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ASIA-PACIFIC POPIN BULLETIN. 1991 Jun; 3(2):7-11.George Walmsley, UNFPA country director for the Philippines, discusses demographic and economic conditions in the Philippines, and present plans to revitalize the national population program after 20 years of only modest achievements. The Philippines is a rapidly growing country with much poverty, unemployment and underemployment, uneven population distribution, and a large, highly dependent segment of children and youths under age 15. Initial thrusts of the population program were in favor of fertility reduction, ultimately changing to adopt a perspective more attuned to promoting overall family welfare. Concurrent with this change also came a shift from a clinic-based to community-based approach. Fertility declines have nonetheless grown weaker over the past 8-10 years. A large gap exists between family planning knowledge and practice, with contraceptive prevalence rates declining from 45% in 1986 to 36% in 1988. Behind this lackluster performance are a lack of consistent political support, discontinuities in program implementation, a lack of coordination among participating agencies, and obstacles to program implementation at the field level. The present government considers the revitalization of this program a priority concern. Mr. Walmsley discusses UNFPA's definition of a priority country, and what that means for the Philippines in terms of resources nd future activities. He further responds to questions about the expected effect of the Catholic church upon program implementation and success, non-governmental organization involvement, the role of information and information systems in the program, the relationship between population, environment and sustainable development, and the status of women and its effect on population.
In: Adjustment with a human face, Vol. II: country case studies, edited by Giovanni Andrea Cornia, Richard Jolly, and Frances Stewart. Oxford, England, Clarendon Press, 1988. 238-71.This chapter discusses Sri Lanka's macroeconomic policies between 1978- 84. During the 1970's Sri Lanka emerged as a developing country whose social progress outpaced its per capita income. This was due to its 3 major social and welfare policies: 1) food subsidies; 2) free education; and 3) free health care. Because of the lack of workable economic policies, the economy stagnated leading in 1977 to the need for structural adjustment policies (SAP's) to improve the economy and the Government's allocation of resources. The new SAP policies focused on the following reforms: 1) exchange rate and changes in tariff structures replaced by systems of quotas, licenses and controls; 2) abolition of public sector monopolies, price controls and subsidies; 3) encouragement of exports and diversification of products and industries; 4) incentives for domestic agricultural production; and 5) development of capital-intensive projects with incentives and tax benefits granted to the public sector. Sri Lanka's economic growth may not be "sustainable" since it is dependent on foreign donors. None of the economic reforms since 1977 have led the country towards a more self- reliant economy requiring less dependence on foreign aid. The social indicators reflect increases in malnutrition, especially in the rural areas and deterioration in the quality of health care services nationwide.
Rome, Italy, FAO, 1988. 33 p. (FAO Project INT/86/PO8)The objectives of this activity module for community groups, produced by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the UN, include developing an awareness of the relationships between population factors and employment, income, and the quality of life. Also examined are factors that influence decisions about rural-to-urban migration and how development and utilization of resources may increase future employment opportunities. The basic concepts of the relationship between rapid population growth and land use and between lessened employment opportunities and crime, are illustrated through 3 activities. Activity 1 instructs a group leader on conducting a group discussion on the employment/income expectations of the members. Subjects covered include lack of experience, lack of training, lack of capital, lack of education, and sexual stereotypes, all of which hinder productive employment. Activity 2 is designed to provoke discussion about rural-to-urban migration by having participants draw the house they would like to have someday. In the 3rd activity, an income-generating project for a youth group--making roofing tiles from rubber tires--is planned and implemented. Background information about the aims and objectives of each activity, and how it relates to African life, is provided for the group leader.
NEW INTERNATIONALIST. 1988 Oct; (188):32.One of Africa's most rural and densely populated countries, Burundi is a landlocked nation in Central Africa. The 4.9 million people are 85% Hutus, agricultural people of Bantu origin. However, the Hutus are excluded from power by the minority Tutsis, and the 2 groups have engaged in violent conflict. After a military coup in 1987, a new president, Major Pierre Buyoya, was installed, but restrictions on the Hutus continue. The major difference in Burundi has been a relaxation of restrictions on the Catholic church, which were severe under the former President Bagaza. Most Hutus are Catholic, with a minority of Muslims. For the peasant farmer, faced with diminishing arable land and reliance on 1 export crop (coffee), life is becoming more difficult. An expansion of sugar production was planned to reduce reliance on coffee, although the government has a rather ambivalent approach to development. While promoting private sector development with the help of the World Bank and the U.S. government, the Burundi government maintains a rigid 1-party system with strict control over the lives of the people. Infant mortality stands at 196/1,000 live births and life expectancy is low--43 years for women and 40 years for men. The literacy rate is low (39% for men, 15% for women), and the GNP per capita is low ($230). Most land is used for subsistence crops such as cassava, bananas, sweet potatoes, maize, pulses, and sorghum.
