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The role of men and boys in the fight against HIV / AIDS in the world of work. Preliminary issues paper.
[Unpublished] 2003. Prepared for the United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW) in collaboration with International Labour Organization (ILO), Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS (UNAIDS), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Expert Group Meeting on “The Role of Men and Boys in Achieving Gender Equality”, Brasilia, Brazil, October 21-24, 2003. 23 p. (EGM/Men-Boys-GE/2003/WP.3)HIV/AIDS is a cross-cutting issue for the ILO, and it is being mainstreamed into all major ILO activities. As HIV/AIDS is a major cause of poverty and discrimination, it is aggravating existing problems of inadequate social protection and gender inequality. The fight against HIV/AIDS requires significant attention to gender issues to guarantee progress. The labour force is being particularly affected by the impact of the pandemic. The majority of those who die of AIDS are adults in their prime - workers in their most productive years. In 1999, for example, 80 per cent of newly infected people in Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia were aged between 20 and 49. Projections made by the ILO indicate that the labour force in 15 African countries will be 10 to 32 per cent smaller by 2020 than it would have been without HIV/AIDS. Many of those infected with HIV are experienced and skilled workers in blue-collar and white-collar jobs, from managers to car mechanics, from producers of food to teachers and doctors. The loss of huge numbers of skilled personnel is having serious effects on the ability of nations to remain productive and deliver basic services. (excerpt)
Paris, France, UNESCO, 2005. 48 p.HIV/AIDS has reached crisis proportions in many parts of the world, particularly in Southern Africa. To curb its spread, political leaders as well as health care and development specialists and practitioners have made concerted efforts to generate awareness and introduce education relating to this disease. Nevertheless, despite the abundance and availability of educational programmes aimed at the general public on HIV/AIDS, people in poor countries are dying faster than ever before, especially in Southern Africa. This puzzle leaves observers asking questions, such as "Why is this happening?", "Why has the infection rate increased?", "Are the educational materials reaching the right people?", "Are they affecting people who are at greatest risk?", "What is missing or wrong with them?", and "Where are the information gaps?". (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 2003 Dec; 40(4): p..The media, as an important agent of socialization in the modern world, either support or contest cultural conceptions, and have a significant impact on the social construction of gender. The media's effects operate at the level of gender belief systems, affecting individual "beliefs and opinions about males and females, and about the purported qualities of masculinity and femininity". The mass media have been found to play a critical role in maintaining the gender-power imbalance, "passing on dominant, patriarchal/sexist values". But such a situation is not inherent in the nature of media. They can instead be agents of development and progress if guided by clear, socially relevant policies. Their hoped-for positive contribution to women's advancement will only take place in the context of a framework that clearly defines policy objectives, maps out actions and decisions which comprise the particular policy, defines the minimum standards to be met by all participants in the process, and provides mechanisms for assessing progress towards policy objectives. (excerpt)
Programming for male involvement in reproductive health. Report of the meeting of WHO Regional Advisors in Reproductive Health, WHO / PAHO, Washington DC, USA, 5-7 September 2001.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2002.  p. (WHO/FCH/RHR/02.3)Research has shed some light on the gaps in our knowledge of reproductive health issues as they relate to men, but we have little information about programmatic issues and how such research could improve programme operation and service delivery. WHO Country Offices are often consulted by programme managers and policy-makers for advice on strategies for including men in the delivery of reproductive health services. It was proposed that the meeting of WHO Regional Advisers and Directors of Reproductive Health for 2001 focus on the design, success stories, lessons learned and research recommendations for programmes that aim to include men in reproductive health. Regional experiences, case studies, systematic reviews, research highlights and model projects representing a variety of regions were presented at the meeting by a select group of experts working in the field, Regional Offices, collaborating agencies, programme managers, and researcher institutions. Among these were several experts and individuals who had participated in RHR-funded studies at the global or the regional level. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2001 Oct.  p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection - Key Material; UNAIDS/01.64 E)Engaging men as partners is a critical component in AIDS prevention and care as, in many contexts, men are the decision-makers in matters related to reproductive and sexual health. As reflected in the theme of the World AIDS Campaign of 2000-Men Make a Difference-men's roles and responsibilities in relation to the health of their female partners have a significant bearing on the course of the epidemic. The work of UNAIDS in this field has three broad objectives: motivating men and women to talk more openly about sex, sexuality, drug used and HIV/AIDS; encouraging men to take greater care of themselves, their partners and families; and promoting programmes that respond to the needs of both men and women. It is important that work with men and boys should not seek to replace work with women and girls, but rather complement it. Parallel programmes for men and boys are crucial in ensuring that men protect not only their own health but also the health of their families. By working in partnership with men, rather than apportioning blame, it is hoped that men can finally begin to be seen as part of the solution rather than part of a problem. Twelve projects were selected because they demonstrated such a perspective and represented a diverse range of interventions with men. It was believed that an analysis of their strategies and lessons learned would generate common ground on men's needs, associated with HIV/AIDS and their general health, and would provide insights into effective approaches for working with men. (excerpt)
