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  1. 1

    A tool for strengthening gender-sensitive national HIV and Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) monitoring and evaluation systems.

    World Health Organization [WHO]; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2016. 126 p.

    WHO and UNAIDS have released a new tool for strengthening gender-sensitive national HIV and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) monitoring and evaluation systems. The tool provides step-by-step guidance to strategic information specialists and monitoring and evaluation officers of HIV and SRH programmes on how to ask the right questions in order to uncover gender inequalities and their influence on health; identify and select gender-sensitive indicators; conduct gender-analysis of SRH and HIV data; and strengthen monitoring and evaluation systems to enable appropriate data collection and gender analysis. The tool has been used by nearly 30 country teams of strategic information specialists, civil society and HIV programme implementers to analyse their own SRH and HIV data from a gender equality perspective. It can be used for training monitoring and evaluation specialists as well as a resource guide for SRH and HIV programmes to develop gender profiles of their SRH and HIV situation. “Know your epidemic, know your response” has been the cornerstone of the HIV response. This tool supports this approach by helping identify inequities and underlying drivers and hence, improve evidence-informed SRH and HIV programmes for all, but particularly for women and girls.
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  2. 2

    UNAIDS practical guidelines for intensifying HIV prevention: Towards universal access.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2007. [66] p. (UNAIDS/07.07E; JC1274E)

    These Practical Guidelines for Intensifying HIV Prevention: Towards Universal Access are designed to provide policy makers and planners with practical guidance to tailor their national HIV prevention response so that they respond to the epidemic dynamics and social context of the country and populations who remain most vulnerable to and at risk of HIV infection. They have been developed in consultation with the UNAIDS cosponsors, international collaborating partners, government, civil society leaders and other experts. They build on Intensifying HIV Prevention: UNAIDS Policy Position Paper and the UNAIDS Action Plan on Intensifying HIV Prevention. In 2006, governments committed themselves to scaling up HIV prevention and treatment responses to ensure universal access by 2010. While in the past five years treatment access has expanded rapidly, the number of new HIV infections has not decreased - estimated at 4.3 (3.6-6.6) million in 2006 - with many people unable to access prevention services to prevent HIV infection. These Guidelines recognize that to sustain the advances in antiretroviral treatment and to ensure true universal access requires that prevention services be scaled up simultaneously with treatment. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Guidelines for using HIV testing technologies in surveillance: selection, evaluation, and implementation.

    UNAIDS / WHO Working Group on Global HIV / AIDS / STI Surveillance; United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2001. iv, 38 p. (WHO/CDS/CSR/EDC/2001.16; UNAIDS/01.22E)

    As the HIV/AIDS epidemic imposes an ever-larger burden globally, surveillance for HIV becomes more critical in order to understand the trends of the epidemic and to make sound decisions on how best to respond to it. This is especially true in developing countries, which account for a disproportionate share of new and long-standing infections. To help countries focus their surveillance activities in the context of their epidemic state (low-level, concentrated, or generalized), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/ AIDS (UNAIDS) have developed a conceptual framework to improve HIV surveillance—second generation HIV surveillance. Guidelines for second generation HIV surveillance suggest approaches to make better use of data to increase and improve the response to the HIV epidemic. As biological surveillance (serosurveillance) is an important component of most HIV surveillance activities, an understanding of current HIV testing technologies is important. In the context of second generation HIV surveillance, these laboratory guidelines suggest methods for selecting, evaluating, and implementing HIV testing technologies and strategies based on a country’s laboratory infrastructure and surveillance needs. The guidelines provide recommendations for specimen selection, collection, storage, and testing and for the selection and evaluation of appropriate HIV testing strategies and technologies to meet surveillance objectives. Quality assurance issues are also addressed. These technical guidelines are written for HIV surveillance coordinators and other health professionals involved in HIV testing for surveillance purposes in developing countries. They are part of a series of operational guidelines for second generation HIV surveillance systems. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    Working document on monitoring and evaluating of national ART programmes in the rapid scale-up to 3 by 5.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, [2003]. 20 p.

    Currently, five to six million people infected with HIV in the developing world need access to antiretroviral (ARV) therapy to survive. Only 400,000 have this access. The failure to deliver ARVs to the millions of people who need them is a global health emergency. To address this emergency, WHO is fully committed to achieving the "3 by 5" target - getting three million people on ARVs by the end of 2005. This is a means to achieving the treatment goal: universal access to ARVS for all who need them. WHO will lead the effort, with UNAIDS and other partners, using its skills and experience in coordinating global responses to diseases such as the effective and rapid control of SARS. The monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of the 3 by 5 initiative is a high priority. It will be crucial to know how countries are meeting the agreed goals and objectives and how local levels (districts, Regions or Provinces) are monitoring progress and identifying any problems they may encounter. The need for a substantial amount of country input and ownership of the process will require a refinement of the M&E strategy in close consultation with countries. However, key components of the M&E strategy can be developed now, with further refinements and developments to come later. This document is a work in progress. It represents the best effort to describe a coherent approach to the monitoring and evaluation of scaling up to the reach the goal of 3 by 5 that is possible at this time. This working document is best viewed as a step in a process that will include field testing, the gathering of additional experience, additional review, the validation of indicators presented and subsequently refinement. If inadequacies are found in this working document, they are mostly the result of incomplete information and experience on which to base decisions. That will be corrected as experience mounts. (excerpt)
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