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  1. 1
    321266

    State of world population 2006. A passage to hope: women and international migration.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2006. [111] p.

    Today, women constitute almost half of all international migrants worldwide - 95 million. Yet, despite contributions to poverty reduction and struggling economies, it is only recently that the international community has begun to grasp the significance of what migrant women have to offer. And it is only recently that policymakers are acknowledging the particular challenges and risks women confront when venturing into new lands. Every year millions of women working millions of jobs overseas send hundreds of millions of dollars in remittance funds back to their homes and communities. These funds go to fill hungry bellies, clothe and educate children, provide health care and generally improve living standards for loved ones left behind. For host countries, the labour of migrant women is so embedded into the very fabric of society that it goes virtually unnoticed. Migrant women toil in the households of working families, soothe the sick and comfort the elderly. They contribute their technical and professional expertise, pay taxes and quietly support a quality of life that many take for granted. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    286928

    UNFPA resources looking upbeat for 2005.

    Population 2005. 2004 Dec; 6(4):16.

    UNFPA’s resources were boosted in the closing weeks of 2004 and prospects for 2005 appear brighter than anticipated. That is the upbeat assessment by UNFPA Executive Director Thoraya Ahmed Obaid. The view is to some extent rooted in cross-currency exchange rates but is also based on the latest announcements received from a number of donor countries. At most recent count, core resources for 2004 stood at $325 million with another $80-$100 million in non-core funds. In 2005, the core contributions may reach $ 340 million, while some of the new non-core commitments will be directed to the promotion of reproductive health commodity security (RHCS) in developing countries. RHCS is an initiative pursued by UNFPA, a leading player in the effort, in collaboration with other partner organizations. Its aim is to help developing countries institutionalize the capacity to predict and then to meet requirements for supply of stocks of essential drugs and contraceptives. Of greater urgency, however, is the Fund’s concern about filling existing gaps in supplies of these commodities in the least developed countries. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    279149
    Peer Reviewed

    Why AIDS in South Africa threatens stability and economic growth in other parts of Africa.

    Singh JA

    Lancet. 2004 Nov 27; 364:1919-1920.

    South Africa’s rise to pre-eminence on the African continent since holding its first multiracial elections in 1994 is underscored by its status as, among others, the continent’s largest economy, one of its leading investors, and chief sponsor of regional conflict resolution, and by its selection in 2004 as host of the inaugural African Parliament. The past decade has also seen South Africa become the largest contributor of personnel to peacekeeping operations in Africa and one of the continent’s chief sources of donor aid. Given South Africa’s primacy in these arenas, the latest report from the UNPF is cause for concern. The Fund projects a negative population growth for South Africa for the first time, mainly because of AIDS. The effect of AIDS has mostly been considered in country-specific contexts. If the UNPF’s projection proves true, the AIDS pandemic will likely not only threaten South Africa’s prosperity and population growth, but could also compound the threats posed by AIDS, poverty, and military conflicts in many other parts of the African continent. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    055213

    Updated guidelines for UNFPA policies and support to special programmes in the field of women, population and development.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Special Unit for Women, Population and Development

    [Unpublished] 1988 Apr. [2], 8 p.

    The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) has been mandated to integrate women's concerns into all population and development activities. Women's status affects and is affected by demographic variables such as fertility, maternal mortality, and infant mortality. Women require special attention to their needs as both mothers and productive workers. In addition to integrating women's concerns into all aspects of its work, the Fund supports special projects targeted specifically at women. These projects have offered a good starting point for developing more comprehensive projects that can include education, employment, income generation, child care, nutrition, health, and family planning. UNFPA will continue to support activities aimed at promoting education and training, health and child care, and economic activities for women as well as for strengthening awareness of women's issues and their relationship to national goals. Essential to the goal of incorporating women's interests into all facets of UNFPA programs and projects are training for all levels of staff, participation of all UNFPA organizational units, increased cooperation and joint activities with other UN agencies, and more dialogue with governmental and nongovernmental organizations concerned with the advancement of women. Specific types of projects to be supported by UNFPA in the period ahead are in the following categories: education and training, maternal health and child care, economic activities, awareness creation and information exchange, institution building, data collection and analysis, and research.
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  5. 5
    040281

    [Workshop on Sensitization of Communication Professionals to Population Problems, Dakar, 29 August, 1986 at Breda] Seminaire atelier de sensibilisation des professionnels de la communication aux problemes de population, Dakar du 25 au 29 Aout 1986 au Breda.