Working with adolescent boys: programme experiences. Consolidated findings from regional surveys in Africa, the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, South-East Asia, and Western Pacific.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, 2000.  p. (WHO/FCH/CAH/00.10)The survey and this report seek to contribute to the understanding of working with adolescent boys in health and health promotion. Pursuant to this purpose, the consultants contacted programmes working in health promotion with adolescent boys in four regions of the world. These contacts did not aspire to include all of the programmes which are working with adolescent boys in these regions, nor do they necessarily represent a random sample of those programmes. Where possible, the survey included a relatively small but representative number of organizations working with adolescent boys in other regions. The organizations were identified via colleague organizations, WHO regional and local offices, the literature review, personal contacts of the survey authors and via non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working in health/health promotion. As detailed below, the survey sought to gather information in a dozen specific areas of interest by means of a questionnaire, which was translated into Spanish and Arabic. Programme staff were requested to fill out the questionnaire and return it to the consultants. (excerpt)
Child support as a strategic interest: la Asociación de Madres Demandantes of El Salvador. [La cuota alimenticia como interés estratégico: Asociación de Madres Demandantes de El Salvador]
Gender and Development. 2003 Jul; 11(2):60-69.Among certain social sectors in El Salvador, couples have not necessarily engaged informal marriages. But with the economic and political crisis of the 1980s, many poor Salvador women were left with the sole financial responsibility for their children. With the 'modernisation' of the state in the post-war period, more of those women began to seek the assistance of the state in securing child support. This paper looks at the process that women had to go through to access that support and explores how Mujeres pot La Dignidad y La Vida (Women for Dignity and Life), afeminist organisation created out of the Salvadoran civil war, mobilised women to challenge institutionalised gender roles reflected in that process. The conflicts that arose within the new organisation they formed, the Asociacion de Madres Demandantes (Association of Mothers Seeking Child Support), highlight thedifferent interests of the women being organised and those organising them. These conflicts were intensified by the policies of donor organisations that supported the work of the Association. (author's)
Capacity building in reproductive health programmes focusing on male involvement: a South-to-South framework.
In: Programming for male involvement in reproductive health. Report of the meeting of WHO Regional Advisers in Reproductive Health, WHO / PAHO, Washington DC, USA, 5-7 September 2001. Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2002. 115-129. (WHO/FCH/RHR/02.3)The issue of male involvement in reproductive health is enigmatic. It has traditionally been held that men's role and voice are decisive in the family building process and reproductive health outcomes of both males and females. At the same time, against the backdrop of recent and ongoing experience, men also have been characterized as the neglected half in the pertinent programmes, playing a tangential role relative to women. Within this general area, the present paper explores the opportunities for capacity building in reproductive health programmes, keeping in view some critical areas where male involvement appears to be especially relevant. The exercise is undertaken in light of lessons learned in the South-to- South framework of inter-country sharing and exchange of experience in the field. Possible institutional strengthening towards increased and effective male involvement is considered in order to address capacity-building needs at the level of policy makers, programme managers, service providers and clients. (author's)
In: Programming for male involvement in reproductive health. Report of the meeting of WHO Regional Advisers in Reproductive Health, WHO / PAHO, Washington DC, USA, 5-7 September 2001. Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2002. 85-87. (WHO/FCH/RHR/02.3)The World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa has identified reproductive health as a priority area in the delivery of health care services in the African region. This is in response to the persistently high levels of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality and infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The long-term vision of the Organization in the region on reproductive health is to ensure that every woman goes safely through pregnancy and childbirth and infants are born alive and healthy. In pursuance of this vision, the reproductive health strategy for the African region was developed in 1998. The strategy is aimed at assisting member states and partners to identify priorities and plan their programmes and interventions at various levels, particularly at the district level. Male involvement and participation is one of the strategic directions of the reproductive health strategy for the African region. The opportunities and challenges for the involvement of men in reproductive health programmes in the African region are described and the future perspectives highlighted. (author's)
Male involvement in a reproductive health programme: where we stand today. A critical review of the initiatives taken in India.
