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Programme reporting standards for sexual, reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2017. 32 p.Information about design, context, implementation, monitoring and evaluation is central to understanding the processes and impacts of sexual, reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health (SRMNCAH) programmes, in support of effective replication and scale-up of these efforts. Existing reporting guidelines do not demand sufficient detail in the reporting of contextual and implementation issues. We have, therefore, developed programme reporting standards (PRS) to provide guidance for complete and accurate reporting on the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation processes of SRMNCAH programmes. The PRS can be used by SRMNCAH programme implementers and researchers. The PRS can be used prospectively to guide the reporting of a programme throughout its life cycle, or retrospectively to describe what was done, when, where, how and by whom. The PRS is intended as a guide for implementation researchers who need to document important details of implementation and context in addition to the results of their studies. The PRS is intended for programme managers and other staff or practitioners who have designed, implemented and/or evaluated SRMNCAH programmes. It can be used by governmental and nongovernmental organizations, bilateral and multilateral agencies, as well as by the private sector. The PRS is also intended as a guide for implementation researchers who need to document important details of implementation and context in addition to the results of their studies
A tool for strengthening gender-sensitive national HIV and Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) monitoring and evaluation systems.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2016. 126 p.WHO and UNAIDS have released a new tool for strengthening gender-sensitive national HIV and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) monitoring and evaluation systems. The tool provides step-by-step guidance to strategic information specialists and monitoring and evaluation officers of HIV and SRH programmes on how to ask the right questions in order to uncover gender inequalities and their influence on health; identify and select gender-sensitive indicators; conduct gender-analysis of SRH and HIV data; and strengthen monitoring and evaluation systems to enable appropriate data collection and gender analysis. The tool has been used by nearly 30 country teams of strategic information specialists, civil society and HIV programme implementers to analyse their own SRH and HIV data from a gender equality perspective. It can be used for training monitoring and evaluation specialists as well as a resource guide for SRH and HIV programmes to develop gender profiles of their SRH and HIV situation. “Know your epidemic, know your response” has been the cornerstone of the HIV response. This tool supports this approach by helping identify inequities and underlying drivers and hence, improve evidence-informed SRH and HIV programmes for all, but particularly for women and girls.
Handbook for supporting the development of health system guidance. Supporting informed judgements for health system policies.
Basel, Switzerland, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, 2011 Jul.  p.This handbook, commissioned by the WHO, describes the processes, approaches and outputs for developing health system guidance and is compliant with the existing ‘WHO handbook for guideline development’ (WHO Guidelines Review Committee (GRC)) and is the equivalent of the handbook to support the development of clinical guidelines for health systems guidance. It is based on a preliminary work that established the rationale and framework for health systems guidance and it is inspired by global trends encouraging to bridge the gap between research and policy and practice through knowledge translation. The handbook has been produced by a core team supported by the GRC staff, supported by a Task Force specifically set up for this project. The handbook deals with the process of developing full guidance, rather than the processes to adopt, adapt or endorse guidance developed by third parties. (Excerpt)
Procuring Single-Use Injection Equipment and Safety Boxes: A Practical Guide for Pharmacists, Physicians, Procurement Staff and Programme Managers
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2003 May 5. (WHO/BCT/03.04)The objective of this guide is to accompany pharmacists, physicians, procurement staff and programme managers through the process of procuring single-use injection equipment and safety boxes of assured quality, on a national or international market, at reasonable prices. International organizations have established standardized procurement procedures for medicines and medical devices. This guide describes how these procedures can be used to ensure the procurement of injection equipment and safety boxes. Institutions procuring injection equipment need to develop a list of manufacturers that are prequalified on the basis of certain criteria which include international quality standards. This guide provides steps and tools for procurement, including a pre-qualification procedure of injection equipment for purchase. Developing a monitoring system for supplier performance will improve and safeguard the quality of injection equipment selected and prevent or eliminate unreliable suppliers.
Repositioning family planning: Guidelines for advocacy action. Le repositionnement de la planification familiale: Directives pour actions de plaidoyer.
