished children (adapted from the WHO guidelines).
Indian Pediatrics. 2007 Jun 17; 44(6):443-461.Malnutrition in children is widely prevalent in India. It is estimated that 57 million children are underweight (moderate and severe). More than 50% of deaths in 0-4 years are associated with malnutrition. The median case fatality rate is approximately 23.5% in severe malnutrition, reaching 50% in edematous malnutrition. There is a need for standardized protocol-based management to improve the outcome of severely malnourished children. In 2006, Indian Academy of Pediatrics undertook the task of developing guidelines for the management of severely malnourished children based on adaptation from the WHO guidelines. We summarize below the revised consensus recommendations (and wherever relevant the rationale) of the group. (excerpt)
Interim WHO clinical staging of HIV / AIDS and HIV / AIDS case definitions for surveillance. African region.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2005.  p. (WHO/HIV/2005.02)With a view to facilitating the scale-up of access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the African Region the present document outlines recent revisions made by WHO to the clinical staging of HIV/AIDS and to case definitions for HIV/AIDS disease surveillance. These interim guidelines are based on an international drafting meeting held in Saas Fee in June 2004 and on recommendations made by experts from African countries at a meeting held in Nairobi in December of the same year. The revisions to the clinical staging target professionals ranging from senior consultants in teaching and referral hospitals to surveillance officers and first-level health care providers, all of whom have important roles in caring for people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA), including children. It is proposed that countries review, adapt and repackage the guidelines as appropriate for specific tasks at different levels of health service delivery. It is hoped that national HIV/ AIDS programmes in African countries will thus be assisted to develop, revise or strengthen their ART guidelines, patient monitoring and surveillance efforts. The interim clinical staging and revised definitions for surveillance are currently being reviewed in the other WHO regions and will be finalized at a global meeting to be held in September 2005. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 1998. 87 p. (WHO/TB/98.250)Tuberculosis (TB) is common in many prisons worldwide and treatment is often ill-informed and inadequate. In this perspective, the WHO and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) have joined forces to produce guidelines for the control of TB in prisons. This document presents the results of the collaborative effort of WHO and ICRC. The guidelines, based on recent experience, outline the many obstacles to effective diagnosis and treatment and it gives useful guidance as to how to overcome these obstacles. Outlined into three parts, these guidelines are primarily for prison authorities, policy- makers and decision-makers in relevant ministries, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and donor agencies, and National TB Program staff. Part I provides background information on TB and prisons, of particular relevance to prison authorities and decision-makers in relevant ministries. Part II provides guidelines for the control of TB in prisons, of particular relevance to prison health staff. Finally, Part III gives guidance to national prison authorities and NGOs on how to establish a prison TB control program.