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  1. 1
    082853
    Peer Reviewed

    Male fertility regulation: the challenges for the year 2000.

    Waites GM

    BRITISH MEDICAL BULLETIN. 1993 Jan; 49(1):210-21.

    The search for new, safe, effective, and reversible contraceptive methods for men as pursued by several agencies and probable future developments until the year 2000 is reviewed. A WHO consultation between vasectomy and the risk of cancer of the prostate or testis is unlikely and changes in family planning policies are unwarranted. Research in China has led to the ligation of the vas by percutaneous injection of sclerosing agents through a puncture opening. The suppression of secretion of either both luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or of FSH alone; the recovery of circulating androgen to physiological levels; and the assessment of the functional capacity of residual sperm. Hormonal methods comprise the contraceptive efficacy of testosterone enanthate-induced azoospermia and oligozoospermia; and gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue-androgen combinations. A large number of non-hormonal chemical agents lead to total spermatogenic arrest and to irreversible sterility. Gossypol was studied as an antifertility agent in clinical studies on more than 8000 Chinese men, but its use for contraception was halted owing to the high incidence of irreversibility and serious side effects such as hypokalemia. Among drugs and plant products for inhibition of sperm maturation, Chinese investigation showed that a multiglycoside extract of the plant Tripterygium wilfordii caused reductions in sperm motility and concentration in patients. A program established between Chinese, Thai, and UK centers aims to isolate pure compounds extracted from the plant for antifertility actions. In regard to contraceptive vaccines, passive or active immunization against FSH has resulted in significant decreases in sperm counts in macaque monkeys with inconsistent effects on fertility.
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  2. 2
    041926

    Association for Voluntary Sterilization - Consultant Team. Trip report: the People's Republic of China, Beijing, Chongqing, Wuhan, Guangzhou, June 19-30, 1985.

    Huber D; Fathalla M; Gojaseni P; Goldstein M; Lippes J; Minor K; Rauff M; Sciarra J; Rauff A

    [Unpublished] 1985. 41, [6] p.

    The Association for Voluntary Sterilization consultant team visited Beijing, Chongqing, Wuhan and Guangzhou, China in June 1985, to review innovative nonsurgical methods of male and female sterilization. There are 2 variations on vasectomy, performed with special clamps that obviate a surgical incision. The 1st is a circular clamp for grasping the vas through the skin, and the 2nd is a small, curved, sharp hemostat for puncturing the skin and the vas sheath, used for ligation. Vas occlusion with 0.02 ml of a solution of phenol and cyanoacrylate has been performed on 500,000 men since 1972. The procedure is done under local anesthesia, and is controlled by injecting red and blue dye on contralateral sides. If urine is not brown, vasectomy by ligature is performed. The wound is closed with gauze only. Semen analysis is not done, but patients are advised to use contraception for the 1st 10 ejaculations. Pregnancy rates after vasectomy by percutaneous injection were reported as 0 in 5 groups of several hundred men each, 11.4% in 1 group and 2.4% in another group. The total complication rate after vasectomy by clamping was 1.8% in 121,000 men. 422 medical school graduates with surgical training have been certified in this vasectomy method. Chinese men are pleased with this method because it avoids surgery by knife, and asepsis, anesthesia and counseling are excellent. Female sterilization by blind transcervical delivery of a phenol-quinacrine mixture has been done on 200,000 women since 1970 by research teams in Guangzhou and Shanghai. A metal cannula is inserted into the tubal opening, tested for position by an injection of saline, and 0.1-0.12 ml of sclerosing solution is instilled. Correct placement is verified by x-ray, an IUD is inserted, and after 3 months a repeat hysteroscopy is done to test uterine pressure. Pregnancy rates have been 1-2.5%, generally in the 1st 2 years. Although this technique is tedious, requiring great skill and patient cooperation, it can be mastered by paramedicals. The WHO is assisting the Chinese on setting up large studies on safety and effectiveness, as well as toxicology studies needed, to export the methods to other countries.
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