    Senegal. Ministere du Plan et de la Cooperation

    Dakar, Senegal, UNICOM, Unite de Communication, 1986. 215 p. (Unite de Communication Projet SEN/81/P01)

    This document is the result of a workshop organized by the Communication Unit of the Senegalese Ministry of Planning and Cooperation to sensitize some 30 Senegalese journalists working in print and broadcast media to the importance of the population variable in development and to prepare them to contribute to communication programs for population. Although it is addressed primarily to professional communicators, it should also be of interest to educators, economists, health workers, demographers, and others interested in the Senegalese population. The document is divided into 5 chapters, the 1st of which comprises a description of the history and objectives of the Communication Unit, which is funded by the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). Chapter 1 also presents the workshop agenda. Chapter 2 provides an introduction to population problems and different currents of thought regarding population since Malthus, a discussion of the utilization and interpretation of population variables, and definitions of population indicators. The 3rd chapter explores problems of population and development in Senegal, making explicit the theoretical concepts of the previous chapter in the context of Senegal. Topics discussed in chapter 3 include the role of UNFPA in introducing the population variable in development projects in Senegal; population and development, the situation and trends of the Senegalese population; socioeconomic and cultural characteristics of the Senegalese population; sources of sociodemographic data on Senegal; the relationship between population, resources, environment and development in Senegal; and the Senegalese population policy. Chapter 4 discusses population communication, including population activities of UNESCO and general problems of social communication; a synthesis and interpretation of information needs and the role of population communication; and a summary of the workshop goals, activities, and achievements. Chapter 5 contains annexes including a list of participants, opening and closing remarks, an evaluation questionnaire regarding the workshop participants, and press clippings relating to the workshop and to Senegal's population.
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  6. 6
    037960

    [Population and development in the Republic of Zaire: policies and programs] Population et developpement en Republique du Zaire: politiques et programmes.

    Zaire. Departement du Plan. Direction des Etudes Macroeconomiques

    [Unpublished] 1986. Presented at the All-Africa Parliamentary Conference on Population and Development, Harare, Zimbabwe, May 12-16, 1986. 9 p.

    The 1st census of Zaire, in July 1984, indicated that the population of 30 million was growing at a rate of at least 2.3%/year. The crude birth rate was estimated at 46/1000 and was believed to be higher in urban areas than in rural because of better health and educational conditions. The crude death rate was estimated at 16/1000 and the infant mortality rate at 106/1000. 46.5% of the population is under 15. The population is projected to reach 34.5 million in 1990, with urban areas growing more rapidly than rural. Zaire is at the stage of demographic transition where the gap between fertility and mortality is very wide. The consequences for national development include massive migration and rural exodus, unemployment and underemployment, illness, low educational levels, rapid urbanization, and increasing poverty. In the past decade, Zaire has undertaken a number of activities intended to improve living conditions, but as yet there is no explicit official policy integrating population and development objectives. In 1983, the Executive Council of Zaire organized a mission to identify basic needs of the population, with the assistance of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). In 1985, the UNFPA developed a 5-year development plan. The UNFPA activities include demographic data collection, demographic policy and research, maternal-child health and family planning, population education, and women and development. In the area of data collection, the 1st census undertaken with UNFPA help has increased the availability of timely and reliable demographic data. The vital registration system is to be improved and a permanent population register to be developed to provide data on population movement. A National Population Committee is soon to be established to assist the Executive Council in defining a coherent population policy in harmony with the economic, social, and cultural conditions of Zaire. Demographic research will be conducted by the Demographic Department of the University of Kinshasa and the National Institute of Statistics. A primary health care policy has been defined to increase health coverage to 60% from the current level of 20%. Zaire has favored family planning services integrated with the primary health care system since 1979. At present 2 components of the Desirable Births" program are underway, the Desirable Births Service Project undertaken in 1983 and the Rural Health Project undertaken in 1982, both executed by the Department of Public Health with financing provided by US Agency for International Development. The RAPID (Resources for the Analysis of the Impact of Population on Development) program has been used since 1985 to inform politicians, technicians, and planners. Efforts have been underway since 1965 to include women in the development process, and a new family code is being studied which would give better protection to some rights of women and children.
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  7. 7
    273136

    National Symposium on Labour and Population Policies, New Delhi, 15-18 April 1974: report.

    India. Ministry of Labour; International Labour Office [ILO]

    New Delhi, India, Continental Printers [1975]. 210 p.