In: Programming for male involvement in reproductive health. Report of the meeting of WHO Regional Advisers in Reproductive Health, WHO / PAHO, Washington DC, USA, 5-7 September 2001. Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2002. 58-62. (WHO/FCH/RHR/02.3)Since ICPD Cairo (1994), male involvement in reproductive health has become a fashionable topic and is mentioned in most forums addressing the issues of reproductive health, gender equity and empowerment of women. Very little however, is known about how to enhance male involvement. Given the patriarchal social structure of South Asian countries, bringing about changes which strive to enhance male involvement and the gender equity this implies, is not easy. Against this backdrop, it is interesting to take a look at how the Ministry of Health and Family Planning, Government of India (MOH&FP), which is committed to implementing ICPD Programme of Action, is addressing these issues. What efforts have been made either by government or by NGOs to involve men in reproductive health and safe motherhood and what results have been achieved? Are innovative and replicable model(s) to enhance male involvement available? (author's)
In: Programming for male involvement in reproductive health. Report of the meeting of WHO Regional Advisers in Reproductive Health, WHO / PAHO, Washington DC, USA, 5-7 September 2001. Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2002. 88-103. (WHO/FCH/RHR/02.3)Health sector priorities are ideally set according to a number of variables, including: burden of disease; whether effective and proven ‘solutions’ are available; and the calculated cost-effectiveness of those solutions. In the case of sexual health services, we argue in this paper that this conceptual framework is useful for programme planning, but needs to take into account one important additional element: the client’s perspective. We further argue that the sexual health of men in south Asia can not be adequately addressed unless men’s beliefs about their bodies, men’s health priorities, and men’s sexual health concerns are evaluated, interpreted and acted upon. Services which do not correspond to men’s own perceived sexual health needs are unlikely to attract men as clients, and thus remove many of the opportunities for male involvement in other aspects of reproductive and sexual health prevention and care. Men’s own sexual health priorities may not correspond exactly with the priorities of public health programmes; we therefore discuss how the two sets of concerns may be reconciled and men brought more equitably into programmes. Finally, we outline areas which may be of particular concern to programme managers if this approach is adopted. (author’s)
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2003. 46, 6 p. (UNFPA Programme Advisory Note)This document is intended to help UNFPA country staff plan national programmes, develop strategies and projects, review progress made, and assess the soundness of their strategies. It illustrates how one can increase men’s involvement in reproductive health issues through research, advocacy, behaviour change communication and education, policy dialogues and well-tailored and innovative reproductive health services. It starts by defining partnering with men and providing a rationale for this approach from the standpoint of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). A framework for selecting essential elements of such a programme is then described. Examples are provided of ways in which UNFPA has supported a partnering approach, followed by a summary of lessons learned. A matrix of sample outputs and their indicators provides options for defining and measuring results. Additional resources are also provided for information on gender, masculinities, adolescent boys, education, services, working with special populations, and research on partnering with men. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNDP, . 4 p.There is also a need for greater insight into why and how men and women enter into sexually-defined spaces and relations. For women, this may have to do with cultural imperatives which place high value on mother-hood and on the continuation of the lineage. Or the reason may have to do with economic imperatives, an inability to survive economically without the support of a man or except by commercial sex work. Or with a desire for the intimacy or companionship which a sexual relationship may give them or with a need for protection, a critical social role that men play. A women-centered analysis of desire and sexuality, of power and its impact, of relations of production and reproduction, of the social construction of kinship and gender, of the value of compassion and solidarity, that is, of the experience of being a woman, all contribute to a better understanding of why, for an individual woman, it may be so very difficult to remain uninfected. (excerpt)
Gender and HIV / AIDS: leadership roles in social mobilization. Report of the UNFPA-organized break-out panel, African Development Forum, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 3-7 December 2000.
