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  1. 1
    312466

    Preventing child maltreatment: a guide to taking action and generating evidence.

    Butchart A; Harvey AP; Mian M; Furniss T

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2006. [98] p.

    There is thus an increased awareness of the problem of child maltreatment and growing pressure on governments to take preventive action. At the same time, the paucity of evidence for the effectiveness of interventions raises concerns that scarce resources may be wasted through investment in well-intentioned but unsystematic prevention efforts whose effectiveness is unproven and which may never be proven. For this reason, the main aim of this guide is to provide technical advice for setting up policies and programmes for child maltreatment prevention and victim services that take into full account existing evidence on the effectiveness of interventions and that use the scientific principles of the public health approach. This will encourage the implementation of scientifically testable interventions and their evaluation. It is hoped that, in this way, the guide will contribute to a geographical expansion of the evidence base to include more evaluations of interventions from low-income and middle-income countries, and a greater variety of evaluated interventions. The long-term aim is to be able to prepare evidence-based guidelines on interventions for child maltreatment. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    192307

    Guidelines for effective use of data from HIV surveillance systems.

    UNAIDS / WHO Working Group on Global HIV / AIDS / STI Surveillance; Family Health International [FHI]; World Health Organization [WHO]; European Commission; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2004. 60 p.

    By tracking the past course of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, warning of possible future spread and measuring changes in infection and behaviour over time, second- generation surveillance is designed to produce information that is useful in planning and evaluating HIV/AIDS prevention and care activities over time. This objective has been met in many countries, where useful, high-quality data are now available. Nevertheless, a gap remains between the collection of useful data and the actual use of these data to reduce people's exposure to HIV infection and to improve the lives of those infected. More effort has been put into improving the quality of data collection than into ensuring the appropriate use of data. Collecting high-quality data is an important prerequisite to using them well, but why are available data not used better? One reason is that surveillance systems are often fragmented. This means that many departments or groups are responsible for various aspects of data collection. Each considers its job done after it has held its own "dissemination workshop". No single entity is responsible for compiling all the data, analysing them and presenting them as a cohesive whole. Further, very few countries budget adequately for analysing, presenting and using data, either the financial or human resources. When financial resources are allocated, people often underestimate the skills and time required to use data well. Many surveillance officials responding to an informal WHO/UNAIDS survey gave one final reason: they simply do not know how to use the data. This is hardly surprising: most people responsible for surveillance systems are physicians and public health professionals who are good at interpreting trends in disease but who have limited training in the different ways HIV surveillance data can be used to improve programming, measure the success of prevention, lobby for policy change and engage affected communities in the response. This publication aims to provide guidance in these areas. It discusses the three major areas of data use: programme planning, programme monitoring and evaluation and advocacy, giving examples of how data can be used effectively in these contexts. The publication concentrates on the mechanics of using data: not just what can be done with data but how it can be done. How can data be packaged for different audiences? Who should be involved in dissemination? What makes a good press release? What steps are required to produce a national report? Practical guidance is given on how to develop interesting and persuasive presentations and how to present data effectively. Suggestions are made for bringing together programme planning and advocacy. Different countries have different epidemics, different surveillance systems and different data use needs. It is hoped, however, that all countries can find some general principles that will provide pointers on how to improve performance in areas of data use relevant to them. (excerpt)
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