    This is a report of the National Symposium on Labor and Population Policies organized by the Ministry of Labor in New Delhi from April 15-18, 1974. It was held with the active participation of the Department of Family planning and in collaboration with the International Labor Organization (ILO) with financial assistance from the United Nations Fund for Population Activities, (UNFPA). It brought the workers and employers' organizations of previous conferences to a common forum permitting discussion of the problems already considered by them separately. The Symposium, in which Family Planning Institutions and National Family Planning and Labor Managements also participated had, for its aim, to spell out the precise role to be played by the different aencies and to draw up a specific action program expressing the widest possible agreement of all the concerned parties, so that optimum results could be achieved. Population growth cannot be dealt with in isolation and must be viewed in the context of the overall social and economic policies of the country. However, the impact that unplanned population growth has on socioeconomic development and on well-being of the people cannot be ignored or belittled. The concern of the Symposium was population policies and family welfare planning within the organized sector as an important part of the overall national program.
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  8. 8
    134507

    NFPA sets course for ICPD + 5. [Interview with Nafis Sadik].

    JOICFP NEWS. 1998 Jul; (289):1.

    The UN Population Fund (UNFPA) is currently preparing for ICPD + 5, a conference to assess implementation of the Program of Action 5 years after the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Topics selected for special consideration at ICPD + 5 are adolescent reproductive health, reproductive health and rights, the empowerment of women and male responsibility, the role of civil society in implementing the Program of Action, and the importance of population issues in macroeconomic policies. In the face of rising pregnancy rates and a high incidence of HIV/AIDS among adolescents, many countries still fail to accept the fact that adolescents are engaging in dangerous sex behavior and require good sex education. While all countries have accepted the need for an integrated reproductive health approach, it is important to see if such an approach is implemented in the field. Also, in some countries, the role of men and the status of women are not being addressed as reproductive health issues. UNFPA considers that all members of civil society should work to implement and monitor the Program of Action. Another round-table will emphasize the role of population in economic development. In addition, ICPD + 5 will include technical workshops on such topics as international migration, aging, and reproductive health services in emergency situations. It is hoped that the 1-year-long preparation for the ICPD + 5 will generate more interest and mobilize more resources to implement the Program of Action, and that world population can stabilize at 8.5 billion instead of the projected 10.5 billion.
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  9. 9
    069179

    Interview: Mr. George Walmsley: UNFPA Country Director for the Philippines.

    ASIA-PACIFIC POPIN BULLETIN. 1991 Jun; 3(2):7-11.

    George Walmsley, UNFPA country director for the Philippines, discusses demographic and economic conditions in the Philippines, and present plans to revitalize the national population program after 20 years of only modest achievements. The Philippines is a rapidly growing country with much poverty, unemployment and underemployment, uneven population distribution, and a large, highly dependent segment of children and youths under age 15. Initial thrusts of the population program were in favor of fertility reduction, ultimately changing to adopt a perspective more attuned to promoting overall family welfare. Concurrent with this change also came a shift from a clinic-based to community-based approach. Fertility declines have nonetheless grown weaker over the past 8-10 years. A large gap exists between family planning knowledge and practice, with contraceptive prevalence rates declining from 45% in 1986 to 36% in 1988. Behind this lackluster performance are a lack of consistent political support, discontinuities in program implementation, a lack of coordination among participating agencies, and obstacles to program implementation at the field level. The present government considers the revitalization of this program a priority concern. Mr. Walmsley discusses UNFPA's definition of a priority country, and what that means for the Philippines in terms of resources nd future activities. He further responds to questions about the expected effect of the Catholic church upon program implementation and success, non-governmental organization involvement, the role of information and information systems in the program, the relationship between population, environment and sustainable development, and the status of women and its effect on population.
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  10. 10
    045892

    A world divided.

    Brown LR; Jacobson JL

    POPULI. 1987; 14(1):39-47.

    This reevaluation of the demographic transition theory of Notestein (1945) presents a view of developing countries trapped in the 2nd stage and unable to achieve the economic and social gains counted upon to reduce births. Among the half of the world's countries that have not yet reached the demographic transition, 5 regions have growth rates of 2.2% or more yearly, or 20-fold per century, a are unable to prevent declining living standards and deteriorating ecological life-support systems. These are Southeast Asia (except Japan, China, and possibly Thailand and Indonesia), Latin America, the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East and Africa. In these countries, death rates will begin to rise, reversing the process of demographic transition. Examples of this phenomenon include 7 countries in West Africa with deteriorating agricultural and fuelwood yields, such that a World Bank study concluded that desertification is inevitable without a technological breakthrough. The elements of the life-support system, food, water, fuelwood and forests, are interrelated, and their failure will create "ecological refugees." When economic resources of jobs and income are added to biological resources, conflict and social instability will further hamper implementation of sound population policies. For the 1st time, governments are faced with the task of reducing birth rates as living conditions deteriorate, a challenge requiring new approaches. There are examples, such as China, where broad-based, inexpensive health care systems and well-designed family planning programs have encouraged small families without widespread economic gains. The most needed ingredient is leadership.
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  11. 11
    047220

    The population problem in Turkey (as seen from the perspective of a foreign donor).

