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Cervical cancer screening and management of cervical pre-cancers. Training of community health workers.
New Delhi, India, WHO, Regional Office for South-East Asia, 2017. 92 p.The training manual is designed to assist in building capacity of community health workers (CHWs) in educating women and community members on relevant aspects of cervical cancer prevention. The manual aims to facilitate improvement in communication skills of CHWs for promoting uptake of cervical cancer screening services in the community. The primary intention of this manual is to assist CHWs in spreading community awareness on cervical cancer prevention and establishing linkage between the community and available screening services. The information and instructions included in the manual can be used by both the facilitators and CHWs while participating in the training. The manual contains nine different sessions to assist CHWs to be acquainted with different aspects of cervical cancer prevention at the community level with focus on improving their communication skills. Each session contains key information in ‘question and answer’ format written in simple language so that CHWs can comprehend the contents better. At the end of each session, there are group activities like role plays, group discussion and games for active learning. These are intended to give opportunity to CHWs to learn by interacting with each other and also relate themselves with their roles and responsibilities at the community level. The manual includes ‘notes to the facilitator’ on how to conduct various sessions as per the given session plan. A set of ‘Frequently Asked Questions’ has been included to help the CHWs provide appropriate information to women and community members.
Paris, France, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization [UNESCO], 2012. 158 p.The education sector has a significant role to play in the response to HIV and AIDS. The sector can help to prevent the spread of HIV through education, and, in countries that are highly affected by HIV, by taking steps to protect itself from the effects of the epidemic. It can also make a significant contribution by supporting health improvement more generally and by helping to improve the sexual and reproductive health of young people in particular.This framework is designed to help those working in the education sector at a national level to understand the need for a robust response to HIV and AIDS in order to achieve Education for All (EFA) and the education-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The document also highlights the education sector’s role in contributing to universal access to HIV and AIDS prevention, treatment, care and support.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2006.  p.Even though children living with HIV/AIDS respond very well to treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART), to date few children living with HIV/AIDS have access to ART mostly due to a lack of cheap feasible diagnostic tests for infants, lack of affordable child-friendly ARV drugs and lack of trained health personnel. This course aims to address the issue of lack of trained personnel. With an ever increasing burden of HIV and a high percentage of children infected, health workers urgently require accurate, up to date training and information on assessment and management of HIV in children. The IMCI complementary course on HIV is designed to assist health workers to assess, classify, treat and follow up HIV exposed infants and children, to identify the role of family and community in caring for the child with HIV/AIDS and also to enhance health workers' skills in counseling of caretakers around HIV/AIDS. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, 1999. 4 p. (IMCI Information. Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI); WHO/CHS/CAH/98.1H)The WHO Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development (CAH) has developed and made available a range of tools and materials to support the implementation of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI). Many continue to be modified and expanded in the light of country experience and research findings. The materials include: clinical guidelines and training materials for first-level heath facilities, a guide to support the adaptation of IMCI clinical guidelines and training materials to specific country needs, guidelines for conducting follow-up visits to recently trained health workers, a breastfeeding counselling course, and a course to train health workers from first-level health facilities in managing drug supplies. In addition, the Department currently supports a range of initiatives, described below, to strengthen the implementation of the IMCI strategy. These focus on general management issues and the three components of the strategy – improving health workers’ skills, improving the health system to support IMCI and improving family and community practices. (excerpt)
Education for the prevention of AIDS. No. 1. Selection of extracts from teachers' guides. Revised ed. Education pour la prevention du SIDA. Selection d'extraits de guides pedagogiques a l'usage des enseignants. Educacion para la prevencion del SIDA. Seleccion de paginas de guias pedagogicas para el uso de personal docente.
[Paris, France], UNESCO, 1992 Oct. , 146 p.UNESCO's AIDS School Education Resource Center (ASERC), in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO), has compiled eight teachers' guides from Australia, Canada, Cameroon, Spain, the Pacific islands, Uganda, and the US (Hispanic curriculum). The teachers' ability to consider the myths, taboos, attitudes, habits, and knowledge of their students determines the effectiveness of AIDS preventive education. There are different approaches to effectively teach secondary school students. Essentially all the guides have a section on knowledge and information about HIV/AIDS (e.g., ways to prevent HIV transmission and clinical symptoms) and a section on appropriate attitudes and behavior towards HIV/AIDS (e.g., adopting preventive behavior). This last section contains participatory activities on decision making and on how students should behave towards and deal with persons with AIDS. Various teaching aids proposed by the guides include transparencies, fact sheets for teachers, pupils' guides, videocassettes, films, ideas for making puppets, and a glossary. Annex 1 has a pre-test that teachers can use to assess student knowledge, attitudes, and behavior towards AIDS. Annex 2 lists bibliographical references to other guides available at ASERC.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 1991. vi, 96 p.WHO published this manual on the prevention and control of hookworm infection and anemia primarily for community health workers. The manual addresses the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of these conditions. Its annexes provide details of appropriate examination techniques for hookworm and hookworm anemia surveys and sample survey considerations. It emphasizes the importance of thorough population surveys. The worldwide prevalence of infection with Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus is about 25%. It occurs predominantly in developing countries, where prevalence may be as high as 80% in some areas. It is a major cause of iron deficiency anemia. Its presence indicates deficiencies in sanitation and health education. Many persons, including public health officials, are not interested in national control of hookworm infection, probably because it induces low mortality and it is technically difficult to measure and quantify hookworm-related morbidity. Control of hookworm infection and hookworm-related anemia is uncomplicated and effective. It consists of health education, effective sanitation, and treatment with antihelminthics and iron supplements. The manual's seven chapters cover the following: hookworms infecting humans; clinical pathology of hookworm infection; hookworm infection as a cause of anemia; epidemiology of hookworm infection; principles of prevention and control; assessing the situation; and practical prevention and control.
