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  1. 1

    WHO recommended surveillance standards.

    World Health Organization [WHO]; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 1997. 130, [6] p. (WHO/EMC/DIS/97.1)

    This manual presents the WHO Recommended Standards for the surveillance of communicable diseases. Its purpose is to be a handy reference for key elements and contact information for all communicable diseases associated with the existing WHO control programs. It serves as a useful tool at the Ministry of Health level in Member States, in approaching integrated surveillance of communicable diseases. It will also increase mutual awareness of recommended surveillance standards between WHO Divisions and Programs. The diseases and syndromes are organized in alphabetical order for easy reference. For each disease or syndrome there is a description of the rationale for surveillance, case definition, types of surveillance, minimum data elements, data analyses and principal uses of data for decision making. In addition, the relevant WHO contacts are included with contact details. A list of surveillance definitions is also provided in an annex as a first attempt to propose a common terminology for surveillance related terms. Following the introduction is a brief overview of the method proposed for developing a national plan for communicable disease surveillance.
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  2. 2

    Barrier contraceptives and spermicides: their role in family planning care.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1987. vii, 80 p.

    This WHO manual on barrier contraceptives and spermicides covers all methods, their effectiveness, advantages and disadvantages, non-contraceptive advantages, uses in special cases, family program considerations, the logistics of supply, monitoring shelf-life and quality control, and application of condoms in AIDS prevention programs. Condoms and foaming tablets are the most appropriate methods for developing countries, especially those in the tropics. Other methods present problems such as expense (diaphragms, foams, sponges), unavailability outside the U.K. and U.S. (caps, sponges), bulk and expense (canned foams). Certain individuals are particularly good candidates for barriers and spermicides: lactating women, people using abstinence or natural family planning, adolescents, older women, women waiting to start using other methods, and those at risk for contracting sexually transmitted diseases. Program officials should consider providing supplies in their special environments, with limitations such as transport, reliability of shipments, storage requirements, cultural sensitivity, multiple outlets for supplies, and cost both to the program and to the users. Methods of insuring steady supply and techniques of testing condoms are described. Barrier methods, condoms in particular, help stop the spread of gonorrhea, syphilis, Chlamydia, Candida, Trichomonas and HIV. An appendix describes basic information about AIDS and the relevance of barriers and spermicides, as well as monogamy and abstinence, in preventing AIDS transmission. Other appendices list sources of supply for developing countries, addresses of manufacturers and sources of further information, techniques for using these methods, and teaching methods for illiterates and semi-illiterates.
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