    Holzhausen W

    NUFUSBILIM DERGISI/TURKISH JOURNAL OF POPULATION STUDIES. 1987; 9:63-73.

    From the perspective of the UN Fund for Population Activities, Turkey has a population problem of some magnitude. In 1987 the population reached 50 million, up from 25 million in 1957. Consistent with world trends, the population growth rate in Turkey declined from 2.5% between 1965-73 to 2.2% between 1973-84; it is expected to further decrease to 2.0% between 1980 and 2000. This is due primarily to a marked decline of the crude birthrate from 41/1000 in 1965 to 30/1000 in 1984. These effects have been outweighed by a more dramatic decline in the death rate from 14/1000 in 1965 to 9/1000 in 1984. Assuming Turkey to reach a Net Reproduction Rate of 1 by 2010, the World Bank estimates Turkey's population to reach some 109 million by the middle of the 21st century. The population could reach something like 150 million in the mid-21st century. Some significant progress has been made in Turkey in recent years in the area of family planning. Yet, some policy makers do not seem fully convinced of the urgency of creating an ever-increasing "awareness" among the population and of the need for more forceful family planning strategies. Government allocations for Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning (MCH/FP) services continue to be insufficient to realize a major breakthrough in curbing the population boom in the foreseeable future. Most foreign donors do not consider Turkey a priority country. It is believed to have sufficient expertise in most fields and to be able to raise most of the financial resources it needs for development. The UNFPA is the leading donor in the field of family planning, spending some US $800,000 at thi time. Foreign inputs into Turkey's family planning program are modest, most likely not exceeding US $1 million/year. Government expenditures are about 10 times higher. This independence in decision making is a positive factor. Turkey does not need to consider policy prescriptions that foreign donors sometimes hold out to recipients of aid. It may be difficult for foreign donors to support a politically or economically motivated policy of curtailing Turkey's population growth, but they should wholeheartedly assist Turkey in its effort to expand and improve its MCH/FP services. Donors and international organizations also may try to persuade governments of developing countries to allocate more funds to primary education and to the fight against social and economic imbalances. Donors should continue to focus on investing in all sectors that have a bearing on economic development.
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  12. 12
    207610

    Integration of population, human resources, development planning in Thailand.

    International Labour Office [ILO]. Labour and Population Team for Asia and the Pacific [LAPTAP]

    LABOUR AND POPULATION ACTIVITES IN ASIA AND THE PACIFIC. 1987 Mar; (27):2-4.

    The fertility transition in Thailand has been quite dramatic by cross-national standards. There is evidence that the family planning program has played a significant role in the transition, but it is less known to what extent socioeconomic development per se has contributed to the process. There is a growing consensus among population and development professionals that, given an already high contraceptive prevalence rate, the family planning program can not be expected to continue its past contribution to the transition. The long-range objective of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) is to contribute to more effective development policy and planning in Thailand by helping to enhance the capacity of relevant government agencies toward integrating population and human resources factors in development planning. Some of the strategies discussed for the project are: 1) preparatory activities, 2) coordination, 3) functional-awareness raising, 4) policy synthesis and research, 5) training programs, 6) information systems, and 7) research dissemination.
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  13. 13
    050308

    Inventory of population projects in developing countries around the world, 1985/86.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, 1987. xi, 826 p. (Population Programmes and Projects, Volume 2.)

    This inventory of population projects in developing countries shows, at a glance, by country, internationally assisted projects funded, inaugurated, or being carried out by multilateral, bilateral, and other agencies and organizations during the reporting period (January 1985 to June 1986). Demographic estimates such as population by sex and by age group, age indicators, urban-rural population, and population density refer to the year end 1985; other estimates such as average annual change, rate of annual change, fertility, and mortality are 5-year averages for 1985-1990. The dollar value of projects or total country programs is given where figures are available. Chapter I provides information on country programs, and Chapter II deals with regional, interregional, and global programs. Chapter III lists sources, including published sources of information and and addresses for additional information and for keeping up-to-date on population activities. Each country profile includes a statement by Head of State of Government on their government's views regarding population, and views of the government on other population matters.
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  14. 14
    037952

    Speech.