BACKGROUND NOTES. 1988 Mar; 1-8.The Republic of Kuwait occupies an area of 6,880 square miles at the head of the Persian Gulf, bounded on the north and west by Iraq and on the south by Saudi Arabia. 1.7 million people live in Kuwait, of whom 680,000 are Kuwaitis; the rest are expatriate Arabs, Iranians, and Indians. The annual growth rate of Kuwaitis is 3.8%. The Kuwaitis are 70% Sunni and 30% Shi'a Muslims. Arabic is the official language, but English is widely spoken. Kuwait is a highly developed welfare state with a free market economy. Education is free and compulsory, and literacy is 71%. Infant mortality among Kuwaitis is 26.1/1000, and life expectancy is 70 years. Medical care is free. Kuwait was first settled by Arab tribes from Qatar. In 1899 the ruler, Sheikh Mubarak Al Sabah, whose descendents still rule Kuwait, signed a treaty with Britain; and Kuwait remained a British protectorate until it became independent in 1961. A constitution was promulgated in 1962, and a National Assembly was elected by adult male suffrage in 1963. However, the Assembly has since been suspended due to internal friction. Kuwait and Iraq have been disputing Kuwait's northern border since 1913, and the southern border includes a Divided Zone, where sovereignty is disputed by Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. Despite the fall in oil prices in 1982 and the loss of trade due to the Iran-Iraq war, Kuwait is one of the world's wealthiest countries with a per capita gross domestic product of $10,175. Oil accounts for 85% of Kuwait's exports, which total $7.42 billion; income from foreign investments (about $60 billion) makes up most of the balance. All petroleum-related activities are managed by the Kuwait Petroleum Corporation (KPC), which includes the nationalized Kuwait Oil Company, petrochemical industries, the 22-vessel tanker fleet, and refineries and service stations in Europe, where Kuwaiti oil is marketed under the brand name Q8. Kuwait has more than 66 billion barrels of recoverable oil but limits production to 999,000 barrels per day. Other industrial products include ammonia, chemical fertilizers, fishing and water desalinization (215 million gallons a day). Kuwait imports machinery, manufactured goods, and food. Nevertheless exports exceed imports by $2 billion, and the Kuwaiti dinar is a strong currency (1 KD=US$3.57). About $75 billion is kept in 2 reserve funds: the Fund for Future Generations and the General Reserve Fund. In addition to domestic expenditures and imports, Kuwait has extended $5 billion worth of loans to developing countries, made through the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development. Kuwait has been engaged in continuing border disputes with Iraq since 1961, but the most immediate threat to Kuwait has been the Iran-Iraq war. Kuwait lent Iraq $6 billion, in retaliation for which Iran bombed a Kuwaiti oil depot, and Shi'a Muslim terrorists bombed the French and US embassies and hijacked a Kuwaiti airliner in 1984. Iran also attacked Kuwaiti tankers. In 1987 the US reflagged 11 Kuwaiti tankers to protect them from Iranian attacks. Kuwait has been modernizing its own military forces as well as purchasing sophisticated weapons from the UK, the US, France, and the USSR. In 1981 Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Oman formed the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) for mutual defense, and in 1987 Kuwait was elected chairman of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). Kuwait has diplomatic relations with the USSR and the People's Republic of China, as well as with the US, which has supplied Kuwait with $1.5 billion of sophisticated weaponry from foreign military sales (FMC). The US is Kuwait's largest supplier (after Japan), and Kuwait is the 5th largest market in the Middle East for US goods, despite the disincentives brought about by the Arab boycott of Israel.