New York, New York, UNFPA, . , 32 p.The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) was responsible for the breakout session on gender and HIV/AIDS, entitled "Gender and HIV/AIDS: Leadership Roles in Social Mobilization." Held on 5 December 2000, this session took the form of a panel group discussion chaired by Ms. Virginia Ofosu-Amaah, Director, UNFPA Africa Division, New York. Panellists included Mr. Martin Foreman, Director, The Panos AIDS Programme, London; Ms. Ngozi Iwere, Nigeria; Ms. Jane Wambui Kiragu, Executive Director of the Federation of Women Lawyers, Kenya; Ms. Wariara Mbugua, Chief, UNFPA Gender Issues Branch, Technical Support Division, New York; and Ms. Marcela Villarreal, Chief, FAO Population Programme Service, Rome. The rapporteurs were Ms. Miriam Jato, Ms. Mere N. Kisekka and Mr. Opia M. Kumah, Advisers, UNFPA Country Technical Services Team in Ethiopia. The session was well attended, and many in the audience actively participated in the discussions by sharing their experiences and providing suggestions to deal with the issues. What follows is a summary of key points and recommendations that arose from the panel discussions on "'Gender and HIV/AIDS: Leadership Roles in Social Mobilization", together with the presentations made by the panellists, which form the major part of this report. Also included is an outline of issues related to youth perspectives on gender and HIV/AIDS presented by a young participant from Liberia. Each of the presentations includes conclusions and recommendations. (excerpt)
Delegates' guide to recent publications for the International Conference on Population and Development.
Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs, 1994. , 75 p.The chapters of this listing of recent publications correspond to the chapters in the Draft Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Thus, publications are grouped under the headings: 1) interrelationships between population, sustained economic growth, and sustainable development; 2) gender equality, equity, and empowerment of women; 3) the family and its roles, composition, and structure; 4) population growth and structure; 5) reproductive rights, sexual and reproductive health, and family planning; 6) health, morbidity, and mortality; 7) population distribution, urbanization, and internal migration; 8) international migration; 9) population, development, and education; 10) technology, research, and development; 11) national action; 12) international cooperation; and 13) partnership with the nongovernmental sector. There are no entries that correspond to the Programme of Action chapters which present the Preamble, Principles, or Follow-up to the Conference. More than 40 organizations listed publications in this guide and agreed to provide copies free of charge to official ICPD delegates as long as supplies last. A full list of organization names, contact persons, addresses, and telephone and fax numbers is also given.
Maseru, Lesotho, Lesotho Planned Parenthood Association, . , 107 p.The Lesotho Planned Parenthood Association is a private voluntary organization whose objectives are to assist government and other agencies in motivating and educating the public to understand and accept family planning and to provide family planning services to potential acceptors. It has the full support of the government of Lesotho, including the King, Moshoeshoe II. The Association also receives financial support from the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Projects were implemented during 1987 under all of the 4 major strategies of the Association: to rationalize and upgrade the Association's management capacity; to promote wider family planning awareness, acceptance, and practice; to reach specific groups with family life education; and to develop resources toward financial self-reliance. 4 management development seminars and several management workshops were organized and held. Family planning services continued to be offered in 7 government hospitals and 2 rented facilities, and community-based distribution of contraceptives continued. Family planning program awareness efforts were intensified through house and office visits, maternal-child health/family planning clinics, and other methods; and seminars were held for chiefs and church leaders. Efforts were made to recruit additional volunteers through various social functions. Field workers gave educational lectures at several industrial and business locations to try to motivate more men to participate in family planning, and a workshop was held for training teachers in family life education. Fund raising activities were only partially successful, since only 2/3 of the target sum was reached. 2 major events of 1987 were the finalization of the Personnel Management Policy Manual and the procurement of a loan for the building project from the Lesotho Building Finance Corporation. Overall, 1987 was not a successful year for program implementation, due partly to poor budgeting and management problems and a high rate of staff turnover within the Association and partly to external factors, including the severity of the winter and the return of the striking miners from South Africa, which caused widespread unemployment in Lesotho.
St. John's, Antigua, CFPA, 1987. 39 p.In the 1920s 1/3 of the children in the Caribbean area died before age 5, and life expectancy was 35 years; today life expectancy is 70 years. In the early 1960s only 50,000 women used birth control; in the mid-1980s 500,000 do, but this is still only 1/2 of all reproductive age women. During 1987 the governments of St. Lucia, Dominica and Grenada adopted formal population policies; and the Caribbean Family Planning Affiliation (CFPA) called for the introduction of sex education in all Caribbean schools for the specific purpose of reducing the high teenage pregnancy rate of 120/1000. CFPA received funds from the US Agency for International Development and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities to assist in its annual multimedia IEC campaigns directed particularly at teenagers and young adults. CFPA worked with other nongovernmental organizations to conduct seminars on population and development and family life education in schools. In 1986-87 CFPA held a short story contest to heighten teenage awareness of family planning. The CFPA and its member countries observed the 3rd Annual Family Planning Day on November 21, 1987; and Stichting Lobi, the Family Planning Association of Suriname celebrated its 20th anniversary on February 29, 1988. CFPA affiliate countries made strides in 1987 in areas of sex education, including AIDS education, teenage pregnancy prevention, and outreach programs. The CFPA Annual Report concludes with financial statements, a list of member associations, and the names of CFPA officers.
