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Using international guidelines to support national policy in maternal and newborn healthcare. Case Study No. 3.
In: Shaping policy for maternal and newborn health: a compendium of case studies, edited by Sandra Crump. Baltimore, Maryland, JHPIEGO, 2003 Oct. 29-36.One of the ways that national governments solidify and communicate their commitment to safe motherhood and newborn health is through their national policy and service delivery guidelines, which outline a management and service delivery approach for achieving specific standards of care in healthcare facilities. In developing these guidelines --and the facilities and providers to support them--policymakers at the national level generally look to expert opinion and international consensus regarding practices and models that have been proven effective in other countries. The collection, synthesis, and publication of internationally endorsed maternal and newborn healthcare practices can therefore provide an important support and catalyst for policy change at the national level. International guidelines can provide both a focus for national policy dialogue and development and a technical reference to help ensure that national policies follow current scientific evidence and thinking. This case study describes how the international guidelines in the World Health Organization's (WHO's) manual Managing Complications in Pregnanq and Childbirth: A Guide for Midwives and Doctors (MCPC) have influenced policy development in countries where JHPIEGO and the Maternal and Neonatal Health (MNI-1) Program have been working to increase the use of skilled care for women and newborns and increase maternal and newborn survival. The MCPC manual was published as part of WHO's Integrated Management of Pregnancy and Childbirth (IMPAC) series, the technical component of WHO's Making Pregnancy Safer strategy aimed at reducing maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity and improving maternal and newborn health. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1990. , 13 p. (Programme Advisory Note)UNFPA has published this Programme Advisory Note to orientate its field officers and other program staff to practical issues and obstacles in the design and implementation of maternal and child health/family planning (MCH/FP) training. It serves as a manual for needs assessment, project formulation, project monitoring, and evaluation. This Note emphasizes training activities for MCH/FP services in the community, at health centers, or in the smaller hospitals. It provides a brief description of the characteristics of countries with successful MCH/FP services (e.g., a clear straightforward policy pronouncing political commitment to MCH/FP). The Note begins with addressing issues and problems in MCH/FP training as they apply to health policies, including strategies and planning for training; curricula; and teaching and assessment methodology and materials. Integration of FP, MCH, and primary health care services, decentralization, definition of job descriptions, forecasting human resource needs, and multiplier/cascade training fall under the category of health policy-related issues and problems in training. Curricula-related issues revolve around coordination with job descriptions and between learning objectives and topics and learning objectives and teaching methods, integration of MCH/FP within curricula, time allocation, control of curricula and the process of curricula development, and in-service training. Teaching and assessment methodology and materials-related issues include the need for teacher training, appropriate teaching methods, teaching facilities, teaching/learning materials, and assessment methods. The Note then covers the role of external support and technical assistance for MCH/FP training, specifically technical capacities of donor agencies, cooperation, and modality of support. The modes of support include support for within country courses, fellowships to attend overseas courses and study tours, technical advisors, and supporting teachers.