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  1. 1

    Association for Voluntary Sterilization - Consultant Team. Trip report: the People's Republic of China, Beijing, Chongqing, Wuhan, Guangzhou, June 19-30, 1985.

    Huber D; Fathalla M; Gojaseni P; Goldstein M; Lippes J; Minor K; Rauff M; Sciarra J; Rauff A

    [Unpublished] 1985. 41, [6] p.

    The Association for Voluntary Sterilization consultant team visited Beijing, Chongqing, Wuhan and Guangzhou, China in June 1985, to review innovative nonsurgical methods of male and female sterilization. There are 2 variations on vasectomy, performed with special clamps that obviate a surgical incision. The 1st is a circular clamp for grasping the vas through the skin, and the 2nd is a small, curved, sharp hemostat for puncturing the skin and the vas sheath, used for ligation. Vas occlusion with 0.02 ml of a solution of phenol and cyanoacrylate has been performed on 500,000 men since 1972. The procedure is done under local anesthesia, and is controlled by injecting red and blue dye on contralateral sides. If urine is not brown, vasectomy by ligature is performed. The wound is closed with gauze only. Semen analysis is not done, but patients are advised to use contraception for the 1st 10 ejaculations. Pregnancy rates after vasectomy by percutaneous injection were reported as 0 in 5 groups of several hundred men each, 11.4% in 1 group and 2.4% in another group. The total complication rate after vasectomy by clamping was 1.8% in 121,000 men. 422 medical school graduates with surgical training have been certified in this vasectomy method. Chinese men are pleased with this method because it avoids surgery by knife, and asepsis, anesthesia and counseling are excellent. Female sterilization by blind transcervical delivery of a phenol-quinacrine mixture has been done on 200,000 women since 1970 by research teams in Guangzhou and Shanghai. A metal cannula is inserted into the tubal opening, tested for position by an injection of saline, and 0.1-0.12 ml of sclerosing solution is instilled. Correct placement is verified by x-ray, an IUD is inserted, and after 3 months a repeat hysteroscopy is done to test uterine pressure. Pregnancy rates have been 1-2.5%, generally in the 1st 2 years. Although this technique is tedious, requiring great skill and patient cooperation, it can be mastered by paramedicals. The WHO is assisting the Chinese on setting up large studies on safety and effectiveness, as well as toxicology studies needed, to export the methods to other countries.
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  2. 2

    Status of male contraception.

    Asian and Pacific Population Programme News. 1977; 6(4):39.

    At a recent meeting of the IPPF Central Medical Committee (CMC) progress made in developing a male contraceptive was reviewed. The CMC had been given expert advice, and the latest publications on the subject had been put before it. In the light of that up-to-date knowledge, the following statement was issued about the present status of male contraception: "During the last few years several clinical trials have been carried out in order to evaluate the contraceptive effectiveness of some steroidal agents in men. Antiandrogens, androgens, progestins and oestrogens have been tried. Most compounds tested have been found to be able to depress spermatogenesis, but in some cases the occurrence of undesirable side effects has curtailed their potential use as contraceptives. The most promising trials were carried out with combination treatments of an androgen with a progestin. These treatments are effective and relatively well tolerated in short-term use, but acceptability and safety for long-term use have still not been proven. As most male contraceptives areabeing used only on an experimental basis, the CMC cannot recommend their use by family planning associations at present, but sees the development of a safe male contraceptive as highly desirable." The subject will be kept under review at further mettings of the CMC.(FULL-TEXT)
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