Involving men in sexual and reproductive health is no easy task: a youth promoter from INPPARES, Peru gives his perspective. [La participación de los hombres en la salud sexual y reproductiva no es fácil: perspectiva de un promotor de INPPARES que trabaja con jóvenes en Perú]
Forum. 2001 Jan; 15(1):8-9.In many parts of the world, men conceptualize that everything that has to do with sexual and reproductive health and related services are geared towards women. In this regard, the International Planned Parenthood Federal/Western Hemisphere Region encouraged its affiliates to foster male participation, offer services to men and involve them in sexual and reproductive health education. The Clinic for Men which was developed by the Peruvian Institute for Responsible Parenthood (INPPARES) is the only clinic in Peru that offers sexual and reproductive health specifically for men. Moreover, the program was developed to include quality, male specific services, as well as discussion groups, educational campaigns and other activities. It is reported that the increase in the number of male clients by more than 100% is due to the male-specific services that had existed in the clinic. The success of this clinic inspires INPPARES to expand the services. Although there are still obstacles that hinder men from seeking services, INPPARES takes the opportunity to make these men informed about the benefits of preventive health.
Fostering male involvement and partnership: a stepwise process, reproductive health through advocacy.
PROMOTION & EDUCATION.. 1999; 6(2):16-9.The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) emphasized the key role of men in the attainment of sexual and reproductive health for both men and women. The participation of men in discussions about reproductive health is important in order for them to appreciate its benefits to women as well as to themselves. The UNFPA (UN Population Fund) has formulated three steps to establish the role of men as partners in reproductive health. These are: 1) identifying the issues and challenges, 2) identifying and categorizing key audiences and stakeholders, and 3) involving stakeholders in the advocacy implementation process. The three main issues relating to advocacy for male involvement are 1) fostering a favorable policy environment, 2) re-orienting services to meet the needs of men, and 3) nurturing a supportive sociocultural climate. The audiences and stakeholders for advocacy may be grouped into four categories--beneficiaries, partners, adversaries, and decision makers. The direct beneficiaries of male involvement and partnership in reproductive health are men themselves. The partners and allies for male involvement programs include many international donor and technical assistance agencies that support male involvement programs. The opposition to male involvement comes from conservative male-dominated traditional and religious institutions. They fear that changing traditional gender roles in reproductive health will unravel time-tested family and community relation structures. The promotion of male partnership in reproductive health results from encouraging men to participate in advocacy. Inclusion of representatives of male-oriented associations helps in advocacy efforts aimed at involving men. Coalitions and networks are also important in the implementation of advocacy programs.
PROMOTION & EDUCATION.. 1999; 6(2):20-3.This paper focuses on the involvement of men in reproductive health programs in the United Republic of Tanzania through an advocacy/IEC (information, education, and communication) project. This project was funded by the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) together with the Organization of Tanzanian Trade Unions (OTTU). Its goal was to gather support and build partnerships and coalitions with groups that had been unresponsive to reproductive health issues involving men. The project s five strategies are 1) gaining management consent, 2) interpersonal communication and education, 3) peer education, 4) work-based services, and 5) collection of data using a baseline survey. The baseline survey was conducted in 1994 in order to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices associated with reproductive health, family planning and family welfare issues among male wage earners (factory and plantation workers) in Tanzania. Results revealed a high awareness rating (about 90%) of family planning and of knowledge of modern methods. 94.3% of the respondents stated that they would allow the use of contraception if their wives health was in danger. In relation to condom usage, 85% reported STD prevention as the primary reason for its use. Furthermore, 99% responded that peer education had been useful to them and their families. It may be concluded that this project not only strengthened communication about reproductive health matters between spouses but also promoted active male participation in reproductive issues.