    Sadik N

    [Unpublished] 1986. Presented at the All-Africa Parliamentary Conference on Population and Development, Harare, Zimbabwe, May 12-16, 1986. 7 p.

    The Second African Conference on Population and Development, held early in 1984, marked a decisive stage in African thinking about population. During the 12 years between the 1972 and 1984 conferences, African nations learned in detail about their demographic situation and confronted the ever-increasing costs of development and their lack of physical and administrative infrastructure. In the midst of these and other concerns came the drought, which for over a decade in some parts of the continent has reduced rainfall, dried up rivers, lakes, and wells, and forced millions into flight. It is in this context that population became an African issue. African countries on the whole are not densely populated nor do they yet have very large concentrations in cities. Yet, population emerges as more than a matter of numbers, and there are features which give governments cause for concern. First, the population of most African countries, and of the continent as a whole, is growing rapidly and could double itself in under 25 years. Second, mortality among mothers and children is very high. Third, life expectancy generally is lower in African than in other developing countries. Fourth, urbanization is sufficiently rapid to put more than half of Africa in cities by 2020 and 1/3 of the urban population in giant cities of over 4 million people. The 1984 conference recognized these and other uncomfortable facts and their implications for the future, and agreed that attention to population was an essential part of African development strategy. Strategy is considered in terms of the 4 issues mentioned. First, high rates of growth are not in themselves a problem, but they mean a very high proportion of dependent children in the population. About 45% of Africa's population is under age 14 and will remain at this level until the early years of the 21st century. Meeting the needs of so many children and young adults taxes the ability of every African nation, regardless of how rapidly its economy may expand. Understanding this, a growing number of African leaders call for slower growth in order to achieve a balance in the future between population and the resources available for development. Reducing mortality requires innovation. Among the new approaches to health care are the use of traditional medicine and practitioners in conjunction with modern science and the mobilization of community groups for preventive care and self-help. Health care and better nutrition also are keys to improvement in life expectancy and call for ingenuity and innovation on the part of African governments and communities. Part of the solution to the impending urban crisis must be attention to the viability of the rural sector. The role of the UN Fund for Population Activities in addressing the identified issues is reviewed.
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  15. 15
    038254

    The state of world population 1986.

    Salas RM

    POPULI. 1986; 13(1):5-14.

    Within the next 50 years, the predominantly rural character of developing countries will shift as a result of rapid world urbanization. In 1970 the total urban population of the more developed world regions was almost 30 million more than in the less developed regions; however, by the year 2000 the urban population of developing countries will be close to double that in developed countries. A growing proportion of the urban population will be concentrated in the biggest cities. At the same time, the rural population in developing countries is expected to increase as well, making it difficult to reduce the flow of migrants to urban centers. Although urban fertility in developing countries tends to be lower than rural fertility, it is still at least twice as high as in developed countries. The benefits of urbanization tend to be distributed unevenly on the basis of social class, resulting in a pattern of skewed income and standard of living. Social conditions in squatter settlments and urban slums are a threat to physical and mental health, and the educational system has not been able to keep up with the growth of the school-aged population in urban areas. The problems posed by urbanization should be viewed as challenges to social structures and scientific technologies to adapt with concern for human values. It is suggested than 4 premises about the urbanization process should guide urban planners: 1) urban life is essential to the social nature of the modern world; 2) urban and rural populations should not be conceptualized in terms of diametrically opposed interest groups; 3) national policies will have an impact on urban areas, just as developments in the cities will impact on national development; and 4) the great cities of the world interact with each other, exchanging both trade and populations. The United Nations Family Planning Association stresses the need for 3 fundamental objectives: economic efficiency, social equity, and population balance.
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  16. 16
    038090

    The role of women managers in family planning and population programs.

    Sadik N

    Washington, D.C., Centre for Development and Population Activities, 1986 Apr. 14 p. (CEDPA Tenth Anniversary Lecture Series)