Washington, D.C., Academy for Educational Development [AED], 2008. 64 p.Countries throughout Africa are engaged in an important initiative to reposition family planning as a priority on their national and local agendas. Provision of family planning services in Africa is hindered by poverty, poor access to services and commodities, conflicts, poor coordination of the programmes, and dwindling donor funding. Although family planning enhances efforts to improve health and accelerate development, shifting international priorities, health sector reform, the HIV/AIDS crisis, and other factors have affected its importance in recent years. Traditional beliefs favouring high fertility, religious barriers, and lack of male involvement have weakened family planning interventions. The combination of these factors has led to low contraceptive use, high fertility rates in many countries, and high unmet needs for family planning throughout the region. Family planning advocates must take action to change this situation. Family planning, considered an essential component of primary health care and reproductive health, plays a major role in reducing maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality and transmission of HIV. It contributes to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and the targets of the Health-for-All Policy for the 21st century in the Africa Region: Agenda 2020. In recognition of its importance, the World Health Organisation Regional Office for Africa developed a framework (2005-014) for accelerated action to reposition family planning on national agendas and in reproductive health services, which was adopted by African ministers of health in 2004. The framework calls for increase in efforts to advocate for recognition of "the pivotal role of family planning" in achieving health and development objectives at all levels. This toolkit aims to help those working in family planning across Africa to effectively advocate for renewed emphasis on family planning to enhance the visibility, availability, and quality of family planning services for increased contraceptive use and healthy timing and spacing of births, and ultimately, improved quality of life across the region. It was developed in response to requests from several countries to assist them in accelerating their family planning advocacy efforts.
[Family planning: a global handbook for providers. Evidence-based guidance developed through worldwide collaboration]
Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs, 2008.  p. (WHO Family Planning Cornerstone)This new handbook on family planning methods and related topics is the first of its kind. Through an organized, collaborative process, experts from around the world have come to consensus on practical guidance that reflects the best available scientific evidence. The World Health Organization (WHO) convened this process. Many major technical assistance and professional organizations have endorsed and adopted this guidance. This book serves as a quick-reference resource for all levels of health care workers. It is the successor to The Essentials of Contraceptive Technology, first published in 1997 by the Center for Communication Programs at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. In format and organization it resembles the earlier handbook. At the same time, all of the content of Essentials has been re-examined, new evidence has been gathered, guidance has been revised where needed, and gaps have been filled. This handbook reflects the family planning guidance developed by WHO. Also, this book expands on the coverage of Essentials: It addresses briefly other needs of clients that come up in the course of providing family planning. (excerpt)
[Family planning: a global handbook for providers. Evidence-based guidance developed through worldwide collaboration] Planificacion familiar: un manual mundial para proveedores. Orientacion basada en la evidencia desarrollada gracias a la colaboracion mundial.
Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs, 2007.  p. (WHO Family Planning Cornerstone)This new handbook on family planning methods and related topics is the first of its kind. Through an organized, collaborative process, experts from around the world have come to consensus on practical guidance that reflects the best available scientific evidence. The World Health Organization (WHO) convened this process. Many major technical assistance and professional organizations have endorsed and adopted this guidance. This book serves as a quick-reference resource for all levels of health care workers. It is the successor to The Essentials of Contraceptive Technology, first published in 1997 by the Center for Communication Programs at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. In format and organization it resembles the earlier handbook. At the same time, all of the content of Essentials has been re-examined, new evidence has been gathered, guidance has been revised where needed, and gaps have been filled. This handbook reflects the family planning guidance developed by WHO. Also, this book addresses briefly other needs of clients that come up in the course of providing family planning. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2007.  p.The influence behind faith-based organizations is not difficult to discern. In many developing countries, FBOs not only provide spiritual guidance to their followers; they are often the primary providers for a variety of local health and social services. Situated within communities and building on relationships of trust, these organizations have the ability to influence the attitudes and behaviours of their fellow community members. Moreover, they are in close and regular contact with all age groups in society and their word is respected. In fact, in some traditional communities, religious leaders are often more influential than local government officials or secular community leaders. Many of the case studies researched for the UNFPA publication Culture Matters showed that the involvement of faith-based organizations in UNFPA-supported projects enhanced negotiations with governments and civil society on culturally sensitive issues. Gradually, these experiences are being shared across countries andacross regions, which has facilitated interfaith dialogue on the most effective approaches to prevent the spread of HIV. Such dialogue has also helped convince various faith-based organizations that joining together as a united front is the most effective way to fight the spread of HIV and lessen the impact of AIDS. This manual is a capacity-building tool to help policy makers and programmers identify, design and follow up on HIV prevention programmes undertaken by FBOs. The manual can also be used by development practitioners partnering with FBOs to increase their understanding of the role of FBOs in HIV prevention, and to design plans for partnering with FBOs to halt the spread of the virus. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2007.  p. (UNAIDS/07.07E; JC1274E)These Practical Guidelines for Intensifying HIV Prevention: Towards Universal Access are designed to provide policy makers and planners with practical guidance to tailor their national HIV prevention response so that they respond to the epidemic dynamics and social context of the country and populations who remain most vulnerable to and at risk of HIV infection. They have been developed in consultation with the UNAIDS cosponsors, international collaborating partners, government, civil society leaders and other experts. They build on Intensifying HIV Prevention: UNAIDS Policy Position Paper and the UNAIDS Action Plan on Intensifying HIV Prevention. In 2006, governments committed themselves to scaling up HIV prevention and treatment responses to ensure universal access by 2010. While in the past five years treatment access has expanded rapidly, the number of new HIV infections has not decreased - estimated at 4.3 (3.6-6.6) million in 2006 - with many people unable to access prevention services to prevent HIV infection. These Guidelines recognize that to sustain the advances in antiretroviral treatment and to ensure true universal access requires that prevention services be scaled up simultaneously with treatment. (excerpt)
Obstetric fistula: Guiding principles for clinical management and programme development, a new WHO guideline.