SEXUAL HEALTH EXCHANGE. 1998; (3):4.Two decades of Family Planning Association of Hong Kong (FPAHK) advocacy of husband-wife communication and cooperation in family planning led Hong Kong's population to finally accept the notion of male responsibility in family planning. Recent surveys have documented high rates of male contraceptive use. The FPAHK established its first clinic to provide men with birth control advice and services in 1960, then set up a vasectomy clinic and installed condom vending machines. Working against prevailing traditional beliefs that childbearing is the exclusive domain of women and that vasectomy harms one's health, the FPAHK began campaigns to motivate men to take a positive and active role in family planning and to correct misinformation on vasectomy. Successful FPAHK efforts to stimulate male support for family planning include the 1977 "Mr. Family Planning" campaign, the 1982 "Family Planning - Male Responsibilities" campaign, and the 1986-87 "Mr. Able" campaign. Although these campaigns ended in the 1980s, men may now be counseled on contraception at 3 of the 8 FPAHK-run birth control clinics.
SEXUAL HEALTH EXCHANGE. 1998; (3):2-4.Many men in Ghanaian society have the final say in couples on whether or not to use contraception, the type of contraceptive to use, how many children to have, and when to have them. However, despite their important roles in families and family planning decision-making, men have long been overlooked by family planning programs. Not including and accommodating men in family planning programs impedes men's access to family planning services and limits women's ability to make full use of available reproductive health services. Planned Parenthood Association of Ghana (PPAG) field workers organized male workers of the Prestea Oil Palm Plantation in the western region of Ghana into a "daddies' club" and provided them with indoor recreational games as an entry point for discussions of family planning and other reproductive health issues. In 1980, PPAG created the Male Involvement in Family Planning project to increase male participation in family planning and other reproductive health issues. The project now covers 7 of the country's 10 regions and by the end of 1997, operated through 19 daddies' clubs, 24 industrial centers, 9 garage associations, 13 drivers' unions, 3 national vocational training institutes, 5 artisan's groups, 32 functional literacy facilitators, 4 young men's clubs, and an agricultural college. Members' recreational activities have generated discussions on reproductive health issues.
IPPF AND CAIRO PLUS 5. 1998 Oct; (5):1.An increasing number of women throughout the world are working towards their own empowerment. However, women cannot do it alone; they need the support and participation of men. Male involvement in family planning does not merely mean the increasing use of contraceptives. It encompasses joint responsibility on all issues concerning the reproductive and sexual health of women, as well as shared child care. IPPF believes that further progress in family planning is dependent upon the attitudes and behavior of men. The Federation, guided by its strategic plan, Vision 2000, has supported a shift in the emphasis of Family Planning Association (FPA) programs from delivery services geared only toward women, to services that also involve men. (full text)
IPPF AND CAIRO PLUS 5. 1998 Oct; (5):1.Male awareness, involvement and responsibility are crucial for the well being and development of women. In most societies men still exercise a great deal of power, whether as policy makers in government or as decision makers within families. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994 went further than any previous UN meeting in promoting gender quality and urging men's participation in making it a reality. Chapter 4 of the ICPD Programme of Action calls on governments and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to encourage and enable men to take responsibility for their sexual and reproductive behavior and for their social and family roles in order to ease the burden on women. It also urges increased efforts to involve men in family planning and responsible parenthood. (full text)
New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University School of Medicine, International Health Dept., 1997 Spring. iv, 154 p.The UN Children's Fund (UNICEF), in collaboration with Yale University, researched the role of men in families to facilitate decision making about the inclusion of men in child health and development programs. To date, UNICEF's programs have addressed mothers and children, not parents. Research methodologies included an extensive literature search, a survey of international development agencies, and a review of program experiences in countries such as Jamaica, Zimbabwe, and Viet Nam. Paternal involvement in children's lives has been associated with greater self-esteem, higher educational achievement, more secure gender identification, and greater success in life. Moreover, increased involvement of men in child care leads to greater equality between men and women. Proposed is a family development model that emphasizes all the pathways by which children are influenced by the adult members of their environment, regardless of gender. The factors that have prevented many fathers from participating more fully in their children's lives should be assessed. Responsible parenting skills that will enhance the qualities of the father should be promoted. Other contextual recommendations include hospital-based parenting programs that address the needs of parents, development of local fatherhood projects, fathers' groups and support groups for teen fathers, and institutional support for paternal leaves of absence for child care purposes. It is concluded that men should be acknowledged for their ability and, generally, their desire to become more active participants in the parenting process. They must be held accountable for their children's health and development. UNICEF can play a central role in reconceptualizing the father's role in the family and in current and future child health programs.