Paris, France, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD], 1988. 90 p. (Demographic Change and Public Policy)This is the first in a planned series of volumes published by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) concerning the economic and social consequences of demographic aging in OECD member countries. "This detailed statistical analysis of demographic trends in the 24 OECD countries examines the implications for public expenditure on education, health care, pensions and other social areas, and discusses the policy choices facing governments." Data are from official sources. (EXCERPT)
POSTGRADUATE MEDICAL JOURNAL. 1986; 62(724):93-6.Breastfeeding has been on the decline in the 3rd world for the past 20 years or so. Modernization has been blamed, yet in the industrialized nations of Sweden, Britain, and the US, women play significant roles in the labor force, are active in professional and public life, and in most Western nations the educated women and those from the professional and upper classes are most likely to breastfeed their babies. Regarding milk substitutes, many products unacceptable in the Western market are on sale in developing nations. In the absence of strong governmental controls, consumer pressure, and professional vigilance, bottle feeding is taken lightly with disasterous consequences. 3 main dangers have been identified: those arising from the nonavailability of protective substances of breast milk to the infant; those arising from the contamination of the feed in a highly polluted environment of poverty and ignorance of simple principles of hygiene; and those arising from overdilution of feeds on the account of the costs of the baby foods. Market forces and competition led the manufacturers of baby foods to stake their claims to the markets of the 3rd world, and almost all of them adopted undesirable promotional methods. The ensuing uproar led to an International Code of Ethics being adopted at the 33rd world Health Assembly under the auspices of the World Health Organization. Although the matter should have rested there, some manufacturers developed their own codes and have persuaded governments to adopt alternative codes. The present situation with regard to infant feeding in the 33rd world should be considered in the context of the international developments identified and also in light of several social and demographic processes. At the current rates of growth in population up to 80% of humanity will be living in the 3rd world by the end of the 20th century. The 2nd demographic phenomenon of social and political significance is the unprecedented increase in the growth of the urban population with national health and social services failing to respond adequately to the challenge of this growth. In many developing countries national planners and economists are beginning to look upon human milk as an important national resource, and the need for a network of services to ensure the nutrition and health of pregnant and lactating women is obvious and is recognized internationally. With regard to the question of adequacy of breast milk, there are many gaps in knowledge. Each community needs to be studied separately, and those involved in scientific research in 1 environment should resist the temptation of extrapolating the results to communities and societies with a different set of circumstances.
UNESCO/IPDC Regional Seminar on the Media and the African Family, Livingstone, Zambia, 6-10 January 1986. Report.
[Unpublished] 1986 Jan. v, 63 p.A seminar was planned and conducted by UNESCO's Population Division during January 1986 to promote increased media attention to issues which affect family stability and welfare. Especially important are the social, economic, and health problems created by high rates of population growth, urbanization, and migration. The seminar intended to give participants an opportunity to: examine the changing characteristics and emergin problems of the African family; review and appraise both past and current efforts on the part of the media to promote understanding of the interrelationships between socioeconomic conditions and family welfare, composition, stability, and size; and develop plans to increase the involvement and effectiveness of the media in promoting understanding of these interrelationships and in enabling families to make decisions and take action to enhance their welfare and stability. This report of the seminar is presented in 2 sections. The 1st section presents the participants' review of the changing nature of the African family over recent decades and the socioeconomic and sociocultural problems which have emerged as a consequence of these changes. Additionally, the 1st section reviews the extent to which communication systems in the region have tried to deal with the population related issues which affect family welfare. A "Communication Plan of Action" is proposed by the participants as a logical outcome of their 2 analyses and as a synthesis of their recommendations for the manner in which communication systems in the region must develop in order to meet ongoing and future population-family life changes. The Plan of Action identifies the following strategies as necessary to realize the increased involvement of the media in family issues and problems: institutionalizing population family life content within the curricula of media training institutions within the region; intensifying preservice and inservice training of media personnel to enable them to deal effectively with the demographic, social, and economic issues which impinge upon family welfare; highlighting population family life communication matters; ensuring that research on population family life issues be widely disseminated to media personnel and media based organizations; sensitizing political and administrative decisionmakers to population family life issues so that media communication can be supported and opportunities for media coverage can be extended; emphasizing in national development plans the importance of the media in generating public awareness of and response to the constraints placed upon national development and improved family welfare by rapid population growth and large-scale urban migration; and encouraging the involvement of community organizations in media programs. The 2nd section of the report includes the participants examination of the communication planning process.