International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2007 Nov; 99 Suppl 1:S117-S121.It is estimated that more than 2 million women are living with obstetric fistulas (OFs) worldwide, particularly in Africa and Asia, and yet this severe morbidity remains hidden. As a contribution to the global Campaign to End Fistula, the World Health Organization (WHO) published Obstetric fistula: Guiding principles for clinical management and programme development, a manual intended as a practical working document. Its 3 main objectives are to draw attention to the urgency of the OF issue and serve as an advocacy document for prompt action; provide policy makers and health professionals with brief, factual information and principles that will guide them at the national and regional levels as they develop strategies and programs to prevent and treat OFs; and assist health care professionals as they acquire better skills and develop more effective services to care for women treated for fistula repair. (author's)
New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, .  p.This Toolkit is meant for national youth organizations and/or representatives working with youth. It can be used as a tool to: Assess your country's progress in reaching the WPAY goals; Prioritize your organization's work, based on your findings; Initiate actions at the national level. This Toolkit should be used as a starting point for determining what your government, and civil society, has done to better the lives of young people, since 1995. In addition to providing methods for evaluating this progress, the Toolkit also contains concrete tools to further your youth work. As such, we hope that you will find it both informative and useful, and a good resource for your organization. (excerpt)
Assistance for the implementation of the ECOWAS Plan of Action against Trafficking in Persons. Training manual.
New York, New York, United Nations, 2006.  p.Trafficking in Persons has become a major concern for all countries of Western Africa. The Meeting of ECOWAS Heads of States, in December 2001, adopted a Declaration and the ECOWAS Plan of Action against Trafficking in Persons (2002-2003). It directed the ECOWAS Executive Secretariat to prepare proposals for controlling trafficking in persons in the sub-region, with special consideration to the situation of trafficked children. The UNODC project FS/RAF/04/R60 on the "Assistance for the Implementation of the ECOWAS Plan of Action against Trafficking in Persons" will strengthen the capacity of the ECOWAS Secretariat and its Member States in implementing the ECOWAS Plan of Action, particularly as it relates to assessment of existing national legislation and the drafting of new legislation in response to the United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children. This Manual presents the definitions of trafficking in human beings and smuggling of migrants as well as general guidelines on investigation and prosecution of cases related to trafficking in human beings, with a focus on cooperation between ECOWAS Member States. This Manual is to be used as reference material and in training activities under the project. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2006.  p.Even though children living with HIV/AIDS respond very well to treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART), to date few children living with HIV/AIDS have access to ART mostly due to a lack of cheap feasible diagnostic tests for infants, lack of affordable child-friendly ARV drugs and lack of trained health personnel. This course aims to address the issue of lack of trained personnel. With an ever increasing burden of HIV and a high percentage of children infected, health workers urgently require accurate, up to date training and information on assessment and management of HIV in children. The IMCI complementary course on HIV is designed to assist health workers to assess, classify, treat and follow up HIV exposed infants and children, to identify the role of family and community in caring for the child with HIV/AIDS and also to enhance health workers' skills in counseling of caretakers around HIV/AIDS. (excerpt)
Family planning: a global handbook for providers. Evidence-based guidance developed through worldwide collaboration.
Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs, 2007.  p. (WHO Family Planning Cornerstone)This new handbook on family planning methods and related topics is the first of its kind. Through an organized, collaborative process, experts from around the world have come to consensus on practical guidance that reflects the best available scientific evidence. The World Health Organization (WHO) convened this process. Many major technical assistance and professional organizations have endorsed and adopted this guidance. This book serves as a quick-reference resource for all levels of health care workers. It is the successor to The Essentials of Contraceptive Technology, first published in 1997 by the Center for Communication Programs at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. In format and organization it resembles the earlier handbook. At the same time, all of the content of Essentials has been re-examined, new evidence has been gathered, guidance has been revised where needed, and gaps have been filled. This handbook reflects the family planning guidance developed by WHO. Also, this book expands on the coverage of Essentials: It addresses briefly other needs of clients that come up in the course of providing family planning. (excerpt)
Strategic approach for the strengthening of laboratory services for tuberculosis control, 2006-2009.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2006.  p. (WHO/HTM/TB/2006.364)Bacteriology is one of the fundamental aspects of national tuberculosis (TB) control programmes (NTPs) and a key component of the DOTS strategy. However, TB laboratory services are often neglected components of these programmes. Given existing constraints, it will be difficult for many countries to achieve the global targets of 70% detection of infectious cases and 85% cure of these incidents by the year 2005. Although the global success rate under DOTS has reached 82%, the detection rate of the estimated prevalence has increased at a far slower rate (53% in 2004). In order to improve the case-detection rate, a global strategy for the development and strengthening of TB laboratory networks needs to be implemented urgently. In addition to improving sputum smear microscopy, the strategy recognizes the need to upgrade existing laboratory services and to strengthen/build capacity to perform culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST) in areas experiencing a high burden of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear-negative TB associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and to support DOTS-Plus projects. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2006 Apr. 20 p. (WHO/HTM/TB/2003.328 Rev.2)The IDA Foundation is a non-profit organization supporting health care in low- and middle-income countries by providing high-quality drugs and medical supplies at the lowest possible price. In addition, IDA provides procurement agency services and offers consultancy and training on topics related to the various aspects of pharmaceutical supply management. IDA is based in the Netherlands and is ISO 9002-2000 and GDP certified. The quality of IDA products is verified in IDA's GcLP-approved laboratories. GLC is a subgroup of the Stop TB Working Group on DOTS-Plus for MDR-TB. GLC has been established to review applications from potential DOTS-Plus pilot projects and determine whether they are in compliance with WHO's Guidelines for establishing DOTSPlus pilot projects for the management of MDR-TB. Projects that are approved will benefit from second-line anti-TB drugs at concessional prices and from technical assistance from the GLC. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Stop TB Department, 2006.  p. (WHO/HTM/TB/2006.361)The emergence of resistance to drugs used to treat tuberculosis (TB), and particularly multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), has become a significant public health problem in a number of countries and an obstacle to effective global TB control. In many other countries, the extent of drug resistance is unknown and the management of patients with MDR-TB is inadequate. In countries where drug resistance has been identified, specific measures need to be taken within TB control programmes to address the problem through appropriate management of patients and adoption of strategies to prevent the propagation and dissemination of drug-resistant TB, including MDR-TB. These guidelines offer updated recommendations for TB control programmes and medical workers in middle- and low-income countries faced with drug-resistant forms of TB, especially MDR-TB. They replace two previous publications by the World Health Organization (WHO) on drug-resistant TB. Taking account of important developments in recent years, the new guidelines aim to disseminate consistent, up-to-date recommendations for national TB control programmes and medical practitioners on the diagnosis and management of drug-resistant TB in a variety of geographical, political, economic and social settings. The guidelines can be adapted to suit diverse local circumstances because they are structured around a flexible framework approach, combining a consistent core of principles and requirements with various alternatives that can be tailored to the specific local situation. (excerpt)
