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Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Division of Reproductive Health (Technical Support), Maternal and Newborn Health / Safe Motherhood Unit, 1997.  p. (WHO/RHT/MSM/98.1; Safe Motherhood Practical Guide)According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, 3% of the 120 million infants born each year in developing countries develop birth asphyxia and require resuscitation. This manual presents a simple method for resuscitating newborns that can be used even in settings where resources are limited. The newborn should first be dried, wrapped in a dry cloth, and assessed for crying/breathing. If the newborn is not breathing, the airway should be opened by positioning the head correctly. The mouth and nose should be quickly suctioned and the lungs ventilated with the self-inflating bag via a soft fitted face mask. The effect of ventilation is assessed by observing the chest rise. Minimum equipment and supplies required include a heat source, a mucus extractor for suctioning, a self-inflating bag, masks for ventilation, and a clock. If practiced correctly, this method can revive more than 75% of infants who do not breathe at birth. Although the documented procedure should not be regarded as rigid protocol, it is intended as a basis for developing national and local policies, standards, and guidelines for health professionals and for preparing training materials. Each health facility needs to introduce this practice, maintain staff skills, and ensure the availability of functioning equipment and supplies.
Amman, Jordan, United Nations Children's Fund, Regional Office of the Middle East and North America, 1990. 172 p.This handbook is intended to aid the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) handle surveys of childhood mortality added to vaccination coverage surveys (expanded program of immunization- -EPI) surveys or to diarrheal mortality and morbidity surveys (MMT). By including all women of reproductive ages in each household as part of EPI coverage surveys, the survey window has widened. The core modality module (CMM) locks neatly into this flow. It is not intended to be a substitute for other ways to measure child mortality. Infant and under- age-5 mortality are indicators of social welfare. The reasons why these surveys are called "simple" or "rapid" are listed. Measurement of mortality is covered in Chapter 1. The Brass method, the birth history, the preceding births technique, and the design and execution of a simple mortality survey are discussed here. Formulating the questionnaire is covered in the next chapter. Discussed here are the mortality module; translation, layout and pretesting of the questionnaire; the screening questionnaire, and the mortality questionnaire (Modules A and B). Chapter 3 discusses the design of a sample survey to measure childhood mortality. Discussed here are cluster and stratified sampling, modifying EPI surveys for purposes of mortality estimation, selecting the sample and the clusters, determining sample size, and the requirements of a good sample. Collecting the data is discussed in chapter 4. Topics discussed include field work, preparation of the interview instructions, field supervisor and interviewers, selection and training of field staff, training course outline, selecting households in the sample, quality control; supervisor's responsibilities, how to handle an interview, and how to fill in the questionnaire. The 5th chapter discusses data analysis. Under data analysis, data tabulation of the mortality data, the Brass estimates of childhood mortality and trends, preceding birth technique estimates, estimates from the short birth history, technical note: calculating sampling error for proportions and points to remember are described. How to write the report is discussed in chapter 6.