EDUCAFRICA: BULLETIN OF THE UNESCO REGIONAL OFFICE FOR EDUCATION IN AFRICA. 1985; (12):1-234.This book discusses the strategy of the systematic introduction of population and family life education programs into the education systems of developing countries. The objectives of this type of education are not only to create awareness among learners of the linkages between population factors and peoples's standards of living, but also to encourage national decision-making and actions in ways that are personally meaningful and socially desirable. This issue presents a number of ideas from practitioners in the population and family life education field concerning suitable approaches for developing population education programs to make them respond positively to the needs of developing countries, particularly in Africa. It also presents country, regional, and agency-level field experiences to show the dimensions of the field as well as the strengths and weaknesses of the technics adopted in implementing the programs. The articles are presented in 3 parts: 1) planning, development, and pedagogy; 2) experiences at the country, regional, and agency levels; and 3) 3 sets of recommendations in recent years that have a direct relevance to the development of population eudcation programs in sub-Saharan Africa.
Washington, D.C, Pan American Health Organization, 1983. x, 145 p. (Scientific Publication No. 435)This document, prepared by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), reviews health in the Americas in the period 1905-47, provides a more detailed assessment of progress in the health sector during the 1970s, and then outlines prospects for the period 1980-2000 in terms of meeting the goal of health for all by the year 2000. The main feature of this goal is its comprehensiveness. Health is no longer viewed as a matter of disease, but as a social outcome of national development. Attainment of this goal demands far-reaching socioeconomic changes, as well as revision of the concepts underlying national health systems. It seems likely that the coming period in Latin America and the Caribbean will be characterized by intense urban concentration and rapid industrialization, with a trend toward increasing heterogeneity. If current development trends continue, the gap in living standards between urban and rural areas will widen due to sharp differences in productivity. Regionally based development planning could raise living standards and reduce inequalities. In the type of development expected, the role of social services is essential. It will be necessary to determine whether the objective is to provide the poor with access to services that are to be available to all or to provide special services for target groups. The primary health care strategy must be applicable to the entire population, not just a limited program to meet the minimal needs of the extreme poor. Pressing issues regarding health services in the next 2 decades include how to extend their coverage, increase and strengthen their operating capacity, improve their planning and evaluation, increase their efficiency, and improve their information systems. Governments and ministries must be part of effective infrastructures in which finance, intersectoral linkages, community participation, and intercountry and hemispheric cooperation have adequate roles. One of PAHO's key activities must be systematic monitoring and evaluation of strategies and plans of action for attaining health for all.
[Unpublished] 1984 Jul. , 520, 20 p.This 2-volume, 520-page report represents the 1st attempt at a situation analysis of Ghana. Its focus is the effect of Ghana's economic crisis on women and children. Volume I characterizes the macroeconomic situation in Ghana, the dimensions of poverty in the country, recent demographic trends, and the factors affecting infant, child, and maternal nutrition and mortality. Volume II discusses environmental sanitation, Ghana's health sector, education, general living conditions of families, and social services available for children. It is concluded that external assistance is needed to address the massive and widespread problems created by poverty in Ghana. Since the immediate problems of children and mothers are social, assistance is particularly needed in the form of outright grants or official development assistance. It is suggested that UNICEF should support both local and national interventions. There must be clear indications that all projects or programs are within government priorities. In the case of area-specific projects, local support should be assured and the main beneficiaries should be women and children. Finally, 4 possible areas of interventions are outlined: health, water and sanitation, education, and programs for slums. In the area of health, it is recommended that UNICEF devote particular attention to nutrition, immunization, oral rehydration, growth monitoring, and infection control within the context of general support to the development of primary health care.
In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 125-43. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)4 overlapping and interrelated concerns appear to influence, if unevenly and in varying combinations, the approaches towards international population phenomena embodied in national policies. The concerns have to do with shifts in relative demographic size within the family of nations, international economic and political stability, humanitarian and welfare considerations, and narrowing options with regard to longterm social development. Each of these concerns is a reflection of measurable or perceived consequences of the extraordinarily rapid growth of the world population during the 20th century and in particular of the marked acceleration of that growth since the end of World War 2. None of these concerns has been adequately articulated, either in the academic literature or in international and national forums in which population policies are considered. International action in the population field has become a subset of international development assistance. Among the motivating concerns, humanitarian and welfare considerations have received the most attention. Considerations of economic and political stability also have been often invoked. In contrast, shifts in relative demographic size and the narrowing options with respect to longterm social development have been seldom discussed. Yet, examination of the record of policy discussions of the last few decades confirms that the influence of these factors has been potent. The dramatic increase of the world population is possibly the single most spectacular event of modern history. During the last 100 years global numbers have tripled, and net population growth between 1900 and 2000 will most likely be of the order of 4.5 billion. Concern with the deleterious consequences of rapid population growth on domestic economic development and, by extension on the health of the world economy is a major factor in explaining international interest in population matters. Concern with poverty is another motivating force for international action involving unilateral resource transfers between nations. The potential role of 2 types of population policies -- relating to international migration and to mortality -- would seem to be narrowly circumscribed. The prospects for useful action in the matter of fertility are more promising.
