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UN Chronicle. 1989 Sep; 26(3): p..Children are paying the third world debt with their lives: that is the alarming news carried in the hard-hitting 1989 "State of the World's Children", issued, symbolically, for the first time in a third world capital--New Delhi, India. More than war, flood or famine, the ravages of poverty have caused at least half a million children to die over the last 12 months, as families in developing countries slide back into poverty as a result of these nations' crushing external debt. Two thirds of these deaths have been in Africa, the rest in Latin America, where higher average incomes mask "the grossest inequalities of any continent", UNICEF reports. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1989. 29 p.This 22nd edition of the Atlas presents current economic and social indicators that describe trends, indicate orders of magnitude, and characterize significant differences among countries. This year illiteracy rates, share of agriculture in gross domestic product, and daily calorie supply per capita are presented in the main table, and illiteracy rates rather than school enrollment ratios are charted. The Atlas reveals that real per capita income has risen during the 1980s for the majority of countries. However, more than 10% of the world's population lives in countries where the real gross national product per capita is not growing; more than half live in countries where the average gross national product per capita is still under $500. Relative income levels are also affected by fluctuations in exchange rates and terms of trade, which have been sharp during the decade. Hence the levels and ranking of gross national product per capita estimates have changed in ways not necessarily related to economic performance. The social indicators provide evidence of improved standards of living since the early 1970s. Recent trends are difficult to discern because conditions change gradually and data on these conditions are less current and less frequently gathered.
Bamako, Mali, CERPOD, 1989. 20 p.The 9 countries in the Sahel that are members of the Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS) are Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Chad, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Niger and Senegal. This booklet describes the historical and socio economic background of the CILSS countries and discusses the actual demographic situation, the dismal development problems that the region faces partly due to colonial policies and more recently to the World Bank's structural adjustment policies. A major constraint is that the economy has not developed fast enough to keep up with the rapidly growing population, especially since 46% of all Sahelians are under age 15. The population for the Sahel is estimated at 40 million making-up 7% of Africa's total population; the total fertility rate is 6.5; the growth rate is 3% and doubling the 23 years; the crude birth rate is 47.3/1000; life expectancy is 48.5 and the crude death rate is 17.4/1000; life expectancy is 49, 3 years the average in Africa of 52; infant mortality in 1988 was 143/1000 compared to the world-wide average of 75/1000; child mortality exceeds the infant mortality rate. The population of the Sahel is mostly rural with only Senegal having 40% of its population living in major cities. The least urban countries are Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger where the urban populations represent less that 1.4 of the total. However, if the present trends continue the capitals of the Sahelian countries will continue to grow and expand because of migration from the rural areas. In 1989 the Council of Ministers of CILSS adopted "the N'Djamena Plan of Action on Population and Development in the Sahel" recommending that countries adopt population policies that integrate development issues. In 1988 Senegal was the 1st and only country to adopt an explicit population policy.
Towards a strategy for linking women, population growth, poverty alleviation and sustainable development.
[Unpublished] 1989. Presented at the Regional Conference of African Women Leaders, Nairobi, Kenya, February 8-10, 1989. 24 p.There is a pressing need in Africa to achieve a sustainable balance between population, the environment, and a decent standard of living for all the people. If African women are to play a leadership role in this campaign, clear policies must be instituted to improve their access to education, higher earnings, credit, and health and family planning services. Investing to improve opportunities for women can bring the following benefits: since women produce more than half of Africa's food, effective extension programs can make development programs more productive; such an approach will make development programs more responsive to the poor in that most of the poor in Africa are women and their children; investments in female education in particular can improve family well-being; involving women in natural resource management programs can promote more sustainable use of wood, water, and other resources; and access to family planning services can slow population growth. Better life options for young women would also serve to reduce high rates of teen pregnancy. The World Bank has operationalized this awareness into a program aimed at showing what can be achieved by bringing women into the mainstream of social and economic development in Africa. Initially, the Bank is focusing on a few countries in every region of Africa. The World Bank's program includes: 1) country action plans to develop ways to improve Bank lending in several sectors by more effectively including women; 2) preparation of guidelines and identification of project approaches that address women more effectively in macroeconomic and sectoral analyses; 3) program expansions in agricultural extension services and credit for women; 4) program initiatives to improve the productivity of women entrepreneurs in the informal manufacturing, trade, and services sectors; 5) program expansion in primary, secondary, and technical education for girls and adult women; and 6) the Safe Motherhood Initiative aimed at reducing maternal mortality and morbidity.