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  1. 1
    179210

    The World Health Organization guidelines for air quality. Part 2: Air-quality management and the role of the guidelines. [Recomendaciones sobre calidad del aire de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Parte 2: Manejo de la calidad de aire y papel de las recomendaciones]

    Schwela D

    EM. The Urban Environment. 2000 Aug; 23-27.

    In Part 1 of this article (July 2000, pp 29-34), the revised and updated guidelines for air pollutants were presented. It was emphasized that the guideline values and exposure-response relationships should be considered in the framework of air-quality management. Air-quality management is important for several reasons, which become particularly clear if one is looking at the estimated global burden of disease caused by air pollution. Recent estimates of mortality and morbidity caused by indoor and ambient air pollutions are reproduced in Figures 1 and 2. Figure 1 illustrates the daily mortality for urban ambient air exposure, urban indoor air exposure, and rural indoor air exposure as potentially caused by particulate matter in eight regions: Established Market Economies (EME); Eastern Europe (EE); China; India; SoutheastAsia/Western Pacific (SEAWP); Eastern Mediterranean (EM); Latin America (LA); and SubSaharan Africa (SSA). On a global scale, air-pollution-related mortality accounts for 4% to 8% of the total death rate of 52.2 million annually. Figure 2 estimates the number of people with respiratory diseases potentially caused, or exacerbated by, exposure to suspended particulate matter (SPM). Accordingly, between 20% and 30% of 760 million cases of respiratory diseases recorded annually may be affected by suspended particulate matter. These estimates, when viewed along with the existing information on the health effects of air pollution, lead to the conclusion that controlling sources of ambient and indoor air pollution is necessary to avoid a significant increase in the burden of disease it can cause. This issue is addressed in the World Health Organization 19996 Guidelines for Air Quality (hereafter referred to as Guidelines). In Part 2 of this article, we describe the main statements in the Guidelines with respect to ambient and indoor air management. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    074906

    World resources 1992-93.

    World Resources Institute; United Nations Environment Programme [UNEP]; United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]

    New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 1992. xiv, 385 p.

    The World Resources Institute, the UN Environment Programme, and the UN Development Programme collaborate to produce the World Resources series to provide organizations and individuals with accessible and accurate information on the trends and conditions of natural resources and protection of the environment. This information is needed to reach sustainable development, eliminate poverty, improve the standard of living, and preserve biological life-sustaining systems. This 5th volume stresses sustainable development as does the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development. Part I, entitled Sustainable Development, includes an overview chapter and 3 case studies of possible means to achieve sustainable development in industrialized countries, low income countries, and rapidly industrializing countries. Part II focuses on one region of the world, Central Europe, to discuss how it was able to degrade the environment, the magnitude of the damage, and what possible steps to take to ameliorate the situation. Part III addresses basic conditions and trends, key issues, major problems and efforts to resolve them, and recent developments in population and human development, food and agriculture, forests and rangelands, wildlife and habitat, energy, freshwater, oceans and coasts, atmosphere and climate, and policies and institutions (governmental and nongovernmental organizations). Part IV lists core and supporting data from the World Resources Data Base. This volume contains an index and a World Resources Data Base index.
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  3. 3
    074898

    The global partnership for environment and development. A guide to Agenda 21.

    United Nations Conference on Environment and Development [UNCED] (1992: Rio de Janeiro)

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNCED, Secretariat, 1992 Apr. [4], 116 p. (E.92.I.15)

    The UN Conference on Environmental and Development Preparatory Committee (UNCED) agreed on an action plan of global partnership for sustainable development and environmental protection entitled Agenda 21 to be adopted at the June 1992 UNCED in Rio de Janeiro. The priority actions are a call for action to achieve a prospering, just, and habitable world. These actions also promote a fertile, shared, and clean planet via extensive and responsible public participation at local, national, and global levels. Since most environmental problems originate with the failures and inadequacies of the current development process, the 1st action centers around revitalizing growth with sustainability including international policies to accelerate sustainable development in developing countries and integration of environment and development in decision making. The 2nd action is achieving sustainable living by attacking poverty, changing consumption patterns, and recognizing and acting on the links between population dynamics and sustainability, and providing basic health needs to preserve human health. The 3rd action addresses human settlements including urban water supplies, solid wastes management, and urban pollution and health. The 4th and 7th action plans incorporate the most subtopics. The 4th action plan calls for efficient resource use ranging from land resource planning and management to sustainable agriculture and rural development. The 7th plan is a call for individuals and groups to participate and be responsible for sustainable development. The major identified groups are women, children and youth, indigenous people, nongovernmental organizations, farmers, local authorities, trade unions, business and industry, and the scientific and technological community. The 5th plan addresses global and regional resources including protection of the atmosphere, the oceans and seas, and sustainable use of living marine resources. The 6th plan deals with management of toxic and hazardous chemicals and radioactive wastes.
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