Chichester, England, John Wiley, 1982. 317 p.This textbook provides basic information on social policies aimes at improving the welfare of the populations in developing countried and assessing the effectiveness of the major social policies which have been applied to the problems of poverty in these countried. The book is an outgrowth of experience gained in teaching a course in social policy and planning at London School of Economics. The focus is on social policied rather than on social planning techniques, and the central theme is that state intervention and the implementation of social policies are a necessary prerequisite for improving the welfare of the inhabitants of 3rd World countried. The chapter defines underdevelopment. It stresses the need for governments to develop social policies in accordance with their needs and resources and to develop policies which will redistribute resources to the most seriously disadvantaged segments of their population. The 2nd chapter defines poverty, describes the basic inequalities in living standards and income which exist in 3rd World countries, and discuss the major theories which have been put forward to explain poverty. The next 5 chapters discuss the problems of population growth, rural and urban development, health, and housing. The various policied which have been formulated to deal with each of these problems are described and compared in regard to their effectiveness. The next chapter discusses social work and the problems associated with the development of social welfare services in developing countries. The final chapter deals with international issues and assesses. The value of bilateral and multilateral aid. Major assumptions underlying the presentation of the material are 1)poverty impedes development, 2)poverty will not disappear without government intervention, 3)economic development by itself cannot reduce poverty, 4)poverty is the result of social factors rather than the result of inadequacies on the part of poor indiciduals, 5)socialpolicies and programs formulated to deal with problems in the developed countries are inappropriate for application in developing countries; 6)social policies must reflect the needs of each country; and 7)social planning should be an interdisciplinary endeavor and should utilize knowledge derived from all the social sciences.
[Nairobi, Kenya], International Planned Parenthood Federation, Africa Region, . 28 p.This profile of Sierra Leone discusses the following: geographical features; neighboring countries; ethnic and racial groups and religion; systems of government; population, namely, size, distribution, age/sex distribution, and women of reproductive age; socioeconomic conditions -- agriculture, industry, exports, imports, employment, education, health, and social welfare; family planning/population -- government policies, programs, Planned Parenthood Association of Sierra Leone (PPASL), nongovernment organizations and voluntary agencies, private organizations, sources of funding, and future trends of policies and programs; and the history, constitution, and structure and administration of the PPASL. According to the 1974 census, the population of Sierra Leone totaled 2,735,159. In 1980 it was estimated to have grown to 3,474,000. With an average annual growth rate of about 2.7%, it is expected to reach 6 million in 2000 and to have doubled in 27 years. Sierra Leone has a population density of 48 people/sq km. In 1974, 27.5% of the population lived in urban centers with 47% living in Freetown alone. The indigenous population includes 18 major ethnic groups; the Temne and Mende are the largest of these. The percentage of nonnationals increased from 2.7% in 1963 to 2.9% in 1974 and includes nationals mainly from the West African subregion with a sprinkling of British, Lebanese, Americans, Indians, and others. In 1974 the sex ratio was 98.8 males/100 females. In 1981 it was estimated that 41% of the total population was under age 15 and 5% over age 65, making the dependency burden very high. Agriculture is now the main focus of the government's development policy. Minerals are an important source of foreign exchange. It was estimated in 1980 that the total economically active population would reach 1.2 million, of whom the majority would be employed in agriculture. Women made up approximately 1/3 of the economically active population in 1970. The adult literacy rate recently has been estimated at 12% of the population. The government allows the PPASL to freely operate in the country, but it has not as yet declared a population policy. In 1973 the government did recognize the effects of rapid population growth on the nation's socioeconomic development. As a pioneering organization in family planning, the PPASL has made considerable effort in promoting the concept of responsible parenthood. Its motivational programs are geared towards informing and educating the public on the need for having only those children whom individuals and couples can adequately provide for in terms of health, nutrition, education, clothing, and all other basic necessities. Family planning services are provided to meet the demand thus created to enable families and individuals to exercise free and informed choice for spacing or limiting of children. Between 1971 and 1983 the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) provided financial assistance to Sierra Leone for population activities in the amount of US$2,659,382.