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Strategic approach for the strengthening of laboratory services for tuberculosis control, 2006-2009.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2006.  p. (WHO/HTM/TB/2006.364)Bacteriology is one of the fundamental aspects of national tuberculosis (TB) control programmes (NTPs) and a key component of the DOTS strategy. However, TB laboratory services are often neglected components of these programmes. Given existing constraints, it will be difficult for many countries to achieve the global targets of 70% detection of infectious cases and 85% cure of these incidents by the year 2005. Although the global success rate under DOTS has reached 82%, the detection rate of the estimated prevalence has increased at a far slower rate (53% in 2004). In order to improve the case-detection rate, a global strategy for the development and strengthening of TB laboratory networks needs to be implemented urgently. In addition to improving sputum smear microscopy, the strategy recognizes the need to upgrade existing laboratory services and to strengthen/build capacity to perform culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST) in areas experiencing a high burden of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear-negative TB associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and to support DOTS-Plus projects. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2006 Apr. 20 p. (WHO/HTM/TB/2003.328 Rev.2)The IDA Foundation is a non-profit organization supporting health care in low- and middle-income countries by providing high-quality drugs and medical supplies at the lowest possible price. In addition, IDA provides procurement agency services and offers consultancy and training on topics related to the various aspects of pharmaceutical supply management. IDA is based in the Netherlands and is ISO 9002-2000 and GDP certified. The quality of IDA products is verified in IDA's GcLP-approved laboratories. GLC is a subgroup of the Stop TB Working Group on DOTS-Plus for MDR-TB. GLC has been established to review applications from potential DOTS-Plus pilot projects and determine whether they are in compliance with WHO's Guidelines for establishing DOTSPlus pilot projects for the management of MDR-TB. Projects that are approved will benefit from second-line anti-TB drugs at concessional prices and from technical assistance from the GLC. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Stop TB Department, 2006.  p. (WHO/HTM/TB/2006.361)The emergence of resistance to drugs used to treat tuberculosis (TB), and particularly multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), has become a significant public health problem in a number of countries and an obstacle to effective global TB control. In many other countries, the extent of drug resistance is unknown and the management of patients with MDR-TB is inadequate. In countries where drug resistance has been identified, specific measures need to be taken within TB control programmes to address the problem through appropriate management of patients and adoption of strategies to prevent the propagation and dissemination of drug-resistant TB, including MDR-TB. These guidelines offer updated recommendations for TB control programmes and medical workers in middle- and low-income countries faced with drug-resistant forms of TB, especially MDR-TB. They replace two previous publications by the World Health Organization (WHO) on drug-resistant TB. Taking account of important developments in recent years, the new guidelines aim to disseminate consistent, up-to-date recommendations for national TB control programmes and medical practitioners on the diagnosis and management of drug-resistant TB in a variety of geographical, political, economic and social settings. The guidelines can be adapted to suit diverse local circumstances because they are structured around a flexible framework approach, combining a consistent core of principles and requirements with various alternatives that can be tailored to the specific local situation. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Division of Emerging and Other Communicable Diseases, 1997. , 30 p. (WHO/EMC/ DIS/97.7)Ebola virus causes the acute viral syndrome known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF). Named after a river in northern Zaire (now Congo) where it was first discovered in 1976, Ebola is morphologically related to the Marburg virus recognized in 1967, but is antigenically distinct. EHF is a severe disease, with or without haemorrhagic symptoms, characterized by person-to-person transmission through close contact with patients, dead bodies or infected body fluids. The potential for explosive nosocomial infection in health care centres with poor hygiene standards constitutes its main threat to public health. The case fatality rate of EHF is over 50%; there are no individual preventive treatments or vaccines available although supportive care, particularly proper rehydration, significantly reduces the number of deaths. The epidemic potential of EHF can be prevented through proper management in health care centres, such as rapid investigation and strict follow-up of contacts, patient isolation and the rigorous use of universal precautions. (excerpt)
Atlanta, Georgia, United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], National Center for Infectious Diseases, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Special Pathogens Branch, 1998 Dec. , 198 p.This manual describes a system for using VHF Isolation Precautions to reduce the risk of transmission of VHF in the health care setting. The VHF Isolation Precautions described in the manual make use of common low-cost supplies, such as household bleach, water, cotton cloth, and plastic sheeting. Although the information and recommendations are intended for health facilities in rural areas in the developing world, they are appropriate for any health facility with limited resources. The information in this manual will help health facility staff to: 1. Understand what VHF Isolation Precautions are and how to use them to prevent secondary transmission of VHF in the health facility. 2. Know when to begin using VHF Isolation Precautions in the health care setting. 3. Apply VHF Isolation Precautions in a large-scale outbreak. (When a VHF occurs, initially as many as 10 cases may appear at the same time in the health facility.) 4. Make advance preparations for implementing VHF Isolation Precautions. 5. Identify practical, low-cost solutions when recommended supplies for VHF Isolation Precautions are not available or are in limited supply. 6. Stimulate creative thinking about implementing VHF Isolation Precautions in an emergency situation. 7. Know how to mobilize community resources and conduct community education. (excerpt)
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 1997. 130,  p. (WHO/EMC/DIS/97.1)This manual presents the WHO Recommended Standards for the surveillance of communicable diseases. Its purpose is to be a handy reference for key elements and contact information for all communicable diseases associated with the existing WHO control programs. It serves as a useful tool at the Ministry of Health level in Member States, in approaching integrated surveillance of communicable diseases. It will also increase mutual awareness of recommended surveillance standards between WHO Divisions and Programs. The diseases and syndromes are organized in alphabetical order for easy reference. For each disease or syndrome there is a description of the rationale for surveillance, case definition, types of surveillance, minimum data elements, data analyses and principal uses of data for decision making. In addition, the relevant WHO contacts are included with contact details. A list of surveillance definitions is also provided in an annex as a first attempt to propose a common terminology for surveillance related terms. Following the introduction is a brief overview of the method proposed for developing a national plan for communicable disease surveillance.