    This discussion of the role of women managers in family planning and population programs begins with an overview of the participation of women in development and population. It then directs attention to the need for women in management, increasing women's role in development programs, and changing attitudes about women's roles. 1 of the major achievements of the Decade for Women has been the recognition by most governments of the need to integrate women more fully into the process of national socioeconomic development. More and more governments are making a concerted effort to increase the participation of women and to integrate them into development. An area in which opportunities for women have not increased as much as they could is in management. The role and involvement of women in population and family planning are particularly important. Family planning programs in many areas of the world are directed to women, involve women, and are utilized by women, yet women are not in the policy-making or management position, deciding what should be done for them. In management, the 5 basic concerns are authority to make decisions, communication within organizations, the opportunity to introduce change, the productivity of the operation, and staff morale. The most important positions for women managers are at the policy-making and decision-making levels, but few women are at those levels in most developing country programs. Women's knowledge of local customs, norms, and needs can be used in designing programs and in selecting methods and services. Many programs now are designed, and family planning methods selected, without a clear understanding of the local situations or local customs. Women managers have the responsibility to educate others about how to design, implement, and evaluate programs and projects that are sensitive to the needs of women. Thus, the family planning sector in particular must involve women in all stages and levels of program design and implementation. The UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) developed some guidelines on women, population, and development following the 1975 conference in Mexico inaugrating International Women's Year. The guidelines call for special attention to the needs and concerns of women and for participation of women in all stages and aspects of the UNFPA program. Since 1984, UNFPA has been examining how it can address the involvement of women in population programs and ways to improve the role and status of women. It tires to suppport projects in 2 major categories: projects aimed directly at improving the role and status of women by increasing their access to educational training and skills development and their participation in the community; and activities aimed at increasing the participation of women in all UNFPA-supported projects, which must be designed with consideration to the needs and concerns of women.
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  17. 17
    200187

    UNFPA assistance and population data.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1986. 1 p.

    Tables culled from a variety of sources in this wall chart present statistics for assistance in thousands of US dollars given in 1969-1984 and 1985 by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities to countries of the world, by country and by region. Variables include total population; children; youth; women; the elderly; the urban population; population density; crude birth rate; crude death rate; population growth rate; total fertility rate; life expectancy at birth; infant mortality rate; government perception of fertility (L-Low, H=High, S=Satisfactory); policies concerning contraceptive usage (A=access limited; B=access not limited and governmental support provided); contraceptive prevalence rate; and GNP per capital in US dollars.
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  18. 18
    035059

    The application of economic-demographic models to development planning.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]. Population Division

    Population Research Leads. 1985; (19):1-15.

    The Population Division's evaluation of the role of population factors in the planning process through the application of economic-demographic models shows that procedures for considering the short and long-term implications of population growth can be significantly improved. The Division's research projects demonstrate that models can help planners to achieve an efficient allocation of scarce resources, set clear-cut national objectives and provide a national sense of political and social purpose. There are many advantages in applying economic-demographic models to development planning in order to integrate population factors within the development process, yet care must be taken in adopting and/or applying a certain model at the national level. Aside from the question of adopting a model, the question of the applicability and application of models is emphasized. The choice of model structure is discussed in terms of 4 major issues: 1) the choice of a central core; 2) the trade-off between simplicity and complexity and the appropriate degree of endogeneity; 3) the choice of a demand or supply orientation; and 4) the criteria for selecting a particular model for use. A representative selection of economic demographic models is presented. Included are the TEMPO (designed to illustrate the benefits of reduced fertility) and Long-Range Planning Models (LAPM--designed to illustrate the implications of policy assumptions for economic development, particularly in regard to health and education), both developed by the US government. Also described are the BACHUE and the UN Fund for Populations Activities (UNFPA)/ Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) models. It is argued that these latter models offer the greatest promise as tools for planning in the ESCAP Region, at the present time. As the BACHUE model is primarily concerned with employment and the distribution of income and the UNFPA/FAO model with agriculture, incorporating both into the planning process could be desirable.
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  19. 19
    032605

    [Ivory Coast: report of the Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance] Cote d'Ivoire: rapport de Mission sur l'Evaluation des Besoins d'Aide en Matiere de Population.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 Sep. viii, 57 p. (Report No. 69)

