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Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2012. 8 p. (FWC/MCA/12.1)The purpose of this Framework is to provide guidance to governments on key priority actions, related to infant and young child feeding, that cover the special circumstances associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The aim of this guidance is to create and sustain an environment that encourages appropriate feeding practices for all infants and young children, while scalingup interventions to reduce HIV transmission. This Framework aims to build on the links and synergies between maternal and child health and investments, economic and human, in HIV prevention and control. This will bring additional benefits for all children, The Framework’s purpose and target audience not just for those who are HIV-exposed. The audience for this Framework includes national policy-makers, programme managers, regional advisory bodies, public health authorities, Country Coordinating Mechanisms, United Nations staff, professional bodies, nongovernmental organizations and other interested stakeholders, including the community. The current document is an update of the previous Framework, published in 2003, and has been developed in response to both evolving knowledge and requests for clarification from these key sectors. It is based on the latest HIV and infant feeding recommendations; the previous Framework no longer applies.
Training manual to fight trafficking in children for labour, sexual and other forms of exploitation. Textbook 1: Understanding child trafficking.
Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Organization, 2009. 51 p.This training manual is aimed at governments, workers, employer's groups, nongovernmental organizations, and international agencies working for children. It can be used in a training environment and as a stand-alone resource for those who wish to hone their understanding and skills in efforts to end child trafficking.
Training manual to fight trafficking in children for labour, sexual and other forms of exploitation. Textbook 2: Action against child trafficking at policy and outreach levels.
Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Organization, 2009. 48 p.This book focuses on actions that can be taken to prevent trafficking, protect children from being trafficked, pursue traffickers, and support trafficked children to rebuild their lives. These recommendations are categorized under four main headings commonly used to describe anti-trafficking actions: Broad protection: to prevent children and former victims from being (re)trafficked; Prevention: of the crime of child trafficking and the exploitation that is its end result; Law enforcement: in particular within a labor context and relating to labor laws and regulations; Victim assistance: covering the kinds of responses necessary to help trafficked children and to reduce their vulnerability to being re-trafficked.
Pediatrics. 2008 Apr; 121(4):e984-92.Deficiencies in the quality of health care are major limiting factors to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals for child and maternal health. Quality of patient care in hospitals is firmly on the agendas of Western countries but has been slower to gain traction in developing countries, despite evidence that there is substantial scope for improvement, that hospitals have a major role in child survival, and that inequities in quality may be as important as inequities in access. There is now substantial global experience of strategies and interventions that improve the quality of care for children in hospitals with limited resources. The World Health Organization has developed a toolkit that contains adaptable instruments, including a framework for quality improvement, evidence-based clinical guidelines in the form of the Pocket Book of Hospital Care for Children, teaching material, assessment, and mortality audit tools. These tools have been field-tested by doctors, nurses, and other child health workers in many developing countries. This collective experience was brought together in a global World Health Organization meeting in Bali in 2007. This article describes how many countries are achieving improvements in quality of pediatric care, despite limited resources and other major obstacles, and how the evidence has progressed in recent years from documenting the nature and scope of the problems to describing the effectiveness of innovative interventions. The challenges remain to bring these and other strategies to scale and to support research into their use, impact, and sustainability in different environments.
An introduction to the Human Trafficking Assessment Tool: an assessment tool based on the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime.
Washington, D.C., American Bar Association [ABA], Central European and Eurasian Law Initiative [CEELI], 2005 Dec.  p.Trafficking in persons is one of the most prevalent crimes today involving severe human rights violations. Governments, non-governmental groups, and international organizations have recognized trafficking as a contemporary form of slavery and have initiated a campaign encouraging states to criminalize such conduct, protect affected victims, and develop measures to prevent this phenomenon. Traffickers may be individuals, organized crime groups, or public officials who exploit people as commodities, buying and selling them for profit. Their victims are men, women, and children of various ages and backgrounds, all of whom have one characteristic in common: they are vulnerable to exploitation due to poverty, lack of education, discrimination, or other socio-economic factors. Although trafficking is a crime and a human rights violation regardless of the victim's gender or age, the problem has a disproportionate impact on women and girls. The exploitative purposes of trafficking include but are not limited to: prostitution; forced labor or services; slavery or slave-like practices; servitude; removal of organs. Within the context of inter-state and internal conflict, trafficking in persons is a form of enslavement that qualifies as a crime against humanity. It should be emphasized that trafficking in persons rises to the level of a crime against humanity solely during wartime. During peacetime, trafficking is an independent crime involving various human rights violations. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2006.  p.Even though children living with HIV/AIDS respond very well to treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART), to date few children living with HIV/AIDS have access to ART mostly due to a lack of cheap feasible diagnostic tests for infants, lack of affordable child-friendly ARV drugs and lack of trained health personnel. This course aims to address the issue of lack of trained personnel. With an ever increasing burden of HIV and a high percentage of children infected, health workers urgently require accurate, up to date training and information on assessment and management of HIV in children. The IMCI complementary course on HIV is designed to assist health workers to assess, classify, treat and follow up HIV exposed infants and children, to identify the role of family and community in caring for the child with HIV/AIDS and also to enhance health workers' skills in counseling of caretakers around HIV/AIDS. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2006.  p.There is thus an increased awareness of the problem of child maltreatment and growing pressure on governments to take preventive action. At the same time, the paucity of evidence for the effectiveness of interventions raises concerns that scarce resources may be wasted through investment in well-intentioned but unsystematic prevention efforts whose effectiveness is unproven and which may never be proven. For this reason, the main aim of this guide is to provide technical advice for setting up policies and programmes for child maltreatment prevention and victim services that take into full account existing evidence on the effectiveness of interventions and that use the scientific principles of the public health approach. This will encourage the implementation of scientifically testable interventions and their evaluation. It is hoped that, in this way, the guide will contribute to a geographical expansion of the evidence base to include more evaluations of interventions from low-income and middle-income countries, and a greater variety of evaluated interventions. The long-term aim is to be able to prepare evidence-based guidelines on interventions for child maltreatment. (excerpt)
Manila, Philippines, WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific. 2006.  p.The World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Committee for the Western Pacific at its fifty-fourth session adopted resolution WPR/RC54.R9 that strongly urged Member States to place child health higher on their political, economic and health agendas and to allocate and utilize financial resources from all available sources to match the burden of childhood disease. This prompted a new drive to reduce child mortality in Member States, particularly in areas of greatest need. The renewed commitment and emphasis on childhood mortality reduction warrants a regional strategy for child survival that accommodates the most important life-saving interventions and leads to a childhood mortality reduction in the Region in line with the MDG. Action is required through resource mobilization, stronger outcome orientation, advocacy and monitoring that addresses the existing limitations in human and financial resources that currently prevent optimizing the delivery of life-saving interventions to improve child survival. WHO and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) have joined forces to develop this strategy. The document is intended for governments of Member States, policy-makers and partner agencies. This joint WHO/UNICEF Regional Child Survival Strategy was endorsed by the fifty-sixth session of the WHO Regional Committee for the Western Pacific. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2006.  p. (WHO/HTM/ TB/2006.371; WHO/FCH/CAH/2006.7)This document complements existing national and international guidelines and standards for managing TB, many of which include guidance on children. It fills the gaps in the existing materials and provides current recommendations based on the best available evidence. National and regional TB control programmes may wish to revise and adapt this guidance according to local circumstances. This document reflects two important recent policy changes. Firstly, NTPs should record and report two age groups for children (0--4 years and 5--14 years) using the quarterly reporting form. Routine reporting of these two age groups has considerable benefits. Enumerating children with TB is a key step in bringing their management into the mainstream of the Stop TB Strategy as part of routine NTP activities. This age breakdown is crucial in ordering drugs (since child-friendly formulations are particularly important in children aged 0--4 years) and in monitoring of trends in these two distinct age groups (since children aged 0--4 years are the most vulnerable and infection at these early ages indicates recent transmission). In addition, routine NTP data collection will provide valuable and sustainable information on market needs concerning child-friendly formulations of anti-TB drugs. Secondly, the revised recommended dose of ethambutol is now 20 mg/kg (range 15--25 mg/kg) daily. Although ethambutol was previously often omitted from treatment regimens for children, due in part to concerns about toxicity (particularly optic neuritis), a literature review indicates that it is safe in children at this dose. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2005 Jul.  p.Since its inception, UNICEF has provided life-saving assistance and assured protection for children in emergencies - both natural and man-made. Guiding UNICEF's response in humanitarian situations is the principle that children in the midst of natural disasters and armed conflict have the same needs and rights as children in stable situations. Emergencies have grown increasingly complex and their impact is especially devastating on the most vulnerable. In health and nutrition, water and sanitation, protection, education and HIV/AIDS, UNICEF's Core Commitments for Children in Emergencies are not merely a mission statement - they are a humanitarian imperative. UNICEF will keep these commitments and ensure a reliable, timely response in emergencies. The Core Commitments also provide a framework within which we work with our key national, United Nations and non-governmental partners to provide humanitarian assistance. This handbook has been developed as a practical tool for UNICEF field staff to meet the needs of children and women affected by disasters. It is the result of extensive consultation. We urge you to use it as an essential reference tool and to share it with our key partners. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Division of Child Health and Development, 2002 Sep 3. 34 p.CHECK FOR GENERAL DANGER SIGNS: ASK: Is the child able to drink or breastfeed? Does the child vomit everything? Has the child had convulsions? LOOK: See if the child is lethargic or unconscious. (excerpt)
Technical updates of the guidelines on Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI): evidence and recommendations for further adaptations.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2005.  p.It is over seven years since IMCI has been introduced and much has been learnt through the adaptation and implementation processes in countries. The Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development (CAH) and other institutions have undertaken work to evaluate the evidence base for the technical guidelines of the IMCI strategy. Research results are emerging with potential implications for updating the technical guidelines of IMCI. In 2001 CAH, jointly with Roll Back Malaria, organized a technical consultation to examine the evidence base for the IMCI strategy for the management of malaria and other febrile illnesses including measles and dengue haemorrhagic disease. This international consultation came up with recommendations to improve the guidelines, as well as specific recommendations for operational research. Following the technical consultation, CAH held a series of meetings within the Department at HQ in addition to consultations with regional office staff where the updating process was discussed. In 2004 it was recommended that CAH finalize the IMCI updates on the basis of the best available evidence and country programme feedback, prioritizing those updates most likely to reduce child mortality. (excerpt)