Monitoring the Declaration of Commitment on HIV / AIDS: guidelines on construction of core indicators.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2005 Jul. 106 p. (UNAIDS/05.17E)The primary purpose of this document is to provide key constituents, who are actively involved in an individual country's response to HIV and AIDS, with essential information on core indicators that measure the effectiveness of the national response. These guidelines will also help ensure the transparency of the process used by national governments and UNAIDS to prepare progress reports on implementation of the UNGASS Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS. Countries are strongly encouraged to integrate the core indicators into their ongoing monitoring and evaluation activities. These indicators are designed to help countries assess the current state of their national response while simultaneously contributing to a better understanding of the global response to the AIDS pandemic, including progress towards meeting the Declaration of Commitment targets. Given the parallel applications of the indicators, the guidelines in this document are designed to improve the quality and consistency of data collected at country level, which will enhance the accuracy of conclusions drawn from the data at both regional and global levels. This document also includes an overview of global indicators that will be used by UNAIDS and its partners to assess key components of the response that are best measured on a worldwide basis. (excerpt)
Adolescence Education Newsletter. 2004 Jun; 7(1):18-19.The Adolescent Reproductive Health Toolkit will soon assist local service providers and health educators in putting up youth-friendly service centres in Viet Nam. This pioneering project hopes to cater to the 24 million Vietnamese youth facing serious problems on reproductive health and population education, but lack access to appropriate information and youth-friendly services. Since February 2004, RHIYA in Viet Nam has already implemented innovative initiatives such as street theatres and "condom cafés" to increase the effectiveness of behaviour change communication (BCC) among adolescents and youth. Now on its second phase, the newly established RHIYA Viet Nam is actively working on the completion of the ARH Toolkit, which will be a "how-to" guide for local institutions or organizations that want to establish youth-friendly service centres in the community. Specifically, the Toolkit will outline principles on how to establish, manage, market and monitor programmes that provide youth-friendly reproductive health information, education and counselling, and support clinical services for adolescents and youths in both urban and rural areas of Viet Nam. (excerpt)
Population division, department of economic and social affairs, United Nations, MORTPAK for windows version 4.0.
Journal of Population Research. 2004 Nov;  p..The United Nations has released Version 4.0 of its demographic software package MORTPAK. Although MORTPAK 4.0 is designed primarily to estimate mortality, it includes population projections, life tables and stable-population construction, graduation of mortality data, indirect mortality estimations, indirect fertility estimations, and other indirect procedures for evaluating age distributions and the completeness of censuses. For a more comprehensive analysis of mortality however, it is recommended that both the MORTPAK 4.0 package and the US Bureau of the Census spreadsheets (PAS) be used. MORTPAK 4.0 takes advantage of a Windows user interface. While previous DOS versions have been used by demographers since the 1980s, data entry is now on worksheets that resemble spreadsheets, but do not have the functionality of a full spreadsheet. After a new MORTPAK worksheet has been opened, data prepared on a spreadsheet can be pasted into it and the selected application run from dropdown menus. After a selected MORTPAK application has been run, the results can be copied and pasted back into a spreadsheet for further calculation or for creating graphs. The graphing capabilities of MORTPAK itself are still not well developed. MORTPAK output now takes two forms: one recognizable to users of older versions is called document output and is ready for exporting to a Word document in rich text format; the second is placed onto the worksheet and can be copied into a spreadsheet. MORTPAK 4.0 can import data from previous versions of MORTPAK. (excerpt)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2005; 28(5):483-490.The World Health Organization (WHO) is responsible for providing evidence-based family planning guidance for use worldwide. WHO currently has two such guidelines, Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use and Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, which are widely used globally and often incorporated into national family planning standards and guidelines. To ensure that these guidelines remain up-to-date, WHO, in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Information and Knowledge for Optimal Health (INFO) Project at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health’s Center for Communication Programs, has developed the Continuous Identification of Research Evidence (CIRE) system to identify, synthesize, and evaluate new scientific evidence as it becomes available. The CIRE system identifies new evidence that is relevant to current WHO family planning recommendations through ongoing review of the input to the POPulation information onLINE (POPLINE) database. Using the Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines and standardized abstract forms, systematic reviews are conducted, peer-reviewed, and sent to WHO for further action. Since the system began in October 2002, 90 relevant new articles have been identified, leading to 43 systematic reviews, which were used during the 2003–2004 revisions of WHO’s family planning guidelines. The partnership developed to create and manage the CIRE system has pooled existing resources; scaled up the methodology for evaluating and synthesizing evidence, including a peer-review process; and provided WHO with finger-on-the-pulse capability to ensure that its family planning guidelines remain up-to-date and based on the best available evidence. (author's)
