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Bangkok, Thailand, United Nations Development Programme, Asia and Pacific Programme for Development Training and Communication Planning, 1980. 4 p. (Notes for Project Formulators No. 6; NPF No. 506; UNDP Regional Project RAS/81/111)This paper outlines 4 possible roles that can be performed by an international advisor/consultant. There has been growing skepticism expressed about the effectiveness of such personnel. It is the contention of this paper that this situation in part reflects a lack of understanding on the part of these advisors and consultants as to the role they are to play. When a project work plan calls for the use of an advisor or consultant, these 4 models should be explained to government officials, leading to a definition of what the government actually wants and needs. Then the role required can be carefully explained to candidates during the recruitment process. The purchase of services model implies an expert-for-hire role, with the consultant being called on to perform a specific job such as a feasibility study, the installation of equipment, or the design of a special building. The diagnostic model, also known as the doctor-patient model, calls upon the consultant to diagnose the problem and recommend treatment. Generally this model does not include any transfer of capabilities to the government on how to analyze its own problems in the future. The professional education/training model is focused on the task of human resource development and requires familiarity with training methodology. Finally, the change agent or process consultation model is based on helping the government or agency improve its problem-solving and decision-making capabilities so that reliance on outsiders is eventually decreased. This model is considered most appropriate for longterm advisors. It is noted that it is possible for an advisor to perform the role of more than 1 of these models during the duration of an as assignment.
[Unpublished] .  p. (XA/01472/00)The Regional Population Communication Unit for Africa, operational in Nairobi, Kenya in September 1974, and a sub-unit operational since 1977 in Dakar, Senegal, work closely with the population education office in Dakar and with other international, regional, and subregional organizations which are active in population, family planning research, rural development, women, youth, and educational matters. In the years ahead, the Regional Unit will concentrate its efforts on assisting individual member states in addition to activities at regional or subregional levels, which are considered by member states to have a multiplier effect. The Unit's main objectives include: to assist national governments in the development of their communication plans, policies, and projects in support of their population/family planning and overall development programs; to work out with regional and international organizations or agencies a practical and effective system of coordinating communication and education activities in support of population and development communication programs at the national, subregional, and regional levels; to develop regional and national institutions for training, research, and development of appropriate communication materials; and to establish a population communication clearinghouse to serve as an exchange center for population and development communication programs in the region. The immediate objectives are to assist member states in their quest for self sufficiency in the training and development of manpower in the field of population; to provide member states with technical support in the development of their population activities; to promote the exchange of information, experience, materials, and know-how in the region; to develop and evaluate innovative communication approaches, which could improve the performance of national programs; to develop, pretest, produce, and evaluate a variety of prototype educational materials for use at the national level; and to improve the capacity of the Regional Population Communication Unit to assist in providing advisory services to national governments. The Unit's program of activities concentrates on 4 areas at both national and regional levels -- training, research and studies, media development, and technical assistance and advisory services. The activities of the Unit are geared to provide support for existing projects and programs, study tours, regional specialized workshops, and seminars and participation in the training seminars and workshops. Training programs provided by the Unit include seminars, workshops, and conference on development support communication. The training strategy emphasizes training as a continuing activity.
[Stockholm, Sweden], ISO, 1980 Oct 1. 4 p. (International Standard ISO 4074/9; Ref. No. ISO 4074/9-1980 (E))This determination of tensile properties of rubber condoms reviews the scope and field of application, principle, apparatus, the preparation of sample specimens, the procedure, expression of results, and the test report. Part 9 of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4074 specifies a method for the determination of the tensile properties of rubber condoms. The test is only applicable to condoms having a sufficiently large smooth area no more than 90 mm from the open end from which a test piece 20 mm in width can be obtained. The principle is: cutting of a test piece from a condom and stretching it until it breaks and, following this, measuring of the tensile force and elongation. The apparatus include cuting die, micrometer dial guage, and tensile testing machine. The condom shall be laid flat with its length at right angles to the cutting edges of the die and the test piece shall be obtained by cutting, with 1 stroke of the press, from a region 80 mm from the open end. Only test pieces which have been completely separated at the 1st attempt shall be used. The procedure involves: measure, to the nearest 0.001 mm, the single wall thickness of the test piece at not less than 4 equivalent points around the ring; dust the test piece with talcum powder, lat it flat, and measure, to the nearest millimeter, the distance between the 2 folded edges; place the test piece over the rollers and stretch it until it breaks; and at break, measure the load, to the nearest 0.1 N, and the separation distance (between the centers of the rollers) to the nearest millimeter. The test report shall include: the identification of the sample the number of samples tested; the tensile strength and elongation at break of each test piece; and the date of testing.