    Conclusions and recommendations are presented of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) Mission which visited the Ivory Coast from February 20-March 15, 1983 to assess population assistance needs. Ivory Coast officials believe that the population, estimated at 8,034,000 in 1980, is insufficient given the country's economic needs. Its very rapid rate of growth is estimated at over 4.5%/year, of which 1.5% is due to foreign immigration. 42% of the population is urban. The country has undergone exceptional economic growth in the past 2 decades, and the per capita income is now estimated at over $US1000 annually. Social development does not seem to have kept pace, however, and the mortality rate of 15.4/1000 is that of a country with only 1/2 the per capital income. The 1981-85 Ivory Coast Plan proposes a change from a growth economy to a society in which individual and collective welfare is the supreme goal. Up to date data on the size, structure, and dynamics of the population will be needed to aid in preparation of the 1986-90 and 1991-95 plans. A 2nd national population census is planned for 1985. Until the present, rapid population growth had been considered a boon, but problems are arising of massive rural exodus, high rates of urban unemployment coupled with manpower shortages in agriculture, and growing demographic pressure on health, educational, and social infrastructures, especially in the cities. The government has maintained its pronatalist stance, and government health programs have been directed only to mortality and maternal and child health. The need to control fertility and to use birth spacing as a tool to combat maternal and infant mortality is being increasingly felt, and a private family welfare association was able to form in 1979. A policy of maternal and child health encouraging spacing to improve family welfare would probably be welcomed in the Ivory Coast. The Mission recommended that a population policy be formulated which would correspond to the national demographic reality and development objectives. Basic demographic data collection should focus on the 1985 general census, which should have high priority. The civil registration system should be reorganized. A planned migration survey should cover the whole year to take into acconnt seasonal variations, but preparations should not begin until the census is completed. A multiple objective survey could be undertaken in 1988 to determine the nature and scope of interrelationships between demographic variables and economic and sociocultural variables, and a survey of infant mortality on a small sample could be done in 1989. The planned manpower and employment survey should be completed. Population research should receive high government priority. In regard to maternal and child health, the government should take an official position on the problem of birth spacing as a means of combatting maternal and infant deaths. IEC activities should be expanded, and efforts should be made to encourage the participation of women in development.
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  20. 20
    031969

    China: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 May. xii, 156 p. (Report No. 67)

    A Needs Assessment and Program Development Mission visited the People's Republic of China from March 7 to April 16, 1983 to: review and analyze the country's population situation within the context of national population goals as well as population related development objectives, strategies, and programs; make recommendations on the future orientation and scope of national objectives and programs for strengthening or establishing new objectives, strategies, and programs; and make recommendations on program areas in need of external assistance within the framework of the recommended national population program and for geographical areas. This report summarizes the needs and recommendations in regard to: population policies and policy-related research; demographic research and training; basic population data collection and analysis; maternal and child health and family planning services; management training support for family planning services; logistics of contraceptive supply; management information system; family planning communication and education; family planning program research and evaluation; contraceptive production; research in human reproduction and contraceptives; population education and dissemination of population information; and special groups and multisectoral activities. The report also presents information on the national setting (geographical and cultural features, government and administration, the economy, and the evolution of socioeconomic development planning) and demographic features (population size, characteristics, and distribution, nationwide and demographic characteristics in geographical core areas). Based on its assessment of needs, the Mission identified mjaor priorities for assistance in the population field. Because of China's size and vast needs, external assistance for population programs would be diluted if provided to all provincial and lower administrative levels. Thus, the Mission suggests that a substantial portion of available resources be concentrated in 3 provinces as core areas: Sichuan, the most populous province (100,220,000 people by the end of 1982); Guandong, the province with the highest birthrate (25/1000); and Jiangsu, the most densely populated province (608 persons/square kilometer. In all the government has identified 11 provinces needing special attention in the next few years: Anhui, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jilin, Shaanxi and Shandong, in addition to Guangdong, Jiangsu, and Sichuan.
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  21. 21
    199619

    Inventory of population projects in developing countries around the world 1983/84.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, [1984]. x, 731 p. (Population Programmes and Projects, v. 2.)

    The eleventh edition of this inventory shows population projects in developing countries that are funded, inaugurated, or carried out by international, bilateral, nongovernmental, or other agencies from January 1, 1983 - June 30, 1984. Projects funded prior to 1983 and still viable are included whenever possible. Listings are by country and then by organization. Budgets are given where known. Each country section also includes basic demographic data and a brief statement on government population policy. Regional and global sections conclude the volume. Neither developed country activities nor projects funded and executed in the same country are listed. Appendices include a bibliography of information sources, a list of addresses, a bibliography of informative newsletters and journals, and an index.
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  22. 22
    048545

    Guide to sources of international population assistance 1985 (Fourth Edition).

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, [1985]. xi, 428 p. (Population Programmes and Projects, v. 1.)