Manila, Philippines, World Health Organization [WHO], Regional Office for the Western Pacific, STI, HIV and AIDS Focus, 2002.  p.Welcome to this package of training materials, designed to help programme managers and technical staff to implement a 100% condom use programme (100% CUP) in entertainment establishments. The strategy advocated by this training package is based on sound public health thinking, and experience to date with this programme has demonstrated its ability to contribute to a remarkable decline in STI/HIV rates among female sex workers (FSWs). The potential contribution of this approach to public health is now challenging policy-makers and programme managers at all levels to explore the feasibility and methods by which the 100% CUP may be implemented in their jurisdiction. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2005.  p. (Integrating STI / RTI Care for Reproductive Health; USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No: PN-ADC-591)This Guide is intended to be a reference manual, and a resource to educate and to remind health care workers of the need to consider STIs/RTIs when providing other reproductive health services. It recommends prevention and care practices for patients who have or may be at risk of acquiring a reproductive tract infection. As such, it could be used for preservice or in-service health provider education and training, as a source of up-to-date, evidence-based recommendations, and as a selfeducation tool for health care providers on the prevention, treatment, and diagnosis of RTIs. Programme managers can use it as a starting-point for improving policies, programmes and training on the prevention and management of STI/RTI, adapting the information and recommendations as needed to local conditions. The information is grouped according to “reasons for visit”. Providers are encouraged to consider the possibility of STI/RTI, educate and counsel clients about prevention, and offer necessary treatment. Providers can use the Guide as a whole, or focus on the sections that are relevant to their daily practice. (excerpt)
Guidelines for using HIV testing technologies in surveillance: selection, evaluation, and implementation.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2001. iv, 38 p. (WHO/CDS/CSR/EDC/2001.16; UNAIDS/01.22E)As the HIV/AIDS epidemic imposes an ever-larger burden globally, surveillance for HIV becomes more critical in order to understand the trends of the epidemic and to make sound decisions on how best to respond to it. This is especially true in developing countries, which account for a disproportionate share of new and long-standing infections. To help countries focus their surveillance activities in the context of their epidemic state (low-level, concentrated, or generalized), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/ AIDS (UNAIDS) have developed a conceptual framework to improve HIV surveillance—second generation HIV surveillance. Guidelines for second generation HIV surveillance suggest approaches to make better use of data to increase and improve the response to the HIV epidemic. As biological surveillance (serosurveillance) is an important component of most HIV surveillance activities, an understanding of current HIV testing technologies is important. In the context of second generation HIV surveillance, these laboratory guidelines suggest methods for selecting, evaluating, and implementing HIV testing technologies and strategies based on a country’s laboratory infrastructure and surveillance needs. The guidelines provide recommendations for specimen selection, collection, storage, and testing and for the selection and evaluation of appropriate HIV testing strategies and technologies to meet surveillance objectives. Quality assurance issues are also addressed. These technical guidelines are written for HIV surveillance coordinators and other health professionals involved in HIV testing for surveillance purposes in developing countries. They are part of a series of operational guidelines for second generation HIV surveillance systems. (excerpt)
Working document on monitoring and evaluating of national ART programmes in the rapid scale-up to 3 by 5.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, . 20 p.Currently, five to six million people infected with HIV in the developing world need access to antiretroviral (ARV) therapy to survive. Only 400,000 have this access. The failure to deliver ARVs to the millions of people who need them is a global health emergency. To address this emergency, WHO is fully committed to achieving the "3 by 5" target - getting three million people on ARVs by the end of 2005. This is a means to achieving the treatment goal: universal access to ARVS for all who need them. WHO will lead the effort, with UNAIDS and other partners, using its skills and experience in coordinating global responses to diseases such as the effective and rapid control of SARS. The monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of the 3 by 5 initiative is a high priority. It will be crucial to know how countries are meeting the agreed goals and objectives and how local levels (districts, Regions or Provinces) are monitoring progress and identifying any problems they may encounter. The need for a substantial amount of country input and ownership of the process will require a refinement of the M&E strategy in close consultation with countries. However, key components of the M&E strategy can be developed now, with further refinements and developments to come later. This document is a work in progress. It represents the best effort to describe a coherent approach to the monitoring and evaluation of scaling up to the reach the goal of 3 by 5 that is possible at this time. This working document is best viewed as a step in a process that will include field testing, the gathering of additional experience, additional review, the validation of indicators presented and subsequently refinement. If inadequacies are found in this working document, they are mostly the result of incomplete information and experience on which to base decisions. That will be corrected as experience mounts. (excerpt)