WORLD HEALTH FORUM. 1993; 14(2):209-10.The WHO and the UN Children's Fund have set joint targets for global and national programs for the control of diarrhoeal diseases. One target stipulates that by 1995, 50% of the children with diarrhoea should receive an increased volume of fluids with continued feeding. The principal approach to achieving this is the implementation of skills-oriented training for health workers. The joint targets also state that by 1995, 80% of mothers of children <5 years of age should be aware of the rules of home case management: give increased fluids, continue feeding, and seek medical care when needed. For the year 2000, this target is 100%. Despite well-implemented clinical management training in many countries, advising mothers on how to care for diarrhoea at home is the weakest element of case management. Health facility surveys show that 1-10% of mothers are correctly advised. Health workers often give advice at the end of a consultation, facilities are often crowded, and health workers may not feel that advising is productive. Therefore, the Program for the Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases (CDD) has developed a training guide called "Advising Mothers" which outlines a process and the skills which will help health workers to advise mothers effectively. "Advising Mothers" is a training tool which should be used during clinical management training courses or as a refresher course for health workers previously trained in clinical management. On average, the exercises in the program require about 8 hours. If "Advising Mothers" is incorporated into clinical management training, practice may be done during regular clinical practice sessions; if training is carried out separately, an extra half-day will be needed for clinical practice. National CDD programs would incorporate "Advising Mothers" into clinical management training courses for health personnel.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, 1989. viii, 73 p.Community involvement in health development (CIH), while not a new concept, has only been introduced in recent years as a worthwhile strategy for improving the health systems of developing countries. The author draws upon the conclusions of the June, 1985, WHO inter-regional meeting on the Yugoslavian island of Brioni as the basis of a text exploring the theory, practice, and main issues of CIH. The Brioni conclusions are reviewed and expanded especially for the benefit of health professionals involved or planning to become involved with CIH in their work. Due to limited wide-scale implementation of CIH, information on CIH practice is sparse. Direct references to CIH practice are provided in the text. After reviewing the basis and nature of community involvement and community participation in the context of health development, the text turns to a more lengthy discussion of critical issues in CIH. The community, support mechanisms, education and training, promotion methodology, evaluation, and research are discussed as they relate to the practice of CIH.The community, support mechanisms, education and training, promotion methodology, evaluation, and research are discussed as they relate to the practice of CIH.
[Unpublished] 1988. , 39 p. (GPA/HPR/88.1)Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) health promotion involves the use of information and education to change the behaviors of individuals and groups in ways that will control the spread of the virus. Effective promotional activities can make AIDS prevention a high public health priority, promote social support for positive behavioral changes, establish public support for the community and institutional responses required to control the transmission of AIDS, and support the training of workers in the health care field. Through its reliance on multiple communication channels and cooperation with the health and social service sectors, health promotion seeks to achieve sustained change in practices crucial to public health. The key to effective health promotion is adequate planning, services, and the supplies. This guide is aimed at providing planners, manages, and technical staff with a frame of reference for planning, implementing, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating AIDS health promotion programs. Discussed in detail are the following elements of program planning: establishing goals, initial assessment, targeting audiences, setting objectives and targets, developing messages and materials, developing communication strategies, providing support services, monitoring and evaluation, scheduling and budget, and reassessing the program. Dispersed throughout are examples of promotional materials and strategies.
Pretesting communication materials with special emphasis on child health and nutrition education. A manual for trainers and supervisors.
Rangoon, Burma, UNICEF, Rangoon, 1984 Feb. 62 p.This is a complete manual on how to pretest printed materials on child health and nutrition, prepared by UNICEF primarily for developing countries. It is charmingly illustrated with photographs, cartoons, and samples of visual materials. Pretesting means interviewing the intended audience to see if they understand and like the materials. Often illiterate rural people are unfamiliar with most of the visual conventions we take for granted, are embarrassed or threatened about certain content, or are put off by color selection, unfamiliar details or overly lengthy presentations, for example. The most common objection to pretesting is lack of time and money; yet losses on untested materials may be much higher. Detailed help is provided with techniques for interviewing, such as how to establish rapport, word questions, probe for information rather than yes answers, handle negative attitudes. Sections explain where, when, whom and how to interview many subjects, and how to evaluate results. Final sections deal with discussion questions, feedback from users, types of problems encountered with people of low visual literacy, and how to convince a supervisor of the need for pretesting.