    The fourth edition of the guide to international population assistance lists multilateral, regional, bilateral, nongovernmental, university, research, and training agencies and organizations that offer financial or technical assistance to population programs in developing countries. The guide is organized by type of agency. Each agency listing includes a description of the mandate of the agency, its population activities, fields of special interest, program areas in which assistance is offered, types of support provided, restrictions, channels and procedures, how to apply for assistances, how programs are evaluated, reports required, and the agency's address. Appendices include a bibliography of current newsletters and journals and index.
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  23. 23
    031976

    Ghana: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 Jul. vii, 59 p. (Report No. 68)

    This report of a Mission visit to Ghana from May 4-25, 1981 contains data highlights; a summary of findings; Mission recommendations regarding population and development policies, population data collection and analysis, maternal and child health and family planning, population education and communication programs, and women and development; and information on the following: the national setting; population features and trends (population size, growth rate, and distribution and population dynamics); population policy, planning, and policy-related research; basic data collection and anaylsis; maternal and child health and family planning (general health status, structure and organization of health services, maternal and child health and family planning activities, and family planning services in the private sector); population education and communication programs; women, youth, and development; and external assistance in population. Ghana gained independence in 1957. The country showed early promise of rapid development. Although well-endowed with natural and human resources, Ghana now suffers from food scarcity, inadequate infrastructure and services, inflation, inequities in income distribution, unemployment, and underemployment. Per capita gross national product (GNP) was $400 in 1981; between 1960-81 the average annual growth of GNP was -1.1%. A high rate of natural increase of the population has compounded development problems by intensifying demands for food, consumer goods, and social services while simultaneously increasing the constraints on productivity. The population, estimated at 13 million in mid-1984, is growing at a rate of 3.25% per annum. Immigration and emigration have contributed to changes in the size and composition of the population. Post-independence development policies favored the urban areas, encouraging a steady rural-to-urban shift in the population. At the same time, worsening socioeconomic conditions spurred the emigration of professional, managerial, and technical personnel and skilled workers. Ghana was the 1st sub-Saharan African nation to establish an official population policy. Since the formulation of the policy in 1969, successive governments have remained committed to its emphasis on fertility reduction while increasing attention to the problems of mortality and morbidity and rural/urban migration. Recognizing the need to intensify the commitment to population policies, the Mission recommends support for a program to further the awareness of policy makers of the relationship between population trends and their areas of responsibility. The Mission recommends the creation of a special permanent population committee and the strengthening of the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning's Manpower division. The Mission also makes the following recommendations: the provision of training, technical assistance, and data processing facilities to ensure the timely provision of demographic data for socioeconomic planning; data collected in the pilot program of vital registration be evaluated before the system is expanded; the complete integration of maternal and child health and family planning and general health services within the primary health care system; and improvement in women's access to resources such as education, training, and agricultural inputs.
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  24. 24
    031173

    The unwanted child of the United Nations?

    Marshall A

    New Internationalist. 1974 May; (15):31-2.

    This article details and defends the role of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). UN involvement in population activities has come under attack by Marxists, Catholics, and other forces. Although the Fund provides assistance for activities in the area of population, including family planning, it is not an agency for world population control. Establishment of a strong UN role in population assistance has not reduced other forms of development assistance. The UNFPA stresses the need for development decision making at the local level and the link between population and development. Assistance is provided only after a request has been made, and no particular view of either problem or solution is imposed. In the 1st 3 years of operation, funds dispersed by the UNFPA increased 10-fold. The steady increase in requests may reflect distrust on the part of governments for bilateral population aid.
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  25. 25
    030796

    Burma: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, UNFPA, 1985 Mar. viii, 68 p. (Report No. 70)

    The UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) is in the process of an extensive programming exercise intended to respond to the needs for population assistance in a priority group of developing countries. This report presents the findings of the Mission that visited Burma from May 9-25, 1984. The report includes dat a highlights; a summary and recommendations for population assistance; the national setting; population policies and population and development planning; data collection, analysis, and demographic training and research;maternal and child health, including child spacing; population education in the in-school and out-of school sectors; women, population, and development; and external assistance -- multilateral assistance, bilateral assistance, and assistance from nongovernmental organizations. In Burma overpopulation is not a concern. Population activities are directed, rather, toward the improvement of health standards. The main thrust of government efforts is to reduce infant mortality and morbidity, promote child spacing, improve medical services in rural areas, and generally raise standards of public health. In drafting its recommendations, whether referring to current programs and activities or to new areas of concern, the Mission was guided by the government's policies and objectives in the field of population. Recommendations include: senior planning officials should visit population and development planning offices in other countries to observe program organization and implementation; continued support should be given to ensure the successful completion of the tabulation and analysis of the 1983 Population Census; the People's Health Plan II (1982-86) should be strengthened through the training of health personnel at all levels, in in-school, in-service, and out-of-country programs; and the need exists to establish a program of orientation to train administrators, trainers/educators, and key field staff of the Department of Health and the Department of Cooperatives in